LGBT rights by country or territory

Rights affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or jurisdiction – encompassing everything from the legal recognition of same-sex marriage to the death penalty for homosexuality.

Notably, as of 2019, 28 countries recognize same-sex marriage, they are: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, the United States and Uruguay.[1] By contrast, 6 countries effectively impose the death penalty on consensual same-sex sexual acts, with three in Asia (Iran, Saudi Arabia and Yemen) and three in Africa (Nigeria (the northern states), Sudan and Somalia (Jubaland region)). In addition, the death penalty is a possible punishment in 6 other countries: Afghanistan, Brunei, Mauritania, Pakistan, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. Iraq has been removed from this list following the elimination of the Islamic State (ISIL/ISIS), it remains as a "de facto" criminalising country due to reports of State prosecution using laws on public indecency, prostitution or others.[2][3]

In 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council passed its first resolution recognizing LGBT rights, following which the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights issued a report documenting violations of the rights of LGBT people, including hate crimes, criminalization of homosexual activity, and discrimination. Following the issuance of the report, the United Nations urged all countries which had not yet done so to enact laws protecting basic LGBT rights.[4][5]

Scope of laws

Laws that affect LGBT people include, but are not limited to, the following:

Ancient Celts

According to Aristotle, although most "belligerent nations" were strongly influenced by their women, the Celts were unusual because their men openly preferred male lovers (Politics II 1269b).[6][7] H. D. Rankin in Celts and the Classical World notes that "Athenaeus echoes this comment (603a) and so does Ammianus (30.9). It seems to be the general opinion of antiquity."[7] In book XIII of his Deipnosophists, the Roman Greek rhetorician and grammarian Athenaeus, repeating assertions made by Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BC (Bibliotheca historica 5:32), wrote that Celtic women were beautiful but that the men preferred to sleep together. Diodorus went further, stating that "the young men will offer themselves to strangers and are insulted if the offer is refused". Rankin argues that the ultimate source of these assertions is likely to be Poseidonius and speculates that these authors may be recording "some kind of bonding ritual ... which requires abstinence from women at certain times".[7]

Ancient India

Throughout Hindu and Vedic texts, there are many descriptions of saints, demigods, and even the Supreme Lord transcending gender norms and manifesting multiple combinations of sex and gender.[8] Alka Pande says that alternate sexuality was an integral part of ancient India and homosexuality was considered to be a form of the sacred, drawing upon the examples of the hermaphrodite Shikhandi and Arjuna who became a eunuch. Ruth Vanita argues that ancient India was relatively tolerant and views on it were ambiguous, from acceptance to rejection.[9]

Some Hindu texts mention homosexuality and support them. The Kamasutra mentions homosexuality as a type of sexual pleasure. There are also legends of Hindu gods change gender or are hermaphrodites and engage in relations that would be considered homoerotic in the other case.[10] Homosexuality was also practiced in the royal families especially with servants.[11] Kamasutra also mentions the "svairini" who used to live by herself or with another woman.[12] The king Bhagiratha is described as being born of sexual union of two queens of the king Dilip, however there is also a patriarchal background represented as the king left no heir and his younger wife took on the role of a man.[13]

Ayoni or non-vaginal sex of all types are punishable in the Arthashastra. Homosexual acts are however treated as a smaller offence punishable by a fine while unlawful heterosexual sex have much harsher punishment. The Dharmsastras especially the later ones prescribed against non-vaginal sex like the Vashistha Dharmasutra. The Yājñavalkya Smṛti prescribes fines for such acts including those with other men. Manusmriti prescribes light punishments for such acts.[14][15] Vanita states that the verses about punishment for a sex between female and a maiden is due to its strong emphasis on a maiden's sexual purity.[16]

The Narada Purana in 1.15.936 states that those who have non-vaginal intercourse will go to Retobhojana where they have to live on semen. Ruth Vanita states that the punishment in afterlife suggested by it is comical and befitting the act. The Skanda Purana states that those who indulge in such acts will acquire impotency.[17]

There are many tales in Hindu mythology interpreted as representing transsexual people, cross-dressers, bonding women and accounts interpreted to have elements of lesbian relations. These include Brihannala, Shikhandi, the goddess Mohini. Also in the Ramayana, Lord Shiva transforms into a woman to play with Parvati in the tale of Ila. The king Yuvanaswa is shown as giving birth to a boy. A few temples represent homosexual relations in their architecture. The most prominent example are that of Khajuraho.[18]

Ancient West Asia

Ancient Israel

The ancient Law of Moses (the Torah) forbids men from lying with men (i.e., from having intercourse) in Leviticus 18 and gives a story of attempted homosexual rape in Genesis 19, in the story of Sodom and Gomorrah, after which the cities were soon destroyed with "brimstone and fire, from the Lord"[19][20] and the death penalty was prescribed to its inhabitants and to Lot's wife who was tuned into a pillar of salt because she turned back to watch the cities' destruction.[21][22] In Deuteronomy 22:5, cross-dressing is condemned as "abominable".[23][24]

Ancient Persia

In Persia, homosexuality and homoerotic expressions were tolerated in numerous public places, from monasteries and seminaries to taverns, military camps, bathhouses, and coffee houses. In the early Safavid era (1501–1723), male houses of prostitution (amrad khane) were legally recognized and paid taxes. Persian poets, such as Sa'di (d. 1291), Hafiz (d. 1389), and Jami (d. 1492), wrote poems replete with homoerotic allusions. The two most commonly documented forms were commercial sex with transgender young males or males enacting transgender roles exemplified by the köçeks and Sufi spiritual practices in which the practitioner admired the form of a beautiful boy in order to enter ecstatic states and glimpse the beauty of God.


In Assyrian society, sex crimes were punished identically whether they were homosexual or heterosexual.[25] An individual faced no punishment for penetrating someone of equal social class, a cult prostitute, or with someone whose gender roles were not considered solidly masculine.[25] Such sexual relations were even seen as good fortune, with an Akkadian tablet, the Šumma ālu, reading, "If a man copulates with his equal from the rear, he becomes the leader among his peers and brothers".[26][27] However, homosexual relationships with fellow soldiers, slaves, royal attendants, or those where a social better was submissive or penetrated, were treated as bad omens.[28][29]

Middle Assyrian Law Codes dating 1075 BC has a particularly harsh law for homosexuality in the military, which reads: "If a man have intercourse with his brother-in-arms, they shall turn him into a eunuch."[30][31][32] A similar law code reads, "If a seignior lay with his neighbor, when they have prosecuted him (and) convicted him, they shall lie with him (and) turn him into a eunuch". This law code condemns a situation that involves homosexual rape. Any Assyrian male could visit a prostitute or lie with another male, just as long as false rumors or forced sex were not involved with another male.[33]

Ancient Rome

The "conquest mentality" of the ancient Romans shaped Roman homosexual practices.[34] In the Roman Republic, a citizen's political liberty was defined in part by the right to preserve his body from physical compulsion or use by others;[35] for the male citizen to submit his body to the giving of pleasure was considered servile.[36] As long as a man played the penetrative role, it was socially acceptable and considered natural for him to have same-sex relations, without a perceived loss of his masculinity or social standing.[37] The bodies of citizen youths were strictly off-limits, and the Lex Scantinia imposed penalties on those who committed a sex crime (stuprum) against a freeborn male minor.[38] Acceptable same-sex partners were males excluded from legal protections as citizens: slaves, male prostitutes, and the infames, entertainers or others who might be technically free but whose lifestyles set them outside the law.

"Homosexual" and "heterosexual" were thus not categories of Roman sexuality, and no words exist in Latin that would precisely translate these concepts.[39] A male citizen who willingly performed oral sex or received anal sex was disparaged, but there is only limited evidence of legal penalties against these men, who were presumably "homosexual" in the modern sense.[40] In courtroom and political rhetoric, charges of effeminacy and passive sexual behaviors were directed particularly at "democratic" politicians (populares) such as Julius Caesar and Mark Antony.[41]

Roman law addressed the rape of a male citizen as early as the 2nd century BC, when a ruling was issued in a case that may have involved a man of same-sex orientation. It was ruled that even a man who was "disreputable and questionable" had the same right as other citizens not to have his body subjected to forced sex.[42] A law probably dating to the dictatorship of Julius Caesar defined rape as forced sex against "boy, woman, or anyone"; the rapist was subject to execution, a rare penalty in Roman law.[43] A male classified as infamis, such as a prostitute or actor, could not as a matter of law be raped, nor could a slave, who was legally classified as property; the slave's owner, however, could prosecute the rapist for property damage.[44]

In the Roman army of the Republic, sex among fellow soldiers violated the decorum against intercourse with citizens and was subject to harsh penalties, including death,[45] as a violation of military discipline.[46] The Greek historian Polybius (2nd century BC) lists deserters, thieves, perjurers, and "those who in youth have abused their persons" as subject to the fustuarium, clubbing to death.[47] Ancient sources are most concerned with the effects of sexual harassment by officers, but the young soldier who brought an accusation against his superior needed to show that he had not willingly taken the passive role or prostituted himself.[48] Soldiers were free to have relations with their male slaves;[49] the use of a fellow citizen-soldier's body was prohibited, not homosexual behaviors per se.[50] By the late Republic and throughout the Imperial period, there is increasing evidence that men whose lifestyle marked them as "homosexual" in the modern sense served openly.[51]

Although Roman law did not recognize marriage between men, and in general Romans regarded marriage as a heterosexual union with the primary purpose of producing children, in the early Imperial period some male couples were celebrating traditional marriage rites. Juvenal remarks with disapproval that his friends often attended such ceremonies.[52] The emperor Nero had two marriages to men, once as the bride (with a freedman Pythagoras) and once as the groom. His consort Sporus appeared in public as Nero's wife wearing the regalia that was customary for the Roman empress.[53]

Apart from measures to protect the prerogatives of citizens, the prosecution of homosexuality as a general crime began in the 3rd century of the Christian era when male prostitution was banned by Philip the Arab. By the end of the 4th century, after the Roman Empire had come under Christian rule, passive homosexuality was punishable by burning.[54] "Death by sword" was the punishment for a "man coupling like a woman" under the Theodosian Code.[55] Under Justinian, all same-sex acts, passive or active, no matter who the partners, were declared contrary to nature and punishable by death.[56]


E. E. Evans-Pritchard recorded that in the past male Azande warriors in the northern Congo routinely took on young male lovers between the ages of twelve and twenty, who helped with household tasks and participated in intercrural sex with their older husbands. The practice had died out by the early 20th century, after Europeans had gained control of African countries, but was recounted to Evans-Pritchard by the elders to whom he spoke.[57]

Feudal Japan

In feudal Japan, homosexuality was recognized, between equals (bi-do), in terms of pederasty (wakashudo), and in terms of prostitution. The younger partner in a pederastic relationship often was expected to make the first move; the opposite was true in ancient Greece. In religious circles, same-sex love spread to the warrior (samurai) class, where it was customary for a boy in the wakashū age category to undergo training in the martial arts by apprenticing to a more experienced adult man. The man was permitted, if the boy agreed, to take the boy as his lover until he came of age; this relationship, often formalized in a "brotherhood contract",[58] was expected to be exclusive, with both partners swearing to take no other (male) lovers.


Anthropologists Stephen Murray and Will Roscoe reported that women in Lesotho engaged in socially sanctioned "long term, erotic relationships" called motsoalle.[59]

Papua New Guinea

In Papua New Guinea, same-sex relationships were an integral part of the culture of certain tribes until the middle of the last century. The Etoro and Marind-anim for example, even viewed heterosexuality as wasteful and celebrated homosexuality instead. They believed that in sharing semen, they are sharing their life force, yet women simply wasted this force any time they didn't get pregnant after sex. In many traditional Melanesian cultures a prepubertal boy would be paired with an older adolescent who would become his mentor and who would "inseminate" him (orally, anally, or topically, depending on the tribe) over a number of years in order for the younger to also reach puberty.[60]

Global LGBT rights maps


Decriminalization of homosexuality timeline
Never been illegal
18th century
19th century
20th century
21st century






See also


  1. Legal nationwide, except the provinces of Aceh and for Muslims in the city of Palembang in South Sumatra.
  2. In January 2019, a lower administrative court in Warsaw ruled that the language in Article 18 of the Constitution does not explicitly ban same-sex marriage.[439] The justification of the ruling regarding the meaning of Article 18 is not binding. The sentence is binding only on the parties in the proceedings.[440]


  1. Perper, Rosie (12 June 2019). "The 28 countries around the world where same-sex marriage is legal". Business Insider. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  2. Mendos, Lucas Ramón (2019). State-Sponsored Homophobia 2019 (PDF). Geneva: ILGA. p. 15.
  3. "Brunei not the only place LGBTQI can be killed for who they love". The New Daily. 4 April 2019.
  4. Jill Dougherty (17 June 2011). "U.N. council passes gay rights resolution". CNN. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  5. "UN issues first report on human rights of gay and lesbian people". United Nations. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  6. Percy, William A. (1996). Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece. University of Illinois Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-252-06740-2. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  7. Rankin, David; Ranking, H.D. (1996). Celts and the Classical World. Psychology Press. pp. 55 and 78. ISBN 978-0-4151-5090-3.
  8. Tritiya-Prakriti: People of the Third Sex, p. 40
  9. "What went wrong for gays in India?". 19 March 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  10. Jeffrey S. Siker, p.10, Homosexuality and Religion: An Encyclopedia
  11. Ruth Vanita, p. 27 Same-Sex Love in India: Readings from Literature and History
  12. Ruth Vanita, p. 27 Encyclopedia of Love in World Religions, Volume 1
  13. Giti Thadani, p. 27 Encyclopedia of Love in World Religions, Volume 1
  14. p. 50-51, Sexual Diversity in Asia, c. 600–1950, edited by Raquel A.G. Reyes, William Gervase Clarence-Smith
  15. Same-Sex Love in India, edited by Ruth Vanita
  16. p. 32, Love’s Rite: Same-Sex Marriage in India and the West, by Ruth Vanita
  17. Same-Sex Love in India, edited by Ruth Vanita
  18. Pramod K. Nayar, p. 180-181 Literature: An Introduction
  19. Fields, Weston W. (1997). Sodom and Gomorrah: History and Motif in Biblical Narrative. A&C Black. ISBN 9780567062611. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  20. Loader, J. A. (1990). A Tale of Two Cities: Sodom and Gomorrah in the Old Testament, Early Jewish and Early Christian Traditions. Peeters Publishers. ISBN 9789024253333. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  21. STRAUSS, Gerhard Friedrich Abraham; SLEE, Jane Mary (1837). On Restitution; Lot and his Wife; The Rich Man; Christian Composure; [sermons] by ... F. S. ... translated from the German, by Miss Slee. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  22. Lot's Wife. A sermon at Paule's Crosse [on Luke xvii. 32. By R. W., i.e. R. Wilkinson.]. 1607. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  23. Upson-Saia, Kristi; Daniel-Hughes, Carly; Batten, Alicia J. (2016). Dressing Judeans and Christians in Antiquity. Routledge. p. 39. ISBN 9781317147978. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  24. Bullough, Vern L.; Faan, Vern L.; Bullough, Bonnie (1993). Cross Dressing, Sex, and Gender. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. x. ISBN 9780812214314. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  25. Homoeroticism in the Biblical World: A Historical Perspective, by Martti Nissinen, Fortress Press, 2004, p. 24–28
  26. Greenberg, David F. (15 August 1990). The Construction of Homosexuality. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226306285 via Google Books.
  27. "Homosexuality in the Ancient Near East, beyond Egypt by Bruce Gerig in the Ancient Near East, beyond Egypt".
  28. Pritchard, p. 181.
  29. Gay Rights Or Wrongs: A Christian's Guide to Homosexual Issues and Ministry, by Mike Mazzalonga, 1996, p.11
  30. Halsall, Paul. "The Code of the Assura". Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Fordham University. Archived from the original on 11 September 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  31. The Nature of Homosexuality, Erik Holland, page 334, 2004
  32. Wilhelm, Amara Das (18 May 2010). Tritiya-Prakriti: People of the Third Sex. ISBN 9781453503164.
  33. G. R. Driver and J. C. Miles, The Assyrian Laws (Oxford, Clarendon Press [1935]), 71.
  34. Eva Cantarella, Bisexuality in the Ancient World (Yale University Press, 1992, 2002, originally published 1988 in Italian), p. xi; Marilyn B. Skinner, introduction to Roman Sexualities (Princeton University Press, 1997), p. 11.
  35. Thomas A.J. McGinn, Prostitution, Sexuality and the Law in Ancient Rome (Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 326.
  36. Catharine Edwards, "Unspeakable Professions: Public Performance and Prostitution in Ancient Rome," in Roman Sexualities, pp. 67–68.
  37. Amy Richlin, The Garden of Priapus: Sexuality and Aggression in Roman Humor (Oxford University Press, 1983, 1992), p. 225, and "Not before Homosexuality: The Materiality of the cinaedus and the Roman Law against Love between Men," Journal of the History of Sexuality 3.4 (1993), p. 525.
  38. Plutarch, Moralia 288a; Thomas Habinek, "The Invention of Sexuality in the World-City of Rome," in The Roman Cultural Revolution (Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 39; Richlin, "Not before Homosexuality," pp. 545–546. Scholars disagree as to whether the Lex Scantinia imposed the death penalty or a hefty fine.
  39. Craig Williams, Roman Homosexuality (Oxford University Press, 1999, 2010), p. 304, citing Saara Lilja, Homosexuality in Republican and Augustan Rome (Societas Scientiarum Fennica, 1983), p. 122.
  40. Williams, Roman Homosexuality, pp. 214–215; Richlin, "Not before Homosexuality," passim.
  41. Catharine Edwards, The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome (Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 63–64.
  42. As recorded in a fragment of the speech De Re Floria by Cato the Elder (frg. 57 Jordan = Aulus Gellius 9.12.7), noted and discussed by Richlin, "Not before Homosexuality," p. 561.
  43. Richlin, "Not before Homosexuality," pp. 562–563. See also Digest 48.5.35 [34] on legal definitions of rape that included boys.
  44. Under the Lex Aquilia. See McGinn, Prostitution, Sexuality, and the Law in Ancient Rome, p. 314.
  45. McGinn, Prostitution, Sexuality and the Law in Ancient Rome, p. 40.
  46. Sara Elise Phang, Roman Military Service: Ideologies of Discipline in the Late Republic and Early Principate (Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 93.
  47. Polybius, Histories 6.37.9 (translated as bastinado).
  48. Phang, The Marriage of Roman Soldiers, pp. 280–285.
  49. Phang, The Marriage of Roman Soldiers, p. 3.
  50. Williams, Roman Homosexuality, p. 112 et passim.
  51. Phang, The Marriage of Roman Soldiers, pp. 285–292.
  52. Juvenal, Satire 2; Williams, Roman Homosexuality, p. 28.
  53. Suetonius Life of Nero 28–29; Williams, Roman Homosexuality, p. 279ff.
  54. Michael Groneberg, "Reasons for Homophobia: Three Types of Explanation," in Combatting Homophobia: Experiences and Analyses Pertinent to Education (LIT Verlag, 2011), p. 193.
  55. Codex Theodosianus 9.7.3 (4 December 342), introduced by the sons of Constantine in 342.
  56. Groneberg, "Reasons for Homophobia," p. 193.
  57. Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1970). "Sexual Inversion among the Azande". American Anthropologist. New Series. 72 (6): 1428–1434. doi:10.1525/aa.1970.72.6.02a00170.
  58. Leupp, Gary P. (1999). Male Colors: The Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan. University of California Press. pp. 53–54. ISBN 978-0-520-20909-1.
  59. Murray, Stephen (ed.); Roscoe, Will (ed.) (1998). Boy Wives and Female Husbands: Studies of African Homosexualities. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-23829-2.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  60. Herdt, Gilbert H. (1984), Ritualized Homosexuality in Melanesia, University of California Press, pp. 128–136, ISBN 978-0-520-08096-6
  61. In the Russian law "for the Purpose of Protecting Children from Information Advocating for a Denial of Traditional Family Values", foreigners may be arrested and detained for up to 15 days then deported, or fined up to 5,000 rubles and deported.
  65. "State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition" (PDF). International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  66. Galán, José Ignacio Pichardo. "Same-sex couples in Spain. Historical, contextual and symbolic factors" (PDF). Institut national d'études démographiques. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
  67. "Spain approves liberal gay marriage law". St. Petersburg Times. 1 July 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2007.
  68. "Spain - Intercountry Adoption".
  69. (in Spanish) Boletín Oficial del Estado Ley 14/2006, de 26 de mayo, sobre técnicas de reproducción humana asistida (see Article 7)
  70. "ILGA-Europe" (PDF).
  71. " - Documento BOE-A-2007-5585".
  72. (in Spanish) Reglamento regulador del Registro de Uniones de Hecho
  73. "Spain approves liberal gay marriage law". St. Petersburg Times. 1 July 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2007.
  74. "Adoption in Spain". Intercountry Adoption. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  75. "ILGA-Europe".
  76. "Egypt (Law) - ILGA". ILGA. Archived from the original on 11 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  77. "Libyan 'Gay' Men Face Torture, Death By Militia: Report (GRAPHIC)". 26 November 2012 via Huff Post.
  78. "The situation of homosexuals in Libya is getting worse".
  79. (in Portuguese) Law no. 7/2001, from 11 May (specifically Article 1, no. 1).
  80. "AR altera lei das uniões de facto".
  81. Law no. 9/2010, from 30th May.
  82. "Lei 17/2016 de 20 de junho".
  83. "Lei que alarga a procriação medicamente assistida publicada em Diário da República". tvi24. 20 June 2016.
  84. "Todas as mulheres com acesso à PMA a 1 de Agosto". PÚBLICO.
  85. "MEPs welcome new gender change law in Portugal; concerned about Lithuania - The European Parliament Intergroup on LGBTI Rights".
  87. "Morocco (Law)". ILGA. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  88. "Encyclopedia of Lesbian and Gay Histories and Cultures: An Encyclopedia. Gay histories and cultures. Vol. 2". Taylor & Francis. 8 November 2017 via Google Books.
  89. "La junta de protección a la infancia de Barcelona: Aproximación histórica y guía de su archivo" (PDF). Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  90. "Where is it illegal to be gay? - BBC News". Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  91. "Tunisia (Law)". ILGA. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  92. "Tunisian presidential committee recommends decriminalizing homosexuality". NBC News. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  93. "Benin (Law)". ILGA. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  94. "The Gambia passes bill imposing life sentences for some homosexual acts | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  95. "Ghana (Law)". ILGA. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  96. https/
  97. "LGBT Rights in Liberia - Equaldex".
  98. "LGBT Rights in Mauritania - Equaldex".
  99. "Nigeria (Law)". ILGA. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  100. "Marriage (Ascension) Ordinance, 2016" (PDF).
  101. "This tiny island just passed same-sex marriage".
  102. "LGBT Rights in Senegal - Equaldex".
  103. https/
  104. "Décret n° 160218 du 30 mars 2016 portant promulgation de la Constitution de la République centrafricaine" (PDF).
  105. name="Gabon Review">Mussavu, Alix-Ida (29 October 2019). "Homosexualité : Le nouveau Code pénal sanctionne la pratique". Gabon Review. Gabon Review. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  106. "Everything you need to know about human rights. | Amnesty International". 25 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  107. "Laws of Kenya ; The Constitution of Kenya" (PDF). Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  109. https/
  110. Gettleman, Jeffrey (8 November 2017). "David Kato, Gay Rights Activist, Is Killed in Uganda" via
  111. "LGBT Rights in Eritrea - Equaldex".
  112. Asokan, Ishan (16 November 2012). "A bludgeoned horn: Eritrea's abuses and 'guilt by association' policy.'". Consultancy Africa Intelligence. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  114. Noor Ali (7 July 2013). "Gay Somali refugees face death threats".
  115. "LGBT Rights in Comoros - Equaldex".
  116. "The Sexual Offences Bill" (PDF). Government of Mauritius. 6 April 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  117. "LGBT Rights in Mauritius - Equaldex".
  118. "Africa: Outspoken activists defend continent's sexual diversity - Norwegian Council for Africa". 6 August 2009. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  119. "Equal Opportunities Act 2008" (PDF). Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  120. "Tiny African victory: Seychelles repeals ban on gay sex". 18 May 2016.
  121. Avenue, Human Rights Watch | 350 Fifth; York, 34th Floor | New; t, NY 10118-3299 USA | (23 January 2019). "Angola Decriminalizes Same-Sex Conduct". Human Rights Watch.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  122. "Employment & labour law in Angola". Lexology. 15 September 2015.
  123. "Transgender Rights in Angola" (PDF).
  124. CNN, Kara Fox. "Botswana scraps gay sex laws in big victory for LGBTQ rights in Africa". CNN.
  126. "Transgender Rights in Lesotho" (PDF).
  127. "Where is it illegal to be gay?". 10 February 2014 via
  128. "Malawi suspends anti-gay laws as MPs debate repeal | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  129. "Mozambique Gay Rights Group Wants Explicit Constitutional Protections | Care2 Causes". 3 March 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  130. "Homosexuality Decriminalised in Mozambique". Kuchu Times. 1 June 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  131. Marketing, Intouch Interactive. "Sodomy law's days numbered - Geingos - Local News - Namibian Sun".
  132. "Namibia". 4 March 2002. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  133. "Namibia". Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  134. "Transgender Rights in Namibia" (PDF).
  135. Simpson, Lisa (28 February 2018). "House: Three more months of same-sex marriage". The Royal Gazette. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  136. Johnson, Ayo (15 June 2013). "MPs approve historic Human Rights Act changes". The Royal Gazette. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  137. "Criminal Code (R.S., 1985, c. C-46), Section 159, Subsection (1)". Department of Justice Canada. 21 May 2010.
  138. Anonymous (27 November 2017). "Law Reform (2000) Act".
  139. "An Act instituting civil unions and establishing new rules of filiation" (PDF).
  140. "Alberta: Adult Interdependent Relationships". Legal Resource Center of Alberta. 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2007.
  141. Justice, Manitoba. "Manitoba Laws".
  143. Status differs in provinces and territories:
  144. "Canadian Armed Forces". The Canadian Lesbian & Gay Archives. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  145. "Northwest Territories Human Rights Act, S.N.W.T. 2002, c.18. Section 5".
  146. "Ontario passes law to protect transgender people". CBC News. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
  147. Services, Ministry of Citizens. "Change Your Personal Information - Province of British Columbia".
  148. "Manitoba Vital Statistics Agency | Province of Manitoba". Province of Manitoba - Manitoba Vital Statistics Agency.
  149. "1995-96 - L 162 (oversigt): Forslag til lov om ændring af kriminalloven og arveloven for Grønland. (Ændringer som følge af indførelse af registreret partnerskab)" (in Danish). Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  150. "Anordning om ikrafttræden for Grønland af lov om ændring af lov om registreret partnerskab m.v." (PDF).
  151. ksv. "Folketinget - L 122 - 2014-15 (1. samling)Om forældreansvarslovgivningen og lovgivningen om ægteskab mellem to personer af samme køn".
  152. (in Spanish) Leopoldo Ramos (11 January 2007). "Aprueba Coahuila la figura del pacto civil de solidaridad". La Jornada. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  153. (in Spanish) Pedro Zamora Briseño (29 July 2013). "Aprueba Colima "enlace conyugal" entre parejas del mismo sexo". Proceso. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  154. "Legalizan bodas gays en Campeche". 23 December 2013.
  155. (in Spanish) "Jalisco avala Ley de Libre Convivencia para regular parejas del mismo sexo". CNN México. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  156. David Agren (10 August 2010). "Mexican States Ordered to Honor Gay Marriages". New York Times. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  157. (in Spanish) Varillas, Adriana (3 May 2012). "Revocan anulación de bodas gay en QRoo". El Universal. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  158. (in Spanish) Mauricio Torres (14 November 2013). "Senadores proponen legalizar el matrimonio gay en todo México". CNN México. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  159. (in Spanish) "Propone Fernando Mayans Canabal reconocer el matrimonio sin distinción de preferencia sexual". Senado de México. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  160. Summers, Claude (6 June 2015). "Mexico's Supreme Court Effectively Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage Nationwide". Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  161. "SCJN abre la puerta a matrimonio gay en todo el país" (in Spanish). Mexico City, Mexico: La Journada. 12 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  162. "Suprema Corte ampara matrimonio igualitario" (in Spanish). Mexico: Animal Politico. 13 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  163. Associated Press (4 March 2010). "Mexico City's gay marriage law takes effect". MSNBC. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
  164. (in Spanish) Jesús Castro (12 February 2014). "Ya pueden parejas gay adoptar en Coahuila; PAN vota en contra". Vanguardia. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  165. "Intercountry Adoption: Mexico". Office of Children Issues, U.S. Dept. of State. November 2009.
  166. "Comunidad LGBTTTI se prepara para la adopción". 17 May 2019.
  167. Abajo, Redacción Desde. "A partir de hoy Matrimonio Igualitario es oficial". DESDEABAJO.MX.
  168. International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC) (23 April 2003). "Mexico protects its gay and lesbian citizens with new law". Retrieved 27 November 2009.
  169. International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) Trans (29 August 2008). "Mexico City extends official rights to transgender individuals". Retrieved 27 November 2009.
  170. Mexico, Protocol of Action for Those Who Impart Justice in Cases that Involve Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity (PDF) (in Spanish). Mexico City: Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation. August 2014. ISBN 978-607-96207-3-8. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  171. "Loi n° 99-944 du 15 novembre 1999 relative au pacte civil de solidarité | Legifrance".
  172. Vignal, Francois (15 April 2013). "Mariage pour tous : le détail du vote au Sénat" (in French). Public Senat. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  173. "France".
  174. "France: Transsexualism will no longer be classified as a mental illness in France / News / Welcome to the ILGA Trans Secretariat / Trans / ilga - ILGA". 16 May 2009. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
  175. "California Family Code Section 299.2". Onecle.
  176. "CitizenLink: Amendment Would Mean No Money to D.C. Domestic-Partner Registry". Family Policy Alliance.
  177. "Summary".
  178. "Oregon Registered Domestic Partners" (PDF). State of Oregon. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  179. "BILL INFO-2008 Regular Session-SB 566".
  180. "Nevada legalizing domestic partnerships". CNN. 31 May 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
  181. "New Jersey Public Law 2006, c.103" (PDF). New Jersey Legislature. 2006. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
  182. Wayne, Kevin. "Illinois House passes civil unions legislation in historic vote".
  183. Huffington Post: Mark Niesse, "Hawaii Governor Neil Abercrombie Signs Same-Sex Civil Unions Into Law," February 23, 2011, accessed April 13, 2011
  184. "Votes for SB13-011" (PDF).
  185. Wolf, Richard (26 June 2015). "Supreme Court strikes down bans on same-sex marriage". USA Today. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  186. Liptak, Adam (26 June 2015). "Gay Marriage Backers Win Supreme Court Victory". Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  187. "In 60 days, gays will be allowed to serve openly in the military". CNN. 23 July 2011.
  188. "Trump: Transgender people 'can't serve' in US military". 26 July 2017.
  189. "Judge rules transgender people can enlist in military, denying Trump bid to delay deadline". The Washington Post. 11 December 2017.
  190. "Beginning today, transgender individuals can join the US military". ABC News. 1 January 2018.
  191. Geidner, Chris (23 April 2012). "Transgender Breakthrough". Metro Weekly. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  192. "HHS Says Antitransgender Discrimination Illegal Under Health Reform Law". 6 August 2012.
  193. "Belize Supreme Court Overturns Anti-Gay Law". NBC News.
  194. "Chapter 4 of the Laws of Belize - THE CONSTITUTION OF BELIZE PART II: Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms". Belmopan, Belize: The Government of Belize. 1981. Archived from the original on 21 August 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  195. Littauer, Dan (10 August 2016). "Love wins! Belize anti-gay law struck down". Scotland: KaleidoScot. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  196. "Supreme Court declares Section 53 unconstitutional". Port of Spain, Trinidad: Daily Express. Cana News. 10 August 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  197. "Transgender Culture in Belize". United Belize Advocacy Movement (UNIBAM). Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  198. "CCSS aprobó extender seguro de salud a parejas gais". La Nación, Grupo Nación.
  199. "Costa Rica Government To Prioritize Bill Legalizing Gay Civil Unions". 19 March 2015.
  200. "Costa Rica".
  201. "Transgender Population in Costa Rica Will be Able to Choose the Name Shown in Their ID". Costa Rica Star News. 14 May 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  202. Asociación Salvadoreña de Derechos Humanos “Entre Amigos” (2010). HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION OF LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL AND TRANSGENDER PERSONS IN EL SALVADOR: Shadow Report submitted to the United Nations Human Rights Committee (PDF). San Salvador.
  203. "Consulta Nacional sobre realidades LGBTI en El Salvador". Dirección de Diversidad Sexual (in Spanish). 2012.
  204. "El Salvador: la Corte Suprema reconoce la identidad de género de una persona trans". NODAL (in Spanish). 10 May 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  205. Press, SONIA PEREZ D., Associated (31 July 2016). "In socially conservative Guatemala, transgender people sees gains".
  206. "Honduras: Constitución de 1982".
  207. "Honduras Bans Gay Marriage & Adoption". Global Gayz. 30 March 2005. Retrieved 12 August 2009.
  208. ""DECRETO 144-83" CÓDIGO PENAL" (PDF).
  209. "Ley No. 16 Que regula el derecho de admisión en los establecimientos públicos y Dicta medidas para evitar la discriminación" (PDF). Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  210. Diario, El Nuevo. "Buscan que orientación sexual e identidad género sean reconocidos en Panamá".
  211. Octubre, Corprensa Apartado 0819-05620 El Dorado Ave 12 de; Panamá, Hato Pintado; Panamá, República de (5 November 2012). "Transexuales panameños tramitan cédulas de mujer". La Prensa.
  212. "Por primera vez, una transexual logra en Panamá cambiar su nombre en la cédula". El Espectador (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  213. Press, Associated (10 September 2016). "Aruba Parliament approves civil unions for same-sex couples".
  214. "Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands" (in Dutch). Government of the Netherlands. 10 October 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
  215. Waaldijk, Kees. "Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in the Netherlands" (PDF). INED. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  216. "Gay Marriage Goes Dutch". CBS News. Associated Press. 1 April 2001. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
  217. "Burgerlijk Wetboek, Boek 1 (Civil Code, Book 1)". Government of the Netherlands. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  218. The Virgin Islands Constitution Order 2007, sections 9 and 26.
  219. "Nuevo Código de Familia en Cuba se someterá a votación popular". Cubanet. 8 March 2019.
  221. "Gaceta Oficial No. 29 Extraordinaria de 17 de junio de 2014" (PDF).
  222., Cubaencuentro com & Manuel Desdin. "Entra en vigor nuevo Código del Trabajo".
  223. "Constitución de la República de Cuba".
  224. "Cuba approves sex change operations". 6 June 2008 via
  225. "Dominican Republic reiterates ban on gay cops and soldiers".
  226. "The Montserrat Constitution Order 2010". Government of Montserrat. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  227. "Constitution of Montserrat Part I: Fundamental Rights & Freedoms". Government of Montserrat. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  228. "Puerto Rico to amend laws after US ruling on gay marriage".
  229. Loutoo, Jada (12 April 2018). "Historic ruling on Sexual Offences Act". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. Port of Spain, Trinidad. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  230. "The Turks and Caicos Islands Constitution Order 2011" (PDF). Government of the Turks and Caicos Islands. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  231. "Ley 1.004". Buenos Aires Ciudad (in Spanish).
  232. "Ley 3.736". Legislatura de la Provincia de Río Negro (in Spanish).
  233. "Ley 26.994 Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación". InfoLEG (in Spanish).
  234. "Ley 26.618". InfoLEG (in Spanish).
  235. Smink, Veronica (28 February 2009). "Argentina: abren paso a gays en FF.AA". BBC Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 July 2017.
  236. "Ley 26.791". InfoLEG (in Spanish).
  237. Ruchansky, Emilio (10 May 2012). "Una norma de vanguardia". Página/12 (in Spanish).
  238. "Constitution of Bolivia" (PDF).
  239. "Acuerdo de Vida en Familia busca legalizar la unión de parejas TLGB - Diario Pagina Siete".
  240. "Constitución Política del Estado (CPE) (7-Febrero-2009)" (in Spanish). Infoleyes. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
  241. "Travel Advisor".
  242. "Fuerzas Armadas de Bolivia abren sus puertas a los gays".
  243. "Militares gay, entre la discriminación y la clandestinidad en FFAA de Bolivia" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 September 2016.
  244. lgc-DB, teleSUR /. "Bolivia Approves Progressive Law Recognizing Transgender Rights".
  245. Constitución Política del Estado
  246. "'Soy el primero en Latinoamérica en cambiar de nombre y sexo' - La Razón".
  247. "En Bolivia, seis transexuales lograron cambiar de identidad - Diario Pagina Siete".
  248. "Brazilian go-ahead for gay unions". 5 March 2004 via
  249. {{cite web|url=ícias STF :: STF - Supremo Tribunal [[image|}}
  250. "CNJ obriga cartórios de todo o país a celebrar casamento entre gays - 14/05/2013 - Cotidiano". Folha de S.Paulo.
  251. "CNJ obriga cartórios a celebrar casamento entre homossexuais - Brasil". Estadão.
  252. "Casal homossexual pode adotar criança, decide STJ".
  253. (in Portuguese) Patricia Silva Gadelha (March 2006). "A prática da pederastia é crime militar". Jus Navigandi. Archived from the original on 11 August 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  254. "STF permite criminalização da homofobia e da transfobia". G1.
  255. "Homosexuality is not deviant - Federal Council of Psychologists of Brazil".
  256. "Psychiatrist Jairo Bouer talks about the "collateral effects" of "gay cure" bill".
  257. Expresso da Notícia (13 January 2006). "Justiça autoriza alteração no registro de transexual que trocou de sexo" (in Portuguese). Jus Brasil. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  258. Expresso da Notícia (25 December 2005). "Justica autoriza mudança de sexo em documentos" (in Portuguese). Jus Brasil. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  259. "Mudar o nome e o sexo nos documentos".
  260. "LEY-20830 21-ABR-2015 MINISTERIO SECRETARIA GENERAL DE GOBIERNO - Ley Chile - Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional". 21 April 2015.
  261. Ramos, Ángel. "El proyecto de ley de matrimonio igualitario llega al Parlamento de Chile".
  262. Ramos, Ángel. "El proyecto de ley de matrimonio igualitario llega al Parlamento de Chile".
  263. (in Spanish) Claudio Ortiz Lazo. "Reflexiones en torno a la homosexualidad y fuerzas armadas". Revista Fuerzas Armadas y Sociedad. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  264. "Chile Congress passes anti-discrimination law". 5 April 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  265. "Chilean President Signs Transgender Rights Law". On Top Magazine.
  266. "Consulta de la Norma".
  267. Semana. "Resultados de la búsqueda: corte constitucional permite matrimonio igualitario". Resultados de la búsqueda corte constitucional permite matrimonio igualitario.
  268. "Histórico fallo de Corte Constitucional sobre adopción de menores por parte de parejas del mismo sexo". RCN Radio.
  269. "Colombia High Court Rules for Adoptions by Same-Sex Couples".
  270. "Este miércoles el presidente Santos sanciona ley antidiscriminación". 29 November 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2011.(in Spanish)
  271. ""Cambio de género en la cédula será ágil y simple": Minjusticia - ELESPECTADOR.COM". 6 June 2015.
  272. "Constitution of Ecuador" (PDF).
  274. "Ecuador's highest court votes to legalise same-sex marriage". France 24. 13 June 2019.
  275. "Ecuador".
  276. OAS (1 August 2009). "OAS - Organization of American States: Democracy for peace, security, and development".
  277. "Ecuador: 2008 Constitution in English".
  278. "Official Registrar" (PDF).
  279. ns-DB-gp, teleSUR /. "Ecuadorean Lawmakers Approve New Gender Identity Law".
  280. "Bay Area Reporter :: Article.php". The Bay Area Reporter / B.A.R. Inc.
  281. "Executive Council Papers".
  282. "The Falkland Islands Constitution Order 2008" (PDF).
  283. "Homosexuals can adopt, be foster parents, guardians – CPA Director". 16 December 2015.
  284. "HOME".
  285. "Constitución del Paraguay, 1992".
  286. "Paraguay – Constitution". Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  287. "Diputados rechazan ley que prohíbe ingreso de homosexuales a FFAA". (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  288. "Perú: Alberto de Belaunde y Carlos Bruce presentaron proyecto de ley sobre unión civil". Sin Etiquetas (in Spanish). 1 December 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  289. "El Tribunal Constitucional de Perú considera que no se puede excluir de la Polícia o el Ejército a las personas homosexuales". Dos Manzanas. 13 December 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  290. "Código Penal peruano 2018 actualizado". (in Spanish). 3 June 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  291. "Peruvian Congress Votes to Remove LGBT from Hate Crime Legislation". The Perchy Bird. 6 May 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  292. (in Spanish)"Peruvian Penal Code" (PDF). Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  293. "Peru lags behind other Latin American countries on LGBT rights". 18 September 2014.
  294. "Finalmente se aprobó la ley contra crímenes de odio y discriminación por orientación sexual". Útero.Pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  295. "TC reconoce derecho de transexuales a pedir cambio de nombre y sexo en DNI". (in Spanish). 8 November 2016.
  296. "Sex reassignment surgery in Peru". Streets of Lima. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  297. "Local laws and customs - South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands (British Overseas Territory) travel advice - GOV.UK".
  298. "Wetboek van Strafrecht 2015" (PDF) (in Dutch). Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  299. "Transgender wins case for sex change recognition". Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  300. "Suriname appeals transgender verdict".
  301. "Ley Nº 18.246 UNIÓN CONCUBINARIA".
  302. "Document" (PDF).
  303. Reuters (9 September 2009). "Lawmakers in Uruguay Vote to Allow Gay Couples to Adopt". New York Times. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  304. Rachel Weiner (15 May 2009). "Uruguay Lifts Ban On Gays In The Military". Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  305. (in Spanish) Congress of Uruguay (18 August 2004). "Ley N° 17.817". Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  306. Free Speech Radio News (11 December 2009). "Uruguay passes bill to allow citizens to choose gender identity". Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  307. "Venezuela activists petition for same-sex marriage". 31 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  308. "Kyrgyz Voters Back Amendments On Same-Sex Marriage, Presidential Power". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 11 December 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  309. "Kyrgyzstan's Transgender Advocates Call for Right to Change Gender in Passports".
  310. Masci, David (11 February 2014). "Gay rights in Russia and the former Soviet republics". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  311. "Transgender in Tajikistan". Institute for War and Peace Reporting.
  312. "Employment (Equality) Ordinance 2013" (PDF).
  313. "Referendum in Armenia brings constitutional reforms - ILGA-Europe".
  314. "Armenia Central Electoral Commission announces constitutional referendum final results".
  315. "Armenia: Gays live with threats of violence, abuse". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  317. "ILGA-Europe" (PDF).
  319. "Map shows how Europe forces trans people to be sterilized". Gay Star News.
  320. "Kazakhstan Says No to Gays in Military". Eurasianet. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  321. "Northern Cyprus Decriminalizes Homosexuality and Protects LGBTs Against Hate Speech".
  322. (in Turkish) Kuzey Kıbrıs’ın “Eşcinsellik Suçu” Yasası Tarihe Karıştı!
  323. "Russian Gay History".
  324. "Campaign started to declare gay marriage unconstitutional". RT. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  325. "Turkey's main opposition proposed labor bill for LGBT people". 2 March 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  326. Can, İ.Özgür; Demiroğlu, Zehra; Köker, Murat; Ulaş, Halis; Salaçin, Serpil (28 January 2011). "Legal Aspects of Gender Reassignment Surgery in Turkey". Indian Journal of Gender Studies. Sage Publishing. 18: 77–88. doi:10.1177/097152151001800104.
  327. "Report: 14-year-old gay boy hanged in Iran". 18 July 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  328. "CBC News - Film - Iran's gay plan". 26 August 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
  329. "Iraq: Sexual Orientation, Human Rights and the Law".
  330. Erez Levon (January 2008). National Discord: Language, Sexuality and the Politics of Belonging in Israel. p. 45–46. ISBN 9780549582427. This amendment to the penal code entailed a de jure decriminalization of sodomy since, in 1963, the Israeli Supreme Court had already issued a de facto decriminalization, ruling that the anti-sodomy law (which dated back to the British Mandate of Palestine; Mandatory Criminal Ordinance of 1936) could not be prosecuted (Yosef Ben-Ami vs. The Attorney General of Israel, 224/63).
  331. "LGBTQ Timeline" (PDF).
  332. "In Complete Reversal, Israel Says It No Longer Opposes Same-sex Adoption". 29 August 2017 via Haaretz.
  333. "Law prohibiting discrimination in products, services, and entry to businesses" (in Hebrew). Israeli Economy Ministry. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  334. "El Al vs. Yonatan Danilovich" (in Hebrew). Supreme Court of Israel. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  336. Hovel, Revital (18 January 2015). "Israel recognizes sex changes without operation". Haaretz. Supreme Court of Israel. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  337. Aeyal Gross, Human rights are part of the fight for gay rights, Haaretz (via Aguda website), December 17, 2013
  338. Hila Weissberg, Homophobia in the workplace? Fear of transgender people is even worse, Haaretz, August 29, 2014
  339. Aeyal Gross, Israel should drop binary view of gender, Haaretz, 16.09.13
  340. "محكمة التمييز توافق على تغيير جنس مواطن اردني من ذكر الى انثى - دنيا الوطن" [The Court of Cassation agrees to change the gender of a Jordanian citizen from male to female]. (in Arabic). 12 October 2014.
  341. "Kuwait Law".
  342. Sycamore, Maximilian (4 February 2018). "Lebanese gay couple not prosecuted under 'order of nature' law".
  343. "Lebanese judge grants trans man right to change gender". 16 January 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  344. "Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death". The Washington Post. 16 June 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  345. "Syria - GlobalGayz News Archive".
  346. "State-sponsored Homophobia 2019 edition" (PDF). ILGA. March 2019.
  347. Nordland, Rod (11 November 2017). "Holding Hands, Drinking Wine and Other Ways to Go to Jail in Dubai". The New York Times.
  348. "Homosexuality can still mean the death penalty in many countries". 9 September 2018.
  349. Duffy, Nick (22 December 2015). "Judge blocks extradition of gay British man to UAE, where gays can face death penalty". PinkNews.
  350. Dawn Ennis (5 October 2016). "One photo of gay man in drag lands him on death row in Abu Dhabi". LGBT Nation.
  351. Hirsi Ali, Ayaan (13 June 2016). "Islam's Jihad Against Homosexuals". Belfer Center.
  352. Hirsi Ali, Ayaan (13 June 2016). "Islam's Jihad Against Homosexuals". WSJ.
  353. "Sex-change surgery is now legal in the UAE". 6 September 2016.
  354. "Sex reassignment surgery is now legal in the United Arab Emirates". 8 September 2016.
  355. "New law does not legalise sex change".
  356. "Bangladesh government makes Hijra an official gender option - Wikinews, the free news source". Wikinews. 11 November 2013.
  357. "Rights group cheers Bhutan's move forward legalizing gay sex". Japan Times. 10 June 2019.
  358. "India court legalises gay sex in landmark ruling". BBC News. 6 September 2018.
  359. France-Presse, Agence (11 January 2019). "'Not acceptable': Indian army backs gay sex ban despite decriminalisation". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  360. Ghosh, Deepshikha (15 April 2014). "Transgenders are the 'third gender', rules Supreme Court". NDTV.
  362. Michael K. Lavers (19 September 2015). "New Nepal constitution includes LGBT-specific protections". Washington blade. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  363. "SC orders equal benefits for transvestites". Archived from the original on 18 July 2009.
  364. "The battle against homophobia in Sri Lanka". Supreme Court of Sri Lanka.
  365. "Road to reform". The Morning. 16 September 2018.
  366. "What's at Stake for LGBT People as Sri Lanka Reforms Its Constitution". Retrieved 17 August 2017.
  367. Rodrigo, Suren. "Draft Bill of Rights". Retrieved 17 August 2017.
  368. "IIssuance of gender recognition certification to enable transgender persons to change personal documentation". Retrieved 17 August 2017.
  369. "General circular No. 01-34/2016 Issuing of Gender Recognition Certificate for Transgender Community" (PDF). Retrieved 17 August 2017.
  370. "Cap. 290 ADOPTION ORDINANCE". Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  371. "LGBT Rights in Japan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2013.
  372. "Taiwan".
  373. "同性伴侶跨區註記7月3日開放". Up Media. 21 July 2017.
  374. "Taiwan's top court rules in favour of same-sex marriage". The Guardian. 24 May 2017.
  375. "Taiwan voters reject same-sex marriage in referendums". BBC News. 25 November 2018.
  376. "Taiwan approves same-sex marriage in first for Asia". Channel News Asia. 17 May 2019.
  377. "Gender reassignment rule to be changed - Taipei Times".
  378. Robertson, Holly (3 April 2019). "Brunei enacts Islamic laws to punish gay sex with stoning to death — here's what you need to know". ABC News.
  379. "Aceh passes stoning law". The Straits Times. 14 September 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2009.
  380. Rough Guide to South East Asia: Third Edition. Rough Guides Ltd. August 2005. p. 74. ISBN 1843534371.
  381. "Sacking Sergeant SNF, Court: Homosex a Threat to Army". Detik. 16 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  382. Mosbergen, Dominique (12 October 2015). "Being LGBT In Southeast Asia: Stories Of Abuse, Survival And Tremendous Courage". Huffington Post. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  383. Chiam, Zhan; Duffy, Sandra; González Gil, Matilda (November 2016). "Trans Legal Mapping Report" (PDF). International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA). Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  384. "Philippines: Congress Approves Anti-Discrimination Bill". 24 January 2004. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
  385. Myers, JoAnne (19 September 2013). Historical Dictionary of the Lesbian and Gay Liberation Movements. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810874688 via Google Books.
  386. Lira Dalangin-Fernandez (30 June 2015). "Akbayan rep to file same-sex marriage bill in Congress". News5 - InterAksyon. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017.
  387. "Adoption in the Philippines". Intercountry Adoption. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  388. "Pemberton guilty of homicide in Jennifer Laude case". Rappler. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  389. "Passage of Cebu's anti-discrimination law lauded". Local News. Sun Star Publishing, Inc. Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  390. Mellejor, Ayan C. (14 December 2012). "Davao council bans discrimination vs gays, minority, differently abled".
  391. Oliver M. Pulumbarit (21 November 2009). "Gay Filipinos and Rainbow". Archived from the original on 6 November 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
  392. "Pemberton guilty of homicide in Laude case; sentenced to 12 years". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  393. "Same-sex marriage may come true under Thai junta - Prachatai English".
  394. Networks, Hornet (30 July 2018). "Thailand Could Actually Beat Taiwan to Legalizing Same-Sex Unions and Benefits". Hornet.
  395. "Thailand 'no paradise for transsexuals': A transgender couple's fight for their rights". 10 December 2015.
  396. "Proposed law would allow trans Thais to legally change gender - Coconuts Bangkok". 26 July 2017.
  397. "Sex-change officially legalized for the Vietnamese people". 24 November 2015.
  398. Thông, Báo Giao. "Ảnh: Cộng đồng người chuyển giới vỡ òa trong ngày lịch sử - Báo Giao thông".
  399. Perspective: what has the EU done for LGBT rights?, Café Babel, 17 May 2010
  400. What is the current legal situation in the EU?, ILGA Europe
  401. "RIS - Eingetragene Partnerschaft-Gesetz - Bundesrecht konsolidiert, Fassung vom 17.08.2019".
  402. "Unterscheidung zwischen Ehe und eingetragener Partnerschaft verletzt Diskriminierungsverbot". Constitutional Court of Austria (in German). 5 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  403. "Bundesgesetz, mit dem das Allgemeine Bürgerliche Gesetzbuch und das Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft geändert wird" (PDF). (in German).
  404. "Entschließungsantrag betreffend der Aufhebung des Adoptionsverbots für Homosexuelle" (PDF).
  405. "§ 144(2) ABGB (General Civil Code)". (in German).
  406. "Zakon o životnom partnerstvu osoba istog spola -".
  407. (in Croatian) "Ustav Republike Hrvatske" (PDF). Ustavni sud Republike Hrvatske. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  408. (in Croatian) "Zakon o suzbijanju diskriminacije". 21 July 2008. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  409. (in Croatian)"Pravilnik o načinu prikupljanja medicinske dokumentacije te utvrđivanja uvjeta i pretpostavki za promjenu spola i drugom rodnom identitetu". 15 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  410. "Portál veřejné správy".
  411. Ochranu manželství jako svazku muže a ženy vláda odmítla. Šanci mají sňatky pro všechny. 10. 7. 2018. ČT24.
  412. I registrovaní homosexuálové mohou adoptovat děti, rozhodl Ústavní soud. (in Czech) Mladá fronta DNES. Published on 16 June 2016.
  413. Lazarová, Daniela (25 June 2018). "Government backs same-sex marriage bill, but decisive battle looms in parliament". Czech Radio.
  414. Trans Rights Europe Map, 2018.
  415. "glbtq >> social sciences >> Berlin" (PDF).
  416. "LPartG - nichtamtliches Inhaltsverzeichnis".
  417. "Gesetz zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts - 2. Ergänzung der Anwendungshinweise zur Umsetzung des vorgenannten Gesetzes".
  418. Connolly, Kate (30 June 2017) German Parliament votes to legalise same-sex marriage in The Guardian. Retrieved 30 June 2017
  419. "Antidiskriminierungsstelle - Publikationen - AGG in englischer Sprache".
  420. "Gay and Lesbian Times [PMH] - Best Male Enhancement and Supplement Reviews". Gay and Lesbian Times [PMH].
  421. "TSG - nichtamtliches Inhaltsverzeichnis".
  422. Kft, Wolters Kluwer Hungary. "2009. évi XXIX. törvény a bejegyzett élettársi kapcsolatról, az ezzel összefüggő, valamint az élettársi viszony igazolásának megkönnyítéséhez szükséges egyes törvények módosításáról - Hatályos Jogszabályok Gyűjteménye".
  423. "Folyamatban levő törvényjavaslatok - Országgyűlés".
  424. "Melegházasságról szóló törvényjavaslat landolt a magyar parlamentben" (in Hungarian). 29 June 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  425. "Fundamental Law of Hungary" (PDF). TASZ. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
  426. Gorondi, Pablo (18 April 2011). "Hungary passes new conservative constitution". Reading Eagle. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
  427. "Gesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare (Partnerschaftsgesetz; PartG)" (PDF). (in German).
  428. "Landesverwaltung Liechtenstein".
  429. "The Constitution of the Republic of Poland". Sejm RP. Retrieved 5 May 2015. Marriage, being a union of a man and a woman, as well as the family, motherhood and parenthood, shall be placed under the protection and care of the Republic of Poland.
  430. Judgment of the Supreme Court of 7 July 2004, II KK 176/04, W dotychczasowym orzecznictwie Sądu Najwyższego, wypracowanym i ugruntowanym zarówno w okresie obowiązywania poprzedniego, jak i obecnego Kodeksu postępowania karnego, a także w doktrynie (por. wypowiedzi W. Woltera, A. Zolla, A. Wąska), pojęcie "wspólne pożycie" odnoszone jest wyłącznie do konkubinatu, a w szczególności do związku osób o różnej płci, odpowiadającego od strony faktycznej stosunkowi małżeństwa (którym w myśl art. 18 Konstytucji jest wyłącznie związek osób różnej płci). Tego rodzaju interpretację Sąd Najwyższy, orzekający w niniejszej sprawie, w pełni podziela i nie znajduje podstaw do uznania za przekonywujące tych wypowiedzi pojawiających się w piśmiennictwie, w których podejmowane są próby kwestionowania takiej interpretacji omawianego pojęcia i sprowadzania go wyłącznie do konkubinatu (M. Płachta, K. Łojewski, A.M. Liberkowski). Rozumiejąc bowiem dążenia do rozszerzającej interpretacji pojęcia "wspólne pożycie", użytego w art. 115 § 11 k.k., należy jednak wskazać na całkowity brak w tym względzie dostatecznie precyzyjnych kryteriów.
  431. "Judgment of the Constitutional Tribunal of 11 May 2005, K 18/04". Polska Konstytucja określa bowiem małżeństwo jako związek wyłącznie kobiety i mężczyzny. A contrario nie dopuszcza więc związków jednopłciowych. [...] Małżeństwo (jako związek kobiety i mężczyzny) uzyskało w prawie krajowym RP odrębny status konstytucyjny zdeterminowany postanowieniami art. 18 Konstytucji. Zmiana tego statusu byłaby możliwa jedynie przy zachowaniu rygorów trybu zmiany Konstytucji, określonych w art. 235 tego aktu.
  432. "Judgment of the Constitutional Tribunal of 9 November 2010, SK 10/08". W doktrynie prawa konstytucyjnego wskazuje się nadto, że jedyny element normatywny, dający się odkodować z art. 18 Konstytucji, to ustalenie zasady heteroseksualności małżeństwa.
  433. "Judgment of the Supreme Administrative Court of Poland of 25 October 2016, II GSK 866/15". Ustawa o świadczeniach zdrowotnych finansowanych ze środków publicznych nie wyjaśnia, co prawda, kto jest małżonkiem. Pojęcie to zostało jednak dostatecznie i jasno określone we wspomnianym art. 18 Konstytucji RP, w którym jest mowa o małżeństwie jako o związku kobiety i mężczyzny. W piśmiennictwie podkreśla się, że art. 18 Konstytucji ustala zasadę heteroseksualności małżeństwa, będącą nie tyle zasadą ustroju, co normą prawną, która zakazuje ustawodawcy zwykłemu nadawania charakteru małżeństwa związkom pomiędzy osobami jednej płci (vide: L. Garlicki Komentarz do art. 18 Konstytucji, s. 2-3 [w:] Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. Komentarz, Wydawnictwo Sejmowe, Warszawa 2003). Jest wobec tego oczywiste, że małżeństwem w świetle Konstytucji i co za tym idzie - w świetle polskiego prawa, może być i jest wyłącznie związek heteroseksualny, a więc w związku małżeńskim małżonkami nie mogą być osoby tej samej płci.
  434. "Judgment of the Supreme Administrative Court of Poland of 28 February 2018, II OSK 1112/16". art. 18 Konstytucji RP, który definiuje małżeństwo jako związek kobiety i mężczyzny, a tym samym wynika z niego zasada nakazująca jako małżeństwo traktować w Polsce jedynie związek heteroseksualny.
    • Gallo D, Paladini L, Pustorino P, eds. (2014). Same-Sex Couples before National, Supranational and International Jurisdictions. Berlin: Springer. p. 215. ISBN 9783642354342. the drafters of the 1997 Polish Constitution included a legal definition of a marriage as the union of a woman and a man in the text of the constitution in order to ensure that the introduction of same-sex marriage would not be passed without a constitutional amendment.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
    • Marek Safjan, Leszek Bosek, eds. (2016). Konstytucja RP. Tom I. Komentarz do art. 1-86. Warszawa: C.H. Beck Wydawnictwo Polska. ISBN 9788325573652. Z przeprowadzonej powyżej analizy prac nad Konstytucją RP wynika jednoznacznie, że zamieszczenie w art. 18 Konstytucji RP zwrotu definicyjnego "związek kobiety i mężczyzny" stanowiło reakcję na fakt pojawienia się w państwach obcych regulacji poddającej związki osób tej samej płci regulacji zbliżonej lub zbieżnej z instytucją małżeństwa. Uzupełniony tym zwrotem przepis konstytucyjny "miał pełnić rolę instrumentu zapobiegającego wprowadzeniu takiej regulacji do prawa polskiego" (A. Mączyński, Konstytucyjne podstawy prawa rodzinnego, s. 772). Innego motywu jego wprowadzenia do Konstytucji RP nie da się wskazać (szeroko w tym zakresie B. Banaszkiewicz, "Małżeństwo jako związek kobiety i mężczyzny", s. 640 i n.; zob. też Z. Strus, Znaczenie artykułu 18 Konstytucji, s. 236 i n.). Jak zauważa A. Mączyński istotą tej regulacji było normatywne przesądzenie nie tylko o niemożliwości unormowania w prawie polskim "małżeństw pomiędzy osobami tej samej płci", lecz również innych związków, które mimo tego, że nie zostałyby określone jako małżeństwo miałyby spełniać funkcje do niego podobną (A. Mączyński, Konstytucyjne podstawy prawa rodzinnego, s. 772; tenże, Konstytucyjne i międzynarodowe uwarunkowania, s. 91; podobnie L. Garlicki, Artykuł 18, w: Garlicki, Konstytucja, t. 3, uw. 4, s. 2, który zauważa, że w tym zakresie art. 18 nabiera "charakteru normy prawnej").CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
    • Scherpe JM, ed. (2016). European Family Law Volume III: Family Law in a European Perspective Family. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 121. ISBN 9781785363047. Constitutional bans on same-sex marriage are now applicable in ten European countries: Article 32, Belarus Constitution; Article 46 Bulgarian Constitution; Article L Hungarian Constitution, Article 110, Latvian Constitution; Article 38.3 Lithuanian Constitution; Article 48 Moldovan Constitution; Article 71 Montenegrin Constitution; Article 18 Polish Constitution; Article 62 Serbian Constitution; and Article 51 Ukrainian Constitution.
    • Stewart J, Lloyd KC (2016). "Marriage Equality in Europe". Family Advocate. 38 (4): 37–40. Article 18 of the Polish Constitution limits the institution of marriage to opposite-sex couples.
  435. "IV SA/Wa 2618/18 - Wyrok WSA w Warszawie". 8 January 2019.
  436. "Commentary regarding the ruling of the Administrative Court of Warsaw on January 8, 2019". Ordo Iuris. 12 February 2019.
  437. "Poland".
  438. "Disputed revision to constitution sails through parliament". The Slovak Spectator. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  439. "Adopting in Slovakia". Community.
  440. "Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the EU Member States Part II: The Social Situation" (PDF).
  441. Petit Press a.s. "Law change criminalises homophobia".
  442. "Zakon o registraciji istospolne partnerske skupnosti". (in Slovenian).
  443. "Zakon o partnerski zvezi". (in Slovenian).
  444. "First Adoption by Gay Partner of Child's Parent".
  445. Weber, Nana (25 April 2013). "Sprememba spola v Sloveniji". Pravna Praksa (in Slovenian). GV Založba (16–17). ISSN 0352-0730.
  446. Hirschfeld, Magnus (10 March 2018). The Homosexuality of Men and Women. Prometheus Books. ISBN 9781615926985 via Google Books.
  447., S. W. I.; Corporation, a branch of the Swiss Broadcasting. "Homosexuals a step closer to equal rights". SWI
  448., S. W. I.; Corporation, a branch of the Swiss Broadcasting. "Zurich grants gay couples more rights". SWI
  449. "Le pacs gagne du terrain".
  450. "Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare". (in German).
  451. "13.468 – Parlamentarische Initiative - Ehe für alle". (in German).
  452. fédéral, Le Conseil. "Le nouveau droit de l'adoption entrera en vigueur le 1er janvier 2018".
  453. Council, The Federal. "Switzerland reaffirms its commitment to the fight against discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity".
  454. "Avis de droit OFEC: Transsexualisme" (PDF). Federal Department of Justice and Police (in French). Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  455. "Referendum in Armenia brings constitutional reforms - ILGA-Europe".
  456. "Armenia Central Electoral Commission announces constitutional referendum final results".
  457. "Armenia: Gays live with threats of violence, abuse". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  459. Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher, LL-M. "Belarus - Constitution". Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  460. "Belarus: Attitude towards homosexuals and lesbians in Belarus; state protection available to non-heterosexuals in Belarus with special attention to Minsk (2000-2005)". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 17 January 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  461. "სსიპ "საქართველოს საკანონმდებლო მაცნე"". სსიპ ”საქართველოს საკანონმდებლო მაცნე”.
  462. Masci, David (11 February 2014). "Gay rights in Russia and the former Soviet republics". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  463. "The Constitution of Moldova" (PDF). The Government of Moldova. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  464. "Decizie istorică a CCR în privința căsătoriilor gay". Digi 24. 18 July 2018.
  465. "Romania".
  466. "Russian Gay History".
  467. "ЗАКОН".
  468. Legal Report: Ukraine, COWI (2010)
  469. "Ukraine".
  470. "Redirecting".
  471. "Ukraine's Parliament passes anti-discrimination law".
  472. "Registration form".
  473. The Copenhagen Post, 7 June 2012: Gay marriage legalised] Retrieved 2012-09-19
  474. Homoseksuelle fik ja til ægteskab - Jyllands-Posten.
  475. "Lov om ændring af lov om registreret partnerskab, lov om en børnefamilieydelse og lov om børnetilskud og forskudsvis udbetaling af børnebidrag - Udvidet adgang for registrerede partnere til adoption og overførsel af forældremyndighed m.v. -".
  476. (in Danish) Børneloven
  477. "MSN New Zealand - Latest News, Weather, Entertainment, Business, Sport, Technology".
  478. (in Estonian) "Kooseluseadus". Riigikogu. 9 October 2014.
  479. "Circuit court: Same-sex marriage cannot be considered valid in Estonia". ERR. 24 November 2017.
  481. "Gerðabók" (in Faroese). Løgting. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  482. "Gay News From". 3 January 2007.
  483. "§266b".
  484. "Holdningsskred i synet på homoseksuelle på Færøerne". Information.
  485. Oy, Edita Publishing. "FINLEX ® - Uppdaterad lagstiftning: Lag om registrerat partnerskap 950/2001".
  486. "Finland president signs gay marriage law – couples will have to wait to get married until 2017". Gay Star News.
  487. "Ihmisoikeudet kuuluvat myös transsukupuolisille".
  488. "Lög um breytingu á lagaákvæðum er varða réttarstöðu samkynhneigðra (sambúð, ættleiðingar, tæknifrjóvgun)". Alþingi.
  489. "Lög um breytingar á hjúskaparlögum og fleiri lögum og um brottfall laga um staðfesta samvist (ein hjúskaparlög)". Alþingi.
  490. "Iceland parliament votes for gay marriage". IceNews. 11 June 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  491. "New gay marriage law in Iceland comes into force". Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  492. (in Icelandic) Alþingi Barnalög
  493. "Iceland adopts a new comprehensive law on trans issues".
  494. "President Signs Anti-Gay Constitutional Amendment". UK Gay News. 21 December 2005. Retrieved 12 August 2009.
  495. "Latvia".
  496. "Cik viegli pārvērsties no Ievas par Ādamu?". 14 February 2008.
  497. "Seimas Approves the Proposal on "Cohabitation Agreements" as Alternative to Partnership Law - LGL". 31 May 2017.
  499. "Lithuania".
  500. (in Lithuanian) Lietuvos Respublikos Civilinis kodeksas (Civil Code of the Republic of Lithuania
  501. "Lov om endringer i ekteskapsloven, barnelova, adopsjonsloven, bioteknologiloven mv. (felles ekteskapslov for heterofile og homofile par) - Lovdata".
  502. "Norway Gay Marriage Bill Passes Final Hurdle". Retrieved 17 June 2008.
  503. "Norway passes law approving gay marriage". 17 June 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  504. "Norway".
  505. (in Nynorsk) Lovdata Barnelova
  506. "Svensk författningssamling" (PDF).
  507. "Gays Win Marriage Rights". Sveriges Radio English. 1 April 2009.
  508. "Sweden".
  509. (in Swedish) Sveriges Riksdag Föräldrabalk
  510. Fia Sundevall & Alma Persson (2016) "LGBT in the Military: Policy Development in Sweden 1944–2014", Sexuality Research and Social Policy, June 2016, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 119-129,
  511. "Sweden ends forced sterilization of trans". 11 January 2003.
  512. Criminal Code (Amendment) Ordinance 2000 (PDF)
  513. Criminal Code (consolidated)
  514. Civil Partnership (Armed Forces) Order 2005 (PDF)
  515. Overseas Marriage (Armed Forces) Order 2014 (PDF)
  516. Employment (Equality) Ordinance 2013 (PDF)
  517. "Llei 4/2005, del 21 de febrer, qualificada de les unions estables de parella".
  518. "Llei 34/2014, del 27 de novembre, qualificada de les unions civils i de modificació de la Llei qualificada del matrimoni, de 30 de juny de 1995" (PDF).
  519. "Diari d'Andorra - Enllestida la llei d'unions civils amb el procés d'adopció dels matrimonis".
  520. RTVA, Andorra Difusió. "Demà entren en vigor lleis importants, com la d'unions civils o la 'regla d´or' | Andorra Difusió".
  521. "Data" (PDF).
  522. "Article 46(1), Bulgaria – Constitution". Retrieved 4 October 2009.
  523. "Bulgaria".
  524. "Bulgarian Parliament approves with 93-23 vote (and 23 abstentions) amendments to the Protection from Discrimination Act to include protection against discrimination of trans people". The Sofia Globe. 25 March 2015.
  525. "Bulgarian Parliament Votes on Anti-Discrimination Law Amendments". 25 March 2015.
  526. "In-Cyprus is under construction".
  527. "Army legislation".
  528. "Cyprus: Penal code amended to protect against discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity". PinkNews. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  530. "Gibraltar unanimously legalizes marriage equality". 26 October 2016.
  531. "Equal Opportunities Act 2006" (PDF). 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  532. "ΝΟΜΟΣ 4356/2015 | ΦΕΚ Α 181-2015 | σελίδα 1".
  533. Greece allows same-sex couples to foster children
  534. "Greece improves gender recognition law but misses chance to introduce self-determination". ILGA EUROPE. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  535. "Greece passes gender-change law opposed by Orthodox church". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  536. "Il presidente Mattarella ha firmato la legge sulle unioni civili". 20 May 2016.
  537. "Same-sex marriages performed abroad won't be recognized in Italy". 15 May 2018.
  538. (in Italian) "Adozioni gay, la Corte d'Appello di Roma conferma: sì a due mamme". Corriere della Sera.
  539. (in Italian)"Cassazione, via libera alla stepchild adoption in casi particolari". Repubblica.
  540. (in Italian) "Legge 14 Aprile 1982, n. 164 (GU n. 106 del 19/04/1982) Norme in Materia di Rettificazione di Attribuzione di Sesso". Archived from the original on 23 May 2007.
  541. "Court of Cassation judgment of 21 May 2015" (PDF).
  542. "FAMILY LAW OF KOSOVO - Law Nr.2004/32".
  543. "Adoption Laws in Kosovo: Unmarried persons". State portal of the Republic of Kosovo. Constitution of Kosovo.
  544. "Adoption in Kosovo (Report) - Page 6". OSCE Mission in Kosovo.
  545. "Kosovo Constitution".
  546. "AN ACT to regulate civil unions and to provide for matters connected therewith or ancillary thereto".
  547. "Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Bill". 22 November 2016.
  549. "Information on the rights of minority groups in Montenegro" (PDF). Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  550. "Northern Cyprus Decriminalizes Homosexuality and Protects LGBTs Against Hate Speech".
  551. (in Turkish) Kuzey Kıbrıs’ın “Eşcinsellik Suçu” Yasası Tarihe Karıştı!
  552. (in Portuguese) Law no. 7/2001, from 11 May (specifically Article 1, no. 1).
  553. "AR altera lei das uniões de facto".
  554. Law no. 9/2010, from 30th May.
  555. "Lei 17/2016 de 20 de junho".
  556. "Lei que alarga a procriação medicamente assistida publicada em Diário da República". tvi24. 20 June 2016.
  557. "Todas as mulheres com acesso à PMA a 1 de Agosto". PÚBLICO.
  558. "MEPs welcome new gender change law in Portugal; concerned about Lithuania - The European Parliament Intergroup on LGBTI Rights".
  559. First post-Mediaeval criminal code in the Principality of Serbia, named "Kaznitelni zakon" (Law of Penalties), adopted in 1860, punishes sexual intercourse "against the order of nature" between males with 6 months to 4 years imprisonment. V. Para # 206, p. 82 of the "Kaznitelni zakon 1860" in Slavo-Serbian orthography (PDF)
  560. "Constitution of Serbia". Serbian Government. Retrieved 8 November 2006.
  561. "Donet Pravilnik o načinu izdavanja i obrascu potvrde nadležne zdravstvene ustanove o promeni pola" (in Serbian). Gayten-LGBT. 30 December 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  562. "Ley 1/2001, de 6 de abril, por la que se regulan las uniones de hecho". Noticias Juridicas. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
  563. "Llei 18/2001 de 19 de desembre, de parelles estables" (in Catalan). Govern de les Illes Balears. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  564. "LEY 4/2002, de 23 de mayo, de Parejas Estables" (PDF) (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  565. "DECRETO 117/2002, de 24 de octubre, por el que se crea el Registro de Uniones de Hecho en Castilla y León y se regula su funcionamiento" (PDF) (in Spanish). Junta de Castilla y León. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  566. "Ley de Cantabria 1/2005, de 16 de mayo, de Parejas de Hecho de la Comunidad Autónoma de Cantabria" (in Spanish). Noticias Juridicas. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  567. "Decreto 248/2007, de 20 de diciembre, por el que se crea y se regula el Registro de Parejas de Hecho de Galicia" (in Spanish). Noticias Juridicas. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  568. "Decreto 30/2010, de 14 de mayo, por el que se crea el Registro de Parejas de Hecho de La Rioja" (in Spanish). El Gobierno de La Rioja. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  569. "9L/PPL-0018 | Asamblea Regional de Murcia".
  570. "Murcia será en junio la última comunidad en regular por ley las parejas de hecho". La Verdad. 25 May 2018.
  571. Reglamento regulador del Registro de Uniones de Hecho
  573. "Spain approves liberal gay marriage law". St. Petersburg Times. 1 July 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2007.
  574. "Spain".
  575. (in Spanish) Boletín Oficial del Estado Ley 14/2006, de 26 de mayo, sobre técnicas de reproducción humana asistida (see Article 7)
  576. " - Documento BOE-A-2007-5585".
  577. "Legal Aspects of Gender Reassignment Surgery in Turkey: A Case Report". Indian Journal of Gender Studies. 18 (1): 77–88. 28 January 2011. doi:10.1177/097152151001800104.
  578. "Gesetz zur Einführung des gesetzlichen Zusammenwohnens" (PDF).
  579. "Belgium to follow Holland on gay marriage". RTÉ News. 29 November 2002.
  580. "Belgium legalizes gay marriage". UPI. 31 January 2003.
  581. "Belgium approves same-sex marriage". PlanetOut. 30 January 2003.
  582. "Belgium".
  583. (in French)(in Dutch) Belgian Official Gazette Loi du 5 mai 2014 portant établissement de la filiation de la coparente, as amended by loi du 18 décembre 2014 modifiant le Code civil, le code de droit international privé, le Code consulaire, la loi du 5 mai 2014 portant établissement de la filiation de la coparente et la loi du 8 mai 2014 modifiant le Code civil en vue d’instaurer l’égalité de l’homme et de la femme dans le mode de transmission du nom à l’enfant et à l’adopté
  584. "Loi du 25 juin 2017 réformant des régimes relatifs aux personnes transgenres en ce qui concerne la mention d'une modification de du sexe dans les actes de l'état civil et ses effets/Wet van 25 juni 2017 tot hervorming van regelingen inzake transgenders wat de vermelding van een aanpassing van de registratie van het geslacht in de akten van de burgerlijke stand en de gevolgen hiervan betreft" (PDF).
  585. "Loi n° 99-944 du 15 novembre 1999 relative au pacte civil de solidarité | Legifrance".
  586. Erlanger, Steven (18 May 2013). "Hollande Signs French Gay Marriage Law". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  587. "France".
  588. "France scraps transgender sterilisation". BBC News. 14 October 2016 via
  589. "Sexual Offences (Bailiwick of Guernsey) (Amendment) Law, 2011". 30 October 2012.
  590. "JURIST - Homosexual Offenses and Human Rights in Guernsey".
  591. "Data".
  592. "Data".
  593. "Union civile, Green, marriage, Liberate « Guernsey Press".
  594. "Guernsey votes to legalise same-sex marriage". Gay Times Magazine. 22 September 2016.
  596. "Guernsey law change allows same-sex couples to adopt". BBC News. 24 June 2015.
  597. "The Prevention of Discrimination (Enabling Provisions) (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Law, 2004". Guernsey Legal Resources. 20 March 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  598. "Legal Resources: Legal Resources Navigation List: Guernsey Law Reports 2007–08 GLR 161".
  599. "Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010".
  600. "Thirty-fourth Amendment of the Constitution (Marriage Equality) Bill 2015 (Number 5 of 2015) - Tithe an Oireachtais". 21 January 2015.
  601. "Unmarried gay and heterosexual couples can now adopt a child".
  602. "Gay adoption law due before same-sex marriage referendum". The Irish Times. 21 January 2015.
  603. "FAQs". The Adoption Authority of Ireland.
  604. "Data".
  605. Gartl, Fiona. "Change sought to anomaly in adoption law". The Irish Times.
  606. "Children and Family Relationships Act 2015" (PDF).
  607. "Employment Equality Act, 1998". 18 June 1998. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
  608. "Equal Status Act, 2000". 26 April 2000. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
  609. "Prohibition of Incitement To Hatred Act, 1989".
  610. MacGuill, Dan. ""A historic moment" - Oireachtas signs off on gender recognition bill".
  611. "Civil Partnership Act 2011" (PDF).
  612. "Same-sex Manx marriages can go ahead after Royal Assent". BBC. 19 July 2016. Archived from the original on 19 July 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  613. "EMPLOYMENT ACT 2006" (PDF).
  615. "Gender recognition bill to provide protection to Isle of Man trans residents". PinkNews.
  616. "Civil Partnership (Jersey) Law 2012" (PDF).
  618. "Superintendent Registrar's advice for same-sex marriage planning".
  619. "Draft" (PDF).
  621. "Loi du 9 juillet 2004 relative aux effets légaux de certains partenariats. - Legilux".
  622. "Luxembourg Times - Archives - Same-sex marriages from January 1".
  623. "An Error Occurred: Not Found".
  624. "Mémorial A n° 125 de 2014 - Legilux" (PDF).
  625. "Mémorial A n° 207 de 2006" (PDF).
  626. "Luxembourg makes status change for transgender people easier". Luxembourg Times. 27 July 2018.
  627. Waaldijk, Kees. "Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in the Netherlands" (PDF). INED. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  628. "Gay Marriage Goes Dutch". CBS News. Associated Press. 1 April 2001. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
  629. ttp://
  630. (in Dutch) Staatsblad Wet van 25 november 2013 tot wijziging van Boek 1 van het Burgerlijk Wetboek in verband met het juridisch ouderschap van de vrouwelijke partner van de moeder anders dan door adoptie
  631. Veiligheid, Ministerie van Justitie en. "Prohibition of discrimination".
  632. Dutch Transgender Rights Bill Approved By Senate
  633. "The Netherlands Passes Landmark Gender Identity Law". BuzzFeed News.
  634. "Civil Partnership Act 2004".
  635. "Same-sex marriage now legal as first couples wed". BBC News. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  636. "Northern Ireland (Executive Formation etc) Act 2019". Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  637. "NI parties fail in bid to stop abortion law change". BBC News. 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  638. Thomas, Ellen (20 September 2009). "New legislation sees gay Scottish couples win right to adopt children". The Herald. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  639. "United Kingdom".
  640. Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008: Cases in which woman to be other parent
  641. "Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 (c. 4)".
  642. Participation, Expert. "Public Order Act 1986".
  643. "Relationships Act 2003". Tasmanian Legislation. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  644. "South Australia gays get new rights by Tony Grew (7 December 2006)". Retrieved 3 September 2007.
  645. Relationships Act 2008 (Vic)
  646. "Massive support for register". Star Observer. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  647. Agius, Kym (1 December 2011). "Bligh asks ALP to support gay marriage". Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  648. "Civil Unions Bill 2011". ACT Government. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  649. Chang, Charis (8 December 2017). "Same-sex marriage is now legal in Australia". Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  650. "Australia Ends a Prohibition On Homosexuals in Military". 24 November 1992.
  651. "Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Bill 2013".
  652. "Trans forced divorce laws to stay for now".
  653. "Spouse the new word".
  654. "Marriage equality Bill officially signed into law". 19 April 2013.
  655. Chand, Shalveen (26 February 2010). "Same sex law decriminalised". Fiji Times. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  656. "NEW CALEDONIA CATCHES UP TO FRANCE". Star Observer. 9 June 2009.
  657. Verheyen, Vincent. "Sexual orientation [LGBTQ+] and the draft of the new Solomon Islands Constitution". Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  658. "Beginning today, transgender individuals can join the US military". ABC News. 1 January 2018.
  659. "" (PDF).
  660. "Nauru decriminalises homosexuality". 27 May 2016.
  661. "Crimes Act 2016".
  664. "Palau decriminalises sex between men".
  665. "Sodomy Laws American Samoa". 28 March 2004. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
  666. Sagapolutele, Fili. "gay marriage illegal in American Samoa". USNews. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  667. "American Samoa". National Center for Transgender Equality.
  668. "This island nation is set to decriminalise homosexuality". 3 August 2017.
  669. "Employment Relations Act 2012" (PDF). 2012.
  670. "Pitcairn Island: Same Sex Marriage and Civil Partnership Ordinance 2015".
  671. "Laws - PITCAIRN".
  672. "The Pitcairn Constitution Order 2010" (PDF).
  673. "Labour and Employment Relations Act 2013" (PDF).
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.