Landlocked country

A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state that is not connected to the World Ocean. There are currently 49 such countries, including five partially recognized states.

Generally, being landlocked creates political and economic handicaps that access to the high seas avoids. For this reason, states large and small across history have striven to gain access to open waters, even at great expense in wealth, bloodshed, and political capital.

The economic disadvantages of being landlocked can be alleviated or aggravated depending on degree of development, language barriers, and other considerations. Some landlocked countries are quite affluent, such as Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, and Austria, all of which, excluding Luxembourg, which is a founding member of NATO, frequently employ neutrality to their political advantage. The majority, however, are classified as Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs).[1] Nine of the twelve countries with the lowest Human Development Indices (HDI) are landlocked.[2]


Historically, being landlocked has been disadvantageous to a country's development. It cuts a nation off from important sea resources such as fishing, and impedes or prevents direct access to seaborne trade, a crucial component of economic and social advance. As such, coastal regions tended to be wealthier and more heavily populated than inland ones. Paul Collier in his book The Bottom Billion argues that being landlocked in a poor geographic neighborhood is one of four major development "traps" by which a country can be held back. In general, he found that when a neighboring country experiences better growth, it tends to spill over into favorable development for the country itself. For landlocked countries, the effect is particularly strong, as they are limited in their trading activity with the rest of the world. He states, "If you are coastal, you serve the world; if you are landlocked, you serve your neighbors."[3] Others have argued that being landlocked may actually be a blessing as it creates a "natural tariff barrier" which protects the country from cheap imports. In some instances, this has led to more robust local food systems.[4][5]

Landlocked developing countries have significantly higher costs of international cargo transportation compared to coastal developing countries (in Asia the ratio is 3:1).[6]

Efforts to avoid being landlocked

Countries thus have made particular efforts to avoid being landlocked, by acquiring land that reaches the sea:

Trade agreements

Countries can make agreements on getting free transport of goods through neighbor countries:

Political repercussions

Losing access to the sea is generally a great blow to a nation, politically, militarily, and economically. The following are examples of countries becoming landlocked.

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea now gives a landlocked country a right of access to and from the sea without taxation of traffic through transit states. The United Nations has a programme of action to assist landlocked developing countries,[11] and the current responsible Undersecretary-General is Anwarul Karim Chowdhury.

Some countries have a long coastline, but much of it may not be readily usable for trade and commerce. For instance, in its early history, Russia's only ports were on the Arctic Ocean and frozen shut for much of the year. The wish to gain control of a warm-water port was a major motivator of Russian expansion towards the Baltic Sea, Black Sea and Pacific Ocean. On the other hand, some landlocked countries can have access to the ocean along wide navigable rivers. For instance, Paraguay (and Bolivia to a lesser extent) have access to the ocean through the Paraguay and Parana rivers.

Several countries have coastlines on landlocked bodies of water, such as the Caspian Sea and the Dead Sea. Since these seas are in effect lakes without access to wider seaborne trade, countries such as Kazakhstan are still considered landlocked. Although the Caspian Sea is connected to the Black Sea via the man-made Volga–Don Canal, large oceangoing ships are unable to traverse it.

By degree

Landlocked countries may be bordered by a single country having direct access to the high seas, two or more such countries, or be surrounded by other landlocked countries, making a country doubly landlocked.

Landlocked by a single country

Three countries are landlocked by a single country (enclaved countries):

Landlocked by two countries

Seven landlocked countries are surrounded by only two mutually bordering neighbours (semi-enclaved countries):

To this group could be added three de facto states with no or limited international recognition:

Doubly landlocked

A country is "doubly landlocked" or "double-landlocked" when it is surrounded only by landlocked countries (requiring the crossing of at least two national borders to reach a coastline).[12][13] There are two such countries:

After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Württemberg became a doubly landlocked state, bordering only Bavaria, Baden, and Switzerland. There were no doubly landlocked countries from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the end of World War I. Liechtenstein bordered the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which had an Adriatic coastline, and Uzbekistan was then part of the Russian Empire, which had both ocean and sea access.

With the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and creation of an independent, landlocked Austria, Liechtenstein became the sole doubly landlocked country until 1938. In the Nazi Anschluss that year, Austria was absorbed into the Third Reich, which possessed a border on the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. After World War II, Austria regained its independence and Liechtenstein once again became doubly landlocked.

Uzbekistan, which had been part of the Russian Empire and then the Soviet Union, gained its independence with the dissolution of the U.S.S.R. in 1991 and became the second doubly landlocked country.

However, Uzbekistan's doubly landlocked status depends on the Caspian Sea's status dispute: some countries, especially Iran and Turkmenistan, claim that the Caspian Sea should be considered as a real sea (mainly because this way they would have larger oil and gas fields), which would make Uzbekistan only a simple landlocked country because its neighbours Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan have access to the Caspian Sea.

List of landlocked countries and territories

Country Area (km2) Population Cluster Surrounding countries Count
 Afghanistan 652,230 33,369,945 Central Asia Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, China, Pakistan 6
 Andorra 468 84,082 (none) France, Spain 2
 Armenia 29,743 3,254,300 Caucasia Iran, Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan 4
 Artsakh[c] 11,458 146,600 Caucasia Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran 3
 Austria 83,871 8,823,054 Central Europe Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerland 8
 Azerbaijan[a] 86,600 8,997,401 Caucasia Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Turkey 5
 Belarus 207,600 9,484,300 (none) Poland, Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine, Latvia 5
 Bhutan 38,394 691,141 (none) India, China 2
 Bolivia 1,098,581 10,907,778 South America Peru, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Paraguay 5
 Botswana 582,000 1,990,876 Southern Africa Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa 4
 Burkina Faso 274,222 15,746,232 West Africa Mali, Niger, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast/Côte d'Ivoire 6
 Burundi 27,834 10,557,259 Central Africa Rwanda, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of the Congo 3
 Central African Republic 622,984 4,422,000 Central Africa Chad, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, South Sudan 6
 Chad 1,284,000 13,670,084 Central Africa Libya, Niger, Sudan, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Cameroon 6
 Czech Republic 78,867 10,674,947 Central Europe Austria, Germany, Poland, Slovakia 4
 Eswatini (Swaziland) 17,364 1,185,000 (none) Mozambique, South Africa 2
 Ethiopia 1,104,300 101,853,268 Central Africa Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan 6
 Hungary 93,028 9,797,561 Central Europe Austria, Croatia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine 7
 Kazakhstan[a] 2,724,900 16,372,000 Central Asia China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan 5
 Kosovo[c] 10,908 1,804,838 Central Europe Albania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia 4
 Kyrgyzstan 199,951 5,482,000 Central Asia China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan 4
 Laos 236,800 6,320,000 (none) Myanmar, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand 5
 Lesotho[d] 30,355 2,067,000 (none) South Africa 1
 Liechtenstein 160 35,789 Central Europe Switzerland, Austria 2
 Luxembourg 2,586 502,202 (none) Belgium, Germany, France 3
 Malawi 118,484 15,028,757 Southern Africa Zambia, Tanzania, Mozambique 3
 Mali 1,240,192 14,517,176 West Africa Algeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Senegal, Mauritania 7
 Moldova 33,846 3,559,500 (Eastern Europe) Romania, Ukraine 2
 Mongolia 1,566,500 2,892,876 (East Asia) China, Russia 2
   Nepal 147,181 26,494,504 (none) China, India 2
 Niger 1,267,000 15,306,252 West Africa Libya, Chad, Nigeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Algeria 7
 North Macedonia 25,713 2,114,550 Central Europe Kosovo, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania 5
 Paraguay 406,752 6,349,000 South America Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia 3
 Rwanda 26,338 10,746,311 Central Africa Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo 4
 San Marino[d] 61 31,716 (none) Italy 1
 Serbia 88,361 7,306,677 Central Europe Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania (via Kosovo and Metohija[c]) 8
 Slovakia 49,035 5,429,763 Central Europe Austria, Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine, Hungary 5
 South Ossetia[c] 3,900 72,000 (none) Georgia, Russia 2
 South Sudan 619,745 8,260,490 Central Africa Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic 6
  Switzerland 41,284 8,401,120 Central Europe France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Austria, Italy 5
 Tajikistan 143,100 7,349,145 Central Asia Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China 4
 Transnistria[c] 4,163 505,153 (Eastern Europe) Moldova, Ukraine 2
 Turkmenistan[a] 488,100 5,110,000 Central Asia Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Iran 4
 Uganda 241,038 40,322,768 Central Africa Kenya, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania 5
 Uzbekistan 449,100 32,606,007 Central Asia Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan 5
  Vatican City[d] 0.44 826 (none) Italy 1
 West Bank[b][c] 5,655 2,862,485 (none) Israel, Jordan 2
 Zambia 752,612 12,935,000 Southern Africa Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, Angola 8
 Zimbabwe 390,757 12,521,000 Southern Africa South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique 4
Total 14,776,228 475,818,737
Percentage of World 11.4% 6.9%
a Has a coastline on the saltwater Caspian Sea
b Has a coastline on the saltwater Dead Sea
c Not fully recognized
d Landlocked by just one country

They can be grouped in contiguous groups as follows:[16]

If Transnistria is included then Moldova and Transnistria form their own cluster, listed in parentheses in the table.

If it were not for the 40 km (25 mi) of coastline at Muanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo would join the two African clusters into one, making them the biggest contiguous group in the world. Also, the Central Asian and Caucasian clusters can be considered contiguous, joined by the landlocked Caspian Sea. Mongolia is almost part of this cluster too, being separated from Kazakhstan by only 30 km (19 mi), across Russian or Chinese territory.

There are the following "single" landlocked countries (each of them borders no other landlocked country):

If the Caucasian countries and Kazakhstan are counted as part of Europe, then Europe has the most landlocked countries, at 20. If these transcontinental countries are included in Asia, then Africa has the most, at 16. Depending on the status of the three transcontinental countries, Asia has between 9 and 15, while South America has only 2. North America and Oceania are the only continents with no landlocked countries (not including Antarctica, which has no countries).

See also


  1. Paudel, R. C. (2012). "Landlockedness and Economic Growth: New Evidence" (PDF). Growth and Export Performance of Developing Countries: Is Landlockedness Destiny?. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University. pp. 13–72.
  2. Faye, M. L.; McArthur, J. W.; Sachs, J. D.; Snow, T. (2004). "The Challenges Facing Landlocked Developing Countries". Journal of Human Development. 5 (1): 31–68 [pp. 31–32]. doi:10.1080/14649880310001660201.
  3. Collier, Paul (2007). The Bottom Billion. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 56, 57. ISBN 978-0-19-537338-7.
  4. Moseley, W. G.; Carney, J.; Becker, L. (2010). "Neoliberal Policy, Rural Livelihoods and Urban Food Security in West Africa: A Comparative Study of The Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire and Mali". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 107 (13): 5774–5779. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.5774M. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905717107. PMC 2851933. PMID 20339079.
  5. Moseley, W. G. (2011). "Lessons from the 2008 Global Food Crisis: Agro-Food Dynamics in Mali". Development in Practice. 21 (4–5): 604–612.
  6. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (2010). Review of Maritime Transport, 2010 (PDF). New York and Geneva: United Nations. p. 160. ISBN 978-92-1-112810-9.
  7. "Danube River Basin". International Waterway Governance. Retrieved June 30, 2018.)
  8. Martin, McCauley (2017). The Cold War 1949-2016. New York: Routledge. pp. 4, 5, 6. ISBN 9781315213309.
  9. Iyob, Ruth (1997). The Eritrean Struggle for Independence - Domination, resistance, nationalism 1941-1993. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 11–25. ISBN 0 521 47327 6.
  10. Chopra, P. N.; Puri, B. N.; Das, M. N. A Comprehensive History of India. 3. p. 298.
  11. UN Report Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Dempsey Morais, Caitlin. "Landlocked Countries". Geolounge. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
  13. "Landlocked Countries". Retrieved November 4, 2015.
  14. "IGU regional conference on environment and quality of life in central Europe". GeoJournal. 28 (4). 1992. doi:10.1007/BF00273120.
  15. CIA World Factbook Uzbekistan
  16. MacKellar, Landis; Wörgötter, Andreas; Wörz, Julia. "Economic Development Problems of Landlocked Countries" (PDF). Wien Institute for Advanced Studies. p. 12.
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