Left-wing market anarchism
Left-wing market anarchism is a strand of free-market anarchism and an individualist anarchist, left-libertarian and libertarian socialist political philosophy and economic theory associated with contemporary scholars such as Kevin Carson, Roderick T. Long, Charles W. Johnson, Brad Spangler, Sheldon Richman, Chris Matthew Sciabarra and Gary Chartier, who stress the value of radically free markets, termed freed markets to distinguish them from the common conception which these libertarians believe to be riddled with statist and capitalist privileges. Proponents of this approach distinguish themselves from right-libertarians and strongly affirm the classical liberal ideas of self-ownership and free markets while maintaining that taken to their logical conclusions these ideas support anti-capitalist, anti-corporatist, anti-hierarchical and pro-labor positions in economics; anti-imperialism in foreign policy; and thoroughly radical views regarding cultural issues such as gender, sexuality and race.
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The genealogy of contemporary market-oriented left-libertarianism, sometimes labeled left-wing market anarchism, overlaps to a significant degree with that of Steiner–Vallentyne left-libertarianism as the roots of that tradition are sketched in the book The Origins of Left-Libertarianism. Carson–Long-style left-libertarianism is rooted in 19th-century mutualism and in the work of figures such as Thomas Hodgskin, French Liberal School thinkers such as Gustave de Molinari and American individualist anarchists like Benjamin Tucker and Lysander Spooner, among others. Certain American left-wing market anarchists who come from the left-Rothbardian school such as Roderick T. Long and Sheldon Richman cite Murray Rothbard's homestead principle with approval to support workers ownership. While with notable exceptions market-oriented libertarians after Tucker tended to ally with the political right, relationships between such libertarians and the New Left thrived in the 1960s, laying the groundwork for modern left-wing market anarchism.
Left-wing market anarchism identifies with left-libertarianism, a position which names several related yet distinct approaches to politics, society, culture and political and social theory, stressing both individual freedom and social justice. Unlike right-libertarians, left-libertarians believe that neither claiming nor mixing one's labor with natural resources is enough to generate full private property rights and maintain that all natural resources such as land, oil and gold ought to be held in some egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively. Those left-libertarians who support private property do so under usufruct property norms such as mutualism, or under the condition that recompense is offered to the local or even global community such as the Steiner–Vallentyne school.
Mutualism began in 18th-century English and French labour movements before taking an anarchist form associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in France and others in the United States. Proudhon proposed spontaneous order, whereby organisation emerges without central authority, a "positive anarchy" where order arises when everybody does "what he wishes and only what he wishes" and where "business transactions alone produce the social order".
Proudhon distinguished between ideal political possibilities and practical governance. For this reason, much in contrast to some of his theoretical statements concerning ultimate spontaneous self-governance, Proudhon was heavily involved in French parliamentary politics and allied himself not with anarchist, but rather with socialist factions of workers movements and in addition to advocating state-protected charters for worker-owned cooperatives he also promoted certain nationalization schemes during his life of public service.
Mutualism is concerned with reciprocity, free association, voluntary contract, federation and credit and currency reform. According to the American mutualist William Batchelder Greene, each worker in the mutualist system would receive "just and exact pay for his work; services equivalent in cost being exchangeable for services equivalent in cost, without profit or discount". Mutualism has been retrospectively characterised as ideologically situated between individualist and collectivist forms of anarchism. Proudhon first characterised his goal as a "third form of society, the synthesis of communism and property".
Individualist anarchism in the United States
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in the United States
American individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker identified as a socialist and argued that the elimination of what he called the four monopolies—the land monopoly, the money and banking monopoly, the monopoly powers conferred by patents and the quasi-monopolistic effects of tariffs—would undermine the power of the wealthy and big business, making possible widespread property ownership and higher incomes for ordinary people while minimizing the power of would-be bosses and achieving socialist goals without state action. Tucker influenced and interacted with anarchist contemporaries—including Lysander Spooner, Voltairine de Cleyre, Dyer D. Lum and William B. Greene—who have in various ways influenced later left-libertarian thinking.
The doyen of modern American market-oriented libertarianism, Austrian School economist Murray Rothbard, was initially an enthusiastic partisan of the Old Right, particularly because of its general opposition to war and imperialism. However, Rothbard had long embraced a reading of American history that emphasized the role of elite privilege in shaping legal and political institutions—one that was naturally agreeable to many on the left—and came increasingly in the 1960s to seek alliances on the left—especially with members of the New Left—in light of the Vietnam War, the military draft and the emergence of the Black Power movement.
Working with other radicals like Ronald Radosh and Karl Hess, Rothbard argued that the consensus view of American economic history, according to which a beneficent government has used its power to counter corporate predation, is fundamentally flawed. Rather, he argued, government intervention in the economy has largely benefited established players at the expense of marginalized groups, to the detriment of both liberty and equality. Moreover, the robber baron period, hailed by the right and despised by the left as a heyday of laissez-faire, was not characterized by laissez-faire at all, but it was in fact a time of massive state privilege accorded to capital. In tandem with his emphasis on the intimate connection between state and corporate power, he defended the seizure of corporations dependent on state largesse by workers and others.
Rothbard himself ultimately broke with the left, allying himself instead with the burgeoning paleoconservative movement. Drawing on the work of Rothbard during his alliance with the left and on the thought of Karl Hess, some thinkers associated with market-oriented American libertarianism came increasingly to identify with the left on a range of issues, including opposition to war, to corporate oligopolies and to state-corporate partnerships as well as an affinity for cultural liberalism. One variety of this kind of libertarianism has been a resurgent mutualism, incorporating modern economic ideas such as marginal utility theory into mutualist theory. Kevin Carson's Studies in Mutualist Political Economy helped to stimulate the growth of new-style mutualism, articulating a version of the labor theory of value incorporating ideas drawn from Austrian economics. Other market-oriented left-libertarians have declined to embrace mutualist views of real property while sharing the mutualist opposition to corporate hierarchies and wealth concentration. Left-libertarians have placed particular emphasis on the articulation and defense of a libertarian theory of class and class conflict, although considerable work in this area has been performed by libertarians of other persuasions.
Kevin Carson describes his politics as on "the outer fringes of both free market libertarianism and socialism". He has identified the work of Benjamin Tucker, Thomas Hodgskin, Ralph Borsodi, Paul Goodman, Lewis Mumford, Elinor Ostrom, Peter Kropotkin and Ivan Illich as sources of inspiration for his approach to politics and economics. In addition to individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker's "big four" monopolies (land, money, tariffs and patents), Carson argues that the state has also transferred wealth to the wealthy by subsidizing organizational centralization in the form of transportation and communication subsidies. He believes that Tucker overlooked this issue due to Tucker's focus on individual market transactions whereas Carson also focuses on organizational issues. The theoretical sections of Studies in Mutualist Political Economy are presented as an attempt to integrate marginalist critiques into the labor theory of value.
Carson has also been highly critical of intellectual property. The primary focus of his most recent work has been decentralized manufacturing and the informal and household economies. In response to claims that he uses the term capitalism incorrectly, Carson says he is deliberately choosing to resurrect what he claims to be an old definition of the term in order to "make a point". He claims that "the term 'capitalism,' as it was originally used, did not refer to a free market, but to a type of statist class system in which capitalists controlled the state and the state intervened in the market on their behalf".
Carson holds that "capitalism, arising as a new class society directly from the old class society of the Middle Ages, was founded on an act of robbery as massive as the earlier feudal conquest of the land. It has been sustained to the present by continual state intervention to protect its system of privilege without which its survival is unimaginable". Carson argues that in a truly laissez-faire system, the ability to extract a profit from labor and capital would be negligible. Carson coined the pejorative term vulgar libertarianism, a phrase that describes the use of a free market rhetoric in defense of corporate capitalism and economic inequality. According to Carson, the term is derived from the term vulgar political economy, a phrase which Karl Marx described as an economic order that "deliberately becomes increasingly apologetic and makes strenuous attempts to talk out of existence the ideas which contain the contradictions [existing in economic life]".
Gary Chartier offers an understanding of property rights as contingent yet tightly constrained social strategies, reflective of the importance of multiple, overlapping rationales for separate ownership and of natural law principles of practical reasonableness, defending robust but non-absolute protections for these rights in a manner similar to that employed by David Hume. This account is distinguished both from Lockean and neo-Lockean views which deduce property rights from the idea of self-ownership and from consequentialist accounts that might license widespread ad hoc interference with the possessions of groups and individuals. Chartier uses this account to ground a clear statement of the natural law basis for the view that solidaristic wealth redistribution by individual persons is often morally required, but as a response by individuals and grass-roots networks to particular circumstances rather than as a state-driven attempt to achieve a particular distributive pattern. He advances detailed arguments for workplace democracy rooted in such natural law principles as subsidiarity, defending it as morally desirable and as a likely outcome of the elimination of injustice rather than as something to be mandated by the state. He discusses natural law approaches to land reform and to the occupation of factories by workers.
Chartier objects on natural law grounds to intellectual property protections, drawing on his theory of property rights more generally and develops a general natural law account of boycotts. He has argued that proponents of genuinely freed markets should explicitly reject capitalism and identify with the global anti-capitalist movement while emphasizing that the abuses the anti-capitalist movement highlights result from state-tolerated violence and state-secured privilege rather than from voluntary cooperation and exchange. According to Chartier, "it makes sense for [left-libertarians] to name what they oppose "capitalism." Doing so [...] ensures that advocates of freedom aren't confused with people who use market rhetoric to prop up an unjust status quo, and expresses solidarity between defenders of freed markets and workers – as well as ordinary people around the world who use "capitalism" as a short-hand label for the world-system that constrains their freedom and stunts their lives".
Arguing that vast disparities in wealth and social influence result from the use of force and especially state power to steal and engross land and acquire and maintain special privileges, members of this thought typically urge the abolition of the state. They judge that in a stateless society the kinds of privileges secured by the state will be absent and injustices perpetrated or tolerated by the state can be rectified. According to libertarian scholar Sheldon Richman:
Left-libertarians favor worker solidarity vis-à-vis bosses, support poor people's squatting on government or abandoned property, and prefer that corporate privileges be repealed before the regulatory restrictions on how those privileges may be exercised. They see Walmart as a symbol of corporate favoritism – supported by highway subsidies and eminent domain – view the fictive personhood of the limited-liability corporation with suspicion, and doubt that Third World sweatshops would be the "best alternative" in the absence of government manipulation. Left-libertarians tend to eschew electoral politics, having little confidence in strategies that work through the government. They prefer to develop alternative institutions and methods of working around the state.
Gary Chartier has joined Kevin Carson, Charles W. Johnson and others (echoing the language of Stephen Pearl Andrews, William Batchelder Greene, Thomas Hodgskin, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Lysander Spooner, Benjamin Tucker and Josiah Warren, among others) in maintaining that because of its heritage and its emancipatory goals and potential radical market anarchism should be seen by its proponents and by others as part of the socialist tradition and that market anarchists can and should call themselves socialists.
While adopting familiar libertarian views, including opposition to drug prohibition, gun control, civil liberties violations and war, left-libertarians are more likely than most self-identified libertarians to take more distinctively leftist stances on issues as diverse as feminism, gender and sexuality, class, immigration and environmentalism. Especially influential regarding these topics have been scholars including Chris Matthew Sciabarra, Roderick T. Long, Charles W. Johnson and Arthur Silber. Contemporary free-market left-libertarians also show markedly more sympathy than mainstream or paleolibertarians towards various cultural movements which challenge non-governmental relations of power. For instance, left-libertarians Roderick T. Long and Charles W. Johnson have called for a recovery of the 19th-century alliance with radical liberalism and feminism.
There is also a tendency to support labor struggles. Kevin Carson has praised individualist anarchist Dyer Lum's fusion of individualist economics with radical labor activism as "creative" and described him as "more significant than any in the Boston group". Roderick T. Long is an advocate of "build[ing] worker solidarity. On the one hand, this means formal organisation, including unionization – but I'm not talking about the prevailing model of "business unions," [...] but real unions, the old-fashioned kind, committed to the working class and not just union members, and interested in worker autonomy, not government patronage". In particular, Long has described the situation as such:
Left-wing market anarchism does not have any strict agreement what constitutes legitimate property titles. Arguments have been made for Rothbardian, Georgist, mutualist and utilitarian approaches to determining legitimate property claims. Such discrepancies are resolved through deliberation mechanisms like the polycentric law. They also recognize the importance of property held and managed in common as a way of maintaining common goods.
Internal disputes and views on property
Left-wing market anarchists state diverse views concerning the path to elimination of the state. Some follow Murray Rothbard and other natural rights theorists and cite the non-aggression axiom as the basis for their economic systems while others follow David D. Friedman and base it on consequentialist ethical theories. These libertarians consider private property rights to be individual natural rights deriving from the primary right of self-ownership. Like Rothbard, they endorse the use of any tactic to bring about market anarchy so long as it does not contradict their libertarian moral principles.
Benjamin Tucker originally subscribed to the idea of land ownership associated with mutualism which does not grant that this creates property in land, but rather holds that when people customarily use given land and in some versions goods other people should respect that use or possession. Unlike with property, ownership is no longer recognized when that use stops. The mutualist theory holds that the stopping of use or occupying land reverts it to the commons or to an unowned condition, and makes it available for anyone that wishes to use it. As a result, there would be no market in land that is not in use. However, Tucker later abandoned natural rights theory and said that land ownership is legitimately transferred through force unless specified otherwise by contracts: "Man's only right to land is his might over it. If his neighbor is mightier than he and takes the land from him, then the land is his neighbor's, until the latter is dispossessed by one mightier still". He expected that individuals would come to the realization that the "occupancy and use" was a "generally trustworthy guiding principle of action" and that individuals would likely contract to an occupancy and use policy.
Classical liberal John Locke argues that as people apply their labor to unowned resources, they make those resources their property. For Locke, there are only two legitimate ways people can acquire new property, namely by mixing their labor with unowned resources or by voluntary trade for created goods. In accordance with Locke's philosophy, Rothbardian free-market anarchists believe that property may only originate by being the product of labor and that its ownership may only legitimately change as a result of exchange or gift. They derive this homestead principle from what they call the principle of self-ownership. Locke had a proviso which says that the appropriator of resources must leave "enough and as good in common to others", but Murray Rothbard's followers do not agree with this proviso, believing instead that the individual may originally appropriate as much as she wishes through the application of her labor and that property thus acquired remains hers until she chooses otherwise, terming this as neo-Lockean.
Anarcho-capitalists see this as consistent with their opposition to initiatory coercion since only land which is not already owned can be taken without compensation. If something is unowned, there is no person against whom the original appropriator is initiating coercion. They do not think that a claim of and by itself can create ownership, but rather that the application of one's labor to the unowned object as for example beginning to farm unowned land. They accept voluntary forms of common ownership, meaning property open to all individuals to access. Samuel Edward Konkin III, the founder of agorism, was also a Rothbardian.
Although anarcho-capitalism has been regarded by some as a form of individualist anarchism, Rothbard stated that individualist anarchism is different from capitalism due to the individualist anarchists retaining the labor theory of value and many writers deny that anarcho-capitalism is a form of anarchism at all, or that capitalism itself is compatible with anarchism.
- Anarchist schools of thought
- Bleeding-heart libertarianism
- Debates within libertarianism
- Free-market anarchism
- Individualist anarchism
- Issues in anarchism
- Left-wing anarchism
- Libertarian socialism
- Market socialism
- Neoclassical liberalism
- Radicalism (historical)
- Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Brooklyn: Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. pp. 1–16.
- Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Brooklyn: Minor Compositions/Autonomedia
- Sheldon Richman (3 February 2011). "Libertarian Left: Free-market anti-capitalism, the unknown ideal". The American Conservative. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- "It introduces an eye-opening approach to radical social thought, rooted equally in libertarian socialism and market anarchism." Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Brooklyn: Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. p. back cover.
- "But there has always been a market-oriented strand of libertarian socialism that emphasizes voluntary cooperation between producers. And markets, properly understood, have always been about cooperation. As a commenter at Reason magazine's Hit&Run blog, remarking on Jesse Walker's link to the Kelly article, put it: "every trade is a cooperative act." In fact, it's a fairly common observation among market anarchists that genuinely free markets have the most legitimate claim to the label "socialism." "Socialism: A Perfectly Good Word Rehabilitated" by Kevin Carson at website of Center for a Stateless Society.
- Carson, Kevin. (2008). Organization Theory: A Libertarian Perspective. Charleston, SC: BookSurge.
- Carson, Kevin. (2010). The Homebrew Industrial Revolution: A Low-Overhead Manifesto. Charleston: BookSurge.
- Long, Roderick T. (2000). Reason and Value: Aristotle versus Rand. Washington, D.C.: Objectivist Center
- Long, Roderick T. (2008). "An Interview With Roderick Long"
- Johnson, Charles W. (2008). "Liberty, Equality, Solidarity: Toward a Dialectical Anarchism." Anarchism/Minarchism: Is a Government Part of a Free Country? In Long, Roderick T. and Machan, Tibor Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 155–88.
- Spangler, Brad (15 September 2006). "Market Anarchism as Stigmergic Socialism Archived 10 May 2011 at Archive.today.
- Richman, Sheldon (23 June 2010). "Why Left-Libertarian?" The Freeman. Foundation for Economic Education.
- Richman, Sheldon (18 December 2009). "Workers of the World Unite for a Free Market" Archived 22 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine." Foundation for Economic Education.
- Sciabarra, Chris Matthew (2000). Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
- Chartier, Gary (2009). Economic Justice and Natural Law. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
- Gillis, William (2011). "The Freed Market." In Chartier, Gary and Johnson, Charles. Markets Not Capitalism. Brooklyn, NY: Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. pp. 19–20.
- Gary Chartier and Charles W. Johnson (eds). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Minor Compositions; 1st edition November 5, 2011.
- Gary Chartier, "Advocates of Freed Markets Should Oppose Capitalism," "Free-Market Anti-Capitalism?" session, annual conference, Association of Private Enterprise Education (Cæsar's Palace, Las Vegas, NV, April 13, 2010)
- Gary Chartier, "Advocates of Freed Markets Should Embrace 'Anti-Capitalism'".
- Gary Chartier, Socialist Ends, Market Means: Five Essays. Cp. Tucker, "Socialism."
- Chris Sciabarra is the only scholar associated with this school of left-libertarianism who is skeptical about anarchism; see Sciabarra's Total Freedom
- Steiner, Hillel; Vallentyne, Peter (2000). The Origins of Left Libertarianism. Palgrave.
- Long, Roderick T. (2006). "Rothbard's 'Left and Right': Forty Years Later." Rothbard Memorial Lecture, Austrian Scholars Conference.
- Related, arguably synonymous, terms include libertarianism, left-wing libertarianism, egalitarian-libertarianism and libertarian socialism.
- Sundstrom, William A. ""An Egalitarian-Libertarian Manifesto" Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine."
- Bookchin, Murray and Biehl, Janet (1997). The Murray Bookchin Reader. New York: Cassell. p. 170.
- Sullivan, Mark A. (July 2003). "Why the Georgist Movement Has Not Succeeded: A Personal Response to the Question Raised by Warren J. Samuels." American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 62:3. p. 612.
- Vallentyne, Peter; Steiner, Hillel; Otsuka, Michael (2005). "Why Left-Libertarianism Is Not Incoherent, Indeterminate, or Irrelevant: A Reply to Fried" (PDF). Philosophy and Public Affairs. Blackwell Publishing, Inc. 33 (2): 201–215. doi:10.1111/j.1088-4963.2005.00030.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- Narveson, Jan; Trenchard, David (2008). "Left libertarianism". In Hamowy, Ronald (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 288–289. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n174. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.
- Narveson, Jan; Trenchard, David (2008). "Left libertarianism". In Hamowy, Ronald (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 288–289. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n174. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.
Left libertarians regard each of us as full self-owners. However, they differ from what we generally understand by the term libertarian in denying the right to private property. We own ourselves, but we do not own nature, at least not as individuals. Left libertarians embrace the view that all natural resources, land, oil, gold, and so on should be held collectively. To the extent that individuals make use of these commonly owned goods, they must do so only with the permission of society, a permission granted only under the proviso that a certain payment for their use be made to society at large.
- Wilbur, Shawn (2006). "More from the 1826 "Mutualist"?". "A member of a community". The Mutualist. This 1826 series criticised Robert Owen's proposals and has been attributed to a dissident Owenite, possibly from the Friendly Association for Mutual Interests of Valley Forge.
- Proudhon, Solution to the Social Problem, ed. H. Cohen (New York: Vanguard Press, 1927), p. 45.
- Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (1979). The Principle of Federation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-5458-7.
The notion of anarchy in politics is just as rational and positive as any other. It means that once industrial functions have taken over from political functions, then business transactions alone produce the social order.
- Greene, William Batchelder (1875). "Communism versus Mutualism". Socialistic, Communistic, Mutualistic and Financial Fragments. Boston: Lee & Shepard. "Under the mutual system, each individual will receive the just and exact pay for his work; services equivalent in cost being exchangeable for services equivalent in cost, without profit or discount; and so much as the individual laborer will then get over and above what he has earned will come to him as his share in the general prosperity of the community of which he is an individual member".
- Avrich, Paul (1996). Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America. Princeton University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-691-04494-5.
- Miller, David, ed. (1991). Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought. Blackwell Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 0-631-17944-5.
- Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (1840). What Is Property?. Princeton, MA: Benjamin Tucker (1876). p. 281.
- Tucker, Benjamin (1897). "State Socialism and Anarchism: How Far They Agree and Wherein They Differ." Instead of a Book: By a Man Too Busy to Write One. New York
- On the nineteenth-century American individualist anarchists, see James J. Martin, Men against the State: The Expositors of Individualist Anarchism in America (Colorado Springs, CO: Myles 1970).
- Raimond, Justin (2001). An Enemy of the State: The Life of Murray N. Rothbard. Amherst, NY: Prometheus.
- Raimondo, pp. 151–209.
- Doherty, Brian M. (2007). Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement. New York: Public Affairs. p. 338.
- Rothbard; Murray; Radosh, Ronald, eds. (1972). A New History of Leviathan: Essays on the Rise of the American Corporate State. New York: Dutton.
- Hess, Karl (1975). Dear America. New York: Morrow.
- On partnerships between the state and big business and the role of big business in promoting regulation, see Kolko, Gabriel (1977). The Triumph of Conservatism: A Reinterpretation of American History, 1900–1916. New York: Free; Shaffer, Butler (2008). In Restraint of Trade: The Business Campaign Against Competition, 1918–1938. Auburn, AL: Mises Institute.
- Rothbard, Murray (15 June 1969). "Confiscation and the Homestead Principle." Libertarian Forum. 1 (6): pp. 3–4.
- Raimondo 277-8; Doherty 562-5.
- Carson, Kevin. "Studies in Mutualist Political Economy". Archived 15 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Chs. 1–3.
- See Kevin Carson's Studies in Mutualist Political Economy (Charleston, SC: BookSurge 2007). This book was the focus of a symposium in the Journal of Libertarian Studies.
- See Long, Roderick T. (Winter 2006). "Land Locked: A Critique of Carson on Property Rights". Journal of Libertarian Studies. 20 (1): 87–95.
- Richman, Sheldon (13 July 2007). "Class Struggle Rightly Conceived". The Goal Is Freedom. Foundation for Economic Education; Nock, Albert Jay (1935). Our Enemy, the State; Oppenheimer, Franz (1997). The State. San Francisco: Fox; Palmer, Tom G. (2009). "Classical Liberalism, Marxism, and the Conflict of Classes: The Classical Liberal Theory of Class Conflict". Realizing Freedom: Libertarian Theory, History, and Practice. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute. pp. 255–276; Conger, Wally (2006). Agorist Class Theory: A Left Libertarian Approach to Class Conflict Analysis (PDF). Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine; Kevin A. Carson, "Another Free-for-All: Libertarian Class Analysis, Organized Labor, Etc.," Mutualist Blog: Free-Market Anti-Capitalism (n.p., 26 January 2006); Walter E. Grinder and John Hagel, "Toward a Theory of State Capitalism: Ultimate Decision Making and Class Structure". Journal of Libertarian Studies 1.1 (1977): 59–79; David M. Hart, "The Radical Liberalism of Charles Comte and Charles Dunoyer" (PhD diss., U of Cambridge, 1994); Hans-Hermann Hoppe, "Marxist and Austrian Class Analysis". Journal of Libertarian Studies 9.2 (1990): 79–93; Long, Roderick T. "Toward a Libertarian Theory of Class". Social Philosophy and Policy 15.2 (Sum. 1998): 303–349.
- Kevin A. Carson, Introduction, The Art of the Possible.
- Kevin A. Carson, Studies in Mutualist Political Economy Archived 2010-12-21 at WebCite chs. 1–3
- Carson, Kevin. "Intellectual Property – A Libertarian Critique". c4ss.org. Retrieved May 23, 2009.
- Carson, Kevin. "Industrial Policy: New Wine in Old Bottles". c4ss.org. Retrieved May 26, 2009.
- Carson, Kevin A. Carson's Rejoinders. Journal of Libertarian Studies, Volume 20, No. 1 (Winter 2006): 97–136, pp. 116, 117
- Richman, Sheldon (March 2011). "Libertarian Left". The American Conservative.
- Dean, Brian (Winter 2002). "Bluffer's Guide to Revolutionary Economics". The Idler. Retrieved May 24, 2009.
- Marx, Karl. Theories of Surplus Value, III. p. 501.
- See Gary Chartier, Anarchy and Legal Order: Law and Politics for a Stateless Society (New York: Cambridge UP 2013) 44–156.
- See Gary Chartier, "Natural Law and Non-Aggression," Acta Juridica Hungarica 51.2 (June 2010): 79–96 and, for an earlier version, Justice 32–46.
- See Justice 47–68.
- Justice 89–120.
- See Gary Chartier, "Pirate Constitutions and Workplace Democracy," Jahrbuch für Recht und Ethik 18 (2010): 449–67.
- Justice 123–54.
- See Gary Chartier,' "Intellectual Property and Natural Law," Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy 36 (2011): 58–88.
- See Justice 176–82.
- See Gary Chartier, "Advocates of Freed Markets Should Oppose Capitalism," "Free-Market Anti-Capitalism?" session, annual conference, Association of Private Enterprise Education (Cæsar's Palace, Las Vegas, NV, April 13, 2010); Gary Chartier, "Advocates of Freed Markets Should Embrace 'Anti-Capitalism'"; Gary Chartier, Socialist Ends, Market Means: Five Essays. Cp. Tucker, "Socialism."
- Long, Roderick T.; Johnson, Charles W. (1 May 2005). "Libertarian Feminism: Can this Marriage Be Saved?" Molinari Society.
- Carson, Kevin. "May Day Thoughts: Individualist Anarchism and the Labor Movement". Mutualist Blog: Free Market Anti-Capitalism.
- Richman, Sheldon (February 3, 2011). "Libertarian Left". The American Conservative. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- Long, Roderick T. "How to Reach the Left".
- Byas, Jason Lee. "The Moral Irrelevance of Rent".
- Schnack, William. "Panarchy Flourishes Under Geo-Mutualism".
- Carson, Kevin. "Are We All Mutualists?".
- Gillis, William. "The Organic Emergence of Property from Reputation".
- Long, Roderick T. "A Plea for Public Property".
- Danley, John R. (November 1991). "Polestar refined: Business ethics and political economy". Journal of Business Ethics. Springer Netherlands. 10 (12): 915–933. doi:10.1007/BF00383797.
- Lora, Ronald; Longton, Henry (1999). The Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America. Greenwood Press. p. 369.
- Swartz, Clarence Lee. What Is Mutualism?. "VI. Land and Rent".
- Carson, Kevin. Studies in Mutualist Political Economy. Chapter 5.
- Long, Roderick T. "Land-Locked: A Critique of Carson on Property Rights". Journal of Libertarian Studies. 20 (1).
- Tucker, Benjamin (31 December 1892). "Response to 'Rights,' by William Hansen". Liberty. 9 (18): 1.
- Tucker, Benjamin (6 April 1895). "The Two Conceptions of Equal Freedom". Liberty. 10 (24): 4.
- Long, Roderick T. (2006). "Land-locked: A Critique of Carson on Property Rights" (PDF). Journal of Libertarian Studies. 20 (1): 87–95.
- Bylund, Per. "Man and Matter: A Philosophical Inquiry into the Justification of Ownership in Land from the Basis of Self-Ownership" (PDF). Cite journal requires
- Verhaegh, Marcus (2006). "Rothbard as a Political Philosopher" (PDF). Journal of Libertarian Studies. 20 (4): 3.
- Holcombe, Randall G. (2005). "Common Property in Anarcho-Capitalism" (PDF). Journal of Libertarian Studies. 19 (2): 3–29.
- "Smashing the State for Fun and Profit Since 1969: An Interview With the Libertarian Icon Samuel Edward Konkin III (a.k.a. SEK3)".
- Bottomore, Tom (1991). "Anarchism". A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Oxford: Blackwell Reference. p. 21. ISBN 0-63118082-6.
- See the following sources:
- Alan and Trombley, Stephen (Eds.) Bullock, The Norton Dictionary of Modern Thought, W. W. Norton & Co (1999), p. 30.
- Barry, Norman. Modern Political Theory, 2000, Palgrave, p. 70.
- Adams, Ian. Political Ideology Today, Manchester University Press (2002) ISBN 0-7190-6020-6, p. 135.
- Grant, Moyra. Key Ideas in Politics, Nelson Thomas 2003 ISBN 0-7487-7096-8, p. 91.
- Heider, Ulrike. Anarchism: Left, Right, and Green, City Lights, 1994. p. 3.
- Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America, Abridged Paperback Edition (1996), p. 282.
- Tormey, Simon. Anti-Capitalism, One World, 2004. pp. 118–19.
- Raico, Ralph. Authentic German Liberalism of the 19th Century, École Polytechnique, Centre de Recherche en Épistémologie Appliquée, Unité associée au CNRS, 2004.
- Busky, Donald. Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey, Praeger/Greenwood (2000), p. 4.
- Heywood, Andrew. Politics: Second Edition, Palgrave (2002), p. 61.
- Offer, John. Herbert Spencer: Critical Assessments, Routledge (UK) (2000), p. 243.
- Rothbard, Murray. Are Libertarians 'Anarchists'?. LewRockwell.com.
- See the following sources:
- K, David. "What is Anarchism?" Bastard Press (2005).
- Marshall, Peter. Demanding the Impossible, London: Fontana Press, 1992 (ISBN 0-00-686245-4) Chapter 38.
- MacSaorsa, Iain. "Is 'anarcho' capitalism against the state?" Spunk Press (archive).
- Wells, Sam. "Anarcho-Capitalism is Not Anarchism, and Political Competition is Not Economic Competition" Frontlines 1 (January 1979).
- See the following sources:
- Peikoff, Leonard. 'Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand' Dutton Adult (1991) Chapter "Government".
- Doyle, Kevin. 'Crypto Anarchy, Cyberstates, and Pirate Utopias' New York: Lexington Books, (2002) pp. 447–48.
- Sheehan, Seán M. 'Anarchism' Reaktion Books, 2003 p. 17.
- Kelsen, Hans. The Communist Theory of Law. Wm. S. Hein Publishing (1988) p. 110.
- Egbert. Tellegen, Maarten. Wolsink 'Society and Its Environment: an introduction' Routledge (1998) p. 64.
- Jones, James 'The Merry Month of May' Akashic Books (2004) pp. 37–38.
- Sparks, Chris. Isaacs, Stuart 'Political Theorists in Context' Routledge (2004) p. 238.
- Bookchin, Murray. 'Post-Scarcity Anarchism' AK Press (2004) p. 37.
- Berkman, Alexander. 'Life of an Anarchist' Seven Stories Press (2005) p. 268.
- Kevin A. Carson, The Iron Fist behind the Invisible Hand: Corporate Capitalism As a State-Guaranteed System of Privilege (Nanaimo, BC: Red Lion 2001).
- Kevin A. Carson, Austrian and Marxist Theories of Monopoly-Capital (London: Libertarian Alliance 2004).
- Kevin A. Carson, Contract Feudalism: A Critique of Employer Power Over Employees (London: Libertarian Alliance 2006).
- Kevin A. Carson, The Ethics of Labor Struggle: A Free Market Perspective (n.p.: Alliance of the Libertarian Left 2008.
- Chartier, Gary. The Conscience of an Anarchist (2011) Apple Valley, CA: Cobden Press. ISBN 978-1439266991. OCLC 760097242.
- Chartier, Gary. Economic Justice and Natural Law (2009). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521767200. OCLC 318871444.
- Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Brooklyn, NY:Minor Compositions/Autonomedia.
- Chartier, Gary. Anarchy and Legal Order: Law and Politics for a Stateless Society. (2013) New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1107032286. OCLC 795645156.
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