Lausanne Cathedral

The Cathedral of Notre Dame of Lausanne is a church located in the city of Lausanne, in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. It belongs to the Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Vaud.

Cathedral of Notre Dame of Lausanne, Switzerland
The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Lausanne
Religion
AffiliationReformed Church (formerly Roman Catholic)
DistrictEvangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Vaud
Year consecrated1275
Location
LocationLausanne, Switzerland
Geographic coordinates46°31′21″N 6°38′06″E
Architecture
Architect(s)Jean Cotereel
Typechurch
StyleGothic
Groundbreaking1170
Completed1235
Specifications
Capacity70,000 m cubed
Length99.75 m
Height (max)79.60 m
Spire(s)4
Website
http://www.cathedrale-lausanne.ch

History

Construction of the Cathedral began as early as 1170 by an original unknown master mason. Twenty years later another master mason restarted construction until 1215. Finally a third engineer, Jean Cotereel, completed the majority of the existing cathedral including a porch, and two towers, one of which is the current day belfry. The other tower was never completed. The cathedral was consecrated and dedicated to Our Lady in 1275 by Pope Gregory X, Rudolph of Habsburg, and the bishop of Lausanne at the time, Guillaume of Champvent.[1] The medieval architect Villard de Honnecourt drew the rose window of the south transept in his sketchbook in 1270. The Protestant Reformation, in particular the variant which came from nearby Geneva, significantly affected the Cathedral. In 1536 a new liturgical area was added to the nave and the colourful decorations inside the Cathedral were covered over. Other major restorations occurred later in the 18th and 19th century which were directed by the great French architect, Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc.[2] During the 20th century major restorations occurred to restore the painted interior decorations as well as to restore a painted portal on the South side of the Cathedral. New organs were installed in 2003.

Great Organ

The great pipe organ of the Cathedral of Notre Dame of Lausanne was inaugurated in December 2003. It is a unique instrument in the world.[3] It took ten years to design it and it is composed of 7000 pipes, two consoles, five manuals, and one pedalboard. It is the first organ in the world to be designed by a designer. It is the first organ to contain all four of the principal organ styles (classical, French symphony, baroque, German romantique). It is also the first organ manufactured by an American company (Fisk) for a European Cathedral. It cost a total of 6 million Swiss francs, took 150,000 man-hours to build and weighs 40 tons.[4] It was preceded by a Kuhn Organ from 1955 which has since been relocated to the Polish Baltic Philharmonic in Gdańsk, Poland. The organist is Jean-Christophe Geiser.[5]

I Positif de dos C–
Quintadehn16′
Prinzipal8′
Gedackt8′
Oktave4′
Rohrflöte4′
Grosse Tierce31/5
Nasard22/3
Doublette2′
Quarte de Nasard2′
Tierce13/5
Larigot11/3
Piccolo1′
Plein-jeu V
Scharff IV
Dulcian16′
Cromorne8′


II Grand Orgue C–
Principal32′
Montre16′
Bourdon16′
Montre8′
Gambe8′
Flûte harmonique8′
Prestant4′
Octave4′
Quinte22/3
Doublette2′
Terz13/5
Fourniture VII
Cymbale V
Mixtur VI-IX
Bombarde16′
Trompette8′
Clairon4′
Trommet16′
Trommet8′
III Positif Expressif C–
Salicional8′
Unda maris8′ (C0)
Flûte harmonique8′
Bourdon8′
Voix éolienne8′ (C0)
Fugara4′
Zartflöte4′
Violine2′
Sesquialtera II
Harmonica aetheria V
Cor anglais16′
Basson8′
Clairon4′


IV Récit expressif C–
Bourdon16′
Diapason8′
Viole de gambe8′
Voix céleste8′
Flûte traversière8′
Bourdon8′
Prestant4′
Flûte octaviante4′
Quinte22/3
Octavin2′
Tierce13/5
Plein jeu IV
Bombarde16′
Trompette harmonique8′
Clairon harmonique4′
Basson-Hautbois8′
Clarinet8′
Voix humaine8′
V Bombardes C–
Montre8′
Flûte creuse8′
Flûte ouverte4′
Grand Cornet V
Trompette8′
Clairon4′
Trompette en chamade8′
Clairon en chamade4′


Fernwerk C–Clavier flottant.
Bourdon16′
Principal8′
Bourdon8′
Flûte8′
Flûte d′amour8′
Salicional8′
Voix céleste8′
Prestant4′
Flûte traversière4′
Trompette harmonique8′
Voix humaine8′
Pedal C–
Principal32′
Bourdon32′
Grosse Quinte211/3
Contrebasse16′
Montre16′
Principal16′
Violonbasse16′
Bourdon16′
Basse Quinte102/3
Octave8′
Violoncelle8′
Flûte8′
Bourdon8′
Quinte51/3
Octave4′
Flûte4′
Mixture IV
Contre-Bombarde32′
Bombarde classique16′
Bombarde16′
Trompette8′
Clairon4′
Posaune16′
Trommet16′
Trommet8′

Guided tours of the great organ are available in English, French and German by request.[6]

The Bells

The Cathedral has a total of seven bells that are suspended on two floors of the belfry.[7] The two biggest bells are located on the lower level while all the other bells are on the top level. The oldest bell dates back to 1493 while the most recent bells date back 1898.

#NameYearDiameterNote
1Marie-Madeleine/le bourdon1583208 cmA flat
2Clémence1518174 cmExample
3Lombarde1493138 cmE
4Centenaire 11898111 cmE flat
516661666102 cmA flat
6Centenaire 2189882 cmB flat
7Couvre-feu1400-150082 cmExample

The bells are still in use today to mark the hours.

Lookout

Since 1405 until the present day without interruption, the city of Lausanne has maintained a lookout in the Cathedral bell tower.[8] The lookout announces the time by yelling the hour from 10 pm to 2 am, 365 days a year. The lookout cries the hour to each cardinal direction "« C'est le guet, il a sonné [dix] »". The original purpose of the lookout was to provide a warning in case of fire though it has now become a traditional function. Since 2002, the official lookout is Renato Häusler.

Notes and references

See also

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