Krajina (pronounced [krâjina]) is a Slavic toponym, meaning 'frontier' or 'march'. The term is related with kraj or krai, originally meaning "edge" and today denoting a region or province, usually distant from the metropole.
The Serbo-Croatian word krajina derives from Proto-Slavic *krajina, derived from *krajь, meaning "edge", related to *krojiti, "to cut"; the original meaning of krajina thus seems to have been "place at an edge, fringe, borderland", as reflected in the meanings of Church Slavonic краина, kraina, and Old East Slavic окраина, okraina.
In some South Slavic languages, including Serbo-Croatian and Slovene, the word krajina or its cognate still refers primarily to a border, fringe, or borderland of a country (sometimes with an established military defense), and secondarily to a region, area, or landscape. The word kraj can today mean an end or extremity, or region or area. Archaically extrapolated, it could mean "army" or "war"; this meaning developed from the earlier meaning of "borderland" in a manner analogous to the French word campagne. The term is equal to German Mark and French marche.
In other Slavic languages (including the Chakavian and Kajkavian dialects of Serbo-Croatian), the term has other meanings, either a territorial name (cf. Krajna in Poland, from Old Polish kraina, meaning region, borderland, extremity) or word with meaning "a land, landscape" (e.g. in Polish, Slovak, Czech or Sorbian).
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Bosanska Krajina, around Banja Luka and encompassing a larger area, also on older maps called Turkish Croatia; westwards from Vrbas river, on the NW from Završje (on older maps, Završje is a part of Croazia Turca, Türkisch Kroatien, Török Horvátország )
- Cazinska Krajina, borderland of Bosnia towards Croatia around the city of Cazin. Today it is considered as Una-Sana Canton.
- Krayna vu Otoce: medieval Glagolitic name of Gacka valley in Lika highlands
- Cetinska krajina, area along the valley of river Cetina in the southern Croatia, in Zagora, to the east from Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegovina), mostly containing Sinjsko polje
- Drniška krajina, area around the city of Drniš in southern Croatia, in Zagora, to west from Cetinska krajina
- Imotska krajina, area around the city of Imotski, in southern Croatia, in Zagora mostly containing Imotsko polje, to east from Cetinska and Omiška krajina, to west from Vrgoračka krajina; also the name of the soccer club from Imotski
- Istarska krajina, historical region in western Croatia, central area of peninsula of Istria
- Kninska Krajina, region around Knin in southern Croatia, to north from Drniška krajina and northeast from Cetinska krajina
- Neretvanska krajina, historical area westwards from river of Neretva, southwest from župa Imota
- Omiška krajina, region in hinterland of city of Omiš, in Croatian south, in Zagora; to east from Cetinska krajina, to west from Cetinska krajina
- municipality of Krajina, a municipality in southern Croatia, located between Split and Imotski, existed from 1912–1945
- Sinjska krajina, area in Zagora, in southern Croatia, around the city of Sinj, west from Livanjski kraj, southeast from Vrlička krajina (sometimes considered as part of Cetinska krajina)
- Vrgoračka krajina, area in Zagora, in southern Croatia, around the city of Vrgorac, southwest from Herzegovina and west from Neretva valley, to east from Imotska krajina
- Vrlička krajina, area in Zagora, in southern Croatia, around the city of Vrlika, west from Livanjski kraj, northwest from Cetinska krajina (sometimes considered as part of Cetinska krajina)
- Krajina is also a Croat surname
- a part of peri-littoral area near Makarska in Croatia is called Krajina (see reference)
Subdivisions of Austria-Hungary:
- Military Frontier (Serbo-Croatian: Vojna krajina, German: Militärgrenze), borderland of Austrian Empire against the Ottoman Empire. It was further divided into:
Political units formed by rebel Serbs at the beginning of the Croatian War of Independence (1991–95):
- Republic of Serbian Krajina (1991–95)
- SAO Krajina
- SAO Kninska Krajina, Kninska Krajina since the Yugoslav wars is used by some to signify two regions Knin and its surroundings, and to a larger extent Krajina proper (referring to main portion of Republic of Serb Krajina).
- SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia, sometimes called Podunavska Krajina
Political unit formed by Serbs in the prelude (1991) of the Bosnian War (1992–95):
Where the term "Serbian Krajina" or "Krajina" alone is used, it most often refers to the former Republic of Serbian Krajina.
- In Russian, kray (край) is the word for the territories of Russia, a second-level subdivision
- In Slovak, kraj is used for the regions of Slovakia, a first-level subdivision
In Czech Republic:
- In Czech, kraj is used for the regions of the Czech Republic, a first-level subdivision
- Rick Derksen (2008), Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon, Brill: Leiden-Boston, page 244
- “*krajina” in Oleg Trubačóv (ed.) (1974–), Этимологический словарь славянских языков [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages], Moscow: Nauka, volume 12, pages 87-88
- Max Vasmer (1986), Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkogo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language], in 4 vols (second edition), Moscow: Progress — Translated from German and supplemented by O. N. Trubačóv
- Group of authors (1969). "Кра̏јина". Речник српскохрватскога књижевног језика, vol. 3 (in Serbo-Croatian). Novi Sad/Zagreb: Matica srpska/Matica hrvatska. p. 30.
- Group of authors (1972). "Krajina". In colonel-general Nikola Gažević (ed.). Vojna enciklopedija, vol. 4 (in Serbo-Croatian). Belgrade. p. 681.
- Pándi Lajos - Köztes Európa 1756-1997
- Croatia in 1073
- (in Croatian) Excerpt from the book I. Marinović, B. Šutić, M. Viskić: Baćina: Prošlost Baćine, Udruga Pagania, Ploče, 2005, ISBN 953-95132-0-0
- (in Croatian) Povijest
- Karlo Jurišić, Lepantska pobjeda i makarska Krajina, Adriatica maritima, sv. I, (Lepantska bitka, Udio hrvatskih pomoraca u Lepantskoj bitki 1571. godine), Institut JAZU u Zadru, Zadar, 1974., str. 217., 222., (reference from Morsko prase)