The Zvezda Kh-35 (Russian: Х-35 , AS-20 'Kayak') is a Soviet turbojet subsonic cruise[8] anti-ship missile. The same missile can also be launched from helicopters, surface ships and coastal defence batteries with the help of a rocket booster, in which case it is known as Uran ('Uranus', SS-N-25 'Switchblade', GRAU 3M24) or Bal ('Ball', SSC-6 'Sennight', GRAU 3K60). It is designed to attack vessels up to 5,000 tonnes.[2]

(NATO reporting name: AS-20 'Kayak')
3M24 Uran (SS-N-25 'Switchblade')
3K60 Bal (SSC-6 'Sennight')
Kh-35E in MAKS-2009
surface-to-surface missile
cruise missile
anti-ship missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service2003
Used byRussian Navy
Indian Navy
Vietnamese People's Navy
Production history
ManufacturerTactical Missiles Corporation
Unit cost$500,000 (2010)[1]
Produced1996 for export, 2003 for Russia
Mass520 kg (1,150 lb)[2]
610 kg (1,340 lb)[2] (heli version)
Length385 cm (152 in)[2]
440 cm (173 in)[2] (heli version)
Diameter42.0 cm (16.5 in)[2]
WarheadHE fragmentation shaped charge
Warhead weight145 kg (320 lb)[2]

EngineR95TP-300 Turbojet[3] Kh-35 / Turbofan Kh-35U
360 kgf
Wingspan133 cm (52.4 in)[2]
130 km (70 nmi)
300 km (160 nmi) (upgrade version, 2015)[4]
Flight altitude10-15 m en route and about 4 m at terminal area
SpeedMach 0.8–Mach 0.95 (609–723 mph; 980–1,164 km/h)
inertial guidance and ARGS-35E X-band terminal active radar homing[5]
Tupolev Tu-142, Su-24, MiG-29M/K, Sukhoi Su-35, Su-27SM, Su-30MKI//SM, Su-34, HAL Tejas, Ka-27, Ka-28,[2][6] Ka-52, T-50,[7] also ships and boats, coastal, LACM, TEL variants.


Zvezda started work on the Kh-35 in 1983 by a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers and the USSR CPSU Central Committee to arm ships of medium tonnage.


The Kh-35 missile is a subsonic weapon featuring a normal aerodynamic configuration with cruciform wings and fins and a semisubmerged air duct intake. The propulsion unit is a turbofan engine. The missile is guided to its target at the final leg of the trajectory by commands fed from the active radar homing head and the radio altimeter.[2]

Target designation data can be introduced into the missile from the launch aircraft or ship or external sources. Flight mission data is inserted into the missile control system after input of target coordinates. An inertial system controls the missile in flight, stabilizes it at an assigned altitude and brings it to a target location area. At a certain target range, the homing head is switched on to search for, lock on and track the target. The inertial control system then turns the missile toward the target and changes its flight altitude to an extremely low one. At this altitude, the missile continues the process of homing by the data fed from the homing head and the inertial control system until a hit is obtained.

The Kh-35 can be employed in fair and adverse weather conditions at sea states up to 5-6, by day and night, under enemy fire and electronic countermeasures. Its aerodynamic configuration is optimized for high subsonic-speed sea-skimming flight to ensure stealthy characteristics of the missile. The missile has low signatures thanks to its small dimensions, sea-skimming capability and a special guidance algorithm ensuring highly secure operational modes of the active radar seeker.

Its ARGS-35E active radar seeker operates in both single and multiple missile launch modes, acquiring and locking on targets at a maximum range of up to 20 km.[9] A new radar seeker, Gran-KE has been developed by SPE Radar MMS[10] and will be replacing the existing ARGS-35E X band seeker.[11]

[9][12] Kh-35 Kh-35U
Length: Ship/Land/Heliborne
4.4 m (14 ft)
3.85 m (12.6 ft)
0.42 m (17 in)
1.33 m (4.4 ft)
Weight: Ship/Land-based
620 kg (1,370 lb)
520 kg (1,150 lb)
610 kg (1,340 lb)
670 kg (1,480 lb)
550 kg (1,210 lb)
650 kg (1,430 lb)
Guidance Inertial, active radar Inertial, satellite navigation, active/passive radar
Range 130 km (81 mi; 70 nmi) 7–260 km (4–162 mi; 4–140 nmi)
Seeker range 20 km (12 mi; 11 nmi) 50 km (31 mi; 27 nmi)
Speed Mach 0.8 (609 mph; 980 km/h) Mach 0.8–Mach 0.85 (609–647 mph; 980–1,041 km/h)
Cruising altitude
Terminal altitude
10–15 m
4 m
Warhead 145 kg (320 lb) HE penetrator 145 kg (320 lb) penetrating HE frag

Operational history

The Kh-35 missile entered service in 2003. In July 2003, the system created by the "Tactical Missiles Corporation" successfully passed the state tests and began to come into service of ships of the Russian Navy. Today it is generally accepted that in the criterion of "cost-effectiveness", "Uran-E" is one of the best systems in the world.[13] It has also been acquired by India.[14] The Bal coastal missile system in the fall of 2004 showed excellent results in the state tests and entered service in 2008.[15]

A Bal system has four self-propelled launcher vehicles each carrying eight missiles for a total of 32 missiles in a salvo, plus reloads for another wave. The launchers can be up to 10 km from the coast and hit targets at ranges up to 120 km (75 mi; 65 nmi).[16] Currently, the Bal system is equipped with an upgraded version of the Kh-35E increasing range to 300 km (190 mi; 160 nmi).[17][18] At IMDS 2019, a new version of the Russian Bal-E coastal defence system was presented for the 1st time. The 4-tube Rubezh-ME, dedicated to the export market, is based on a Kamaz 63501 8x8 chassis which is more compact than the MZKT-7930 of the original Bal-E.[19][20]

From 2001-2015, Russia supplied Vietnam with 198 Kh-35E missiles for sea-based use. By June 2016, Vietnam was planning to start serial production of their indigenous KCT-15 anti-ship missile based on the Kh-35E, covering three types of Kh-35E missiles for sea-launched, air-launched, and coastal defense as part of the 3K60 Bal/SSC-6 Sennight mobile coastal defense system.[21]


  • Kh-35 (3M-24) - Base naval version for Russia (2003).[9]
  • Kh-35E (3M-24E) - Export version of Kh-35 (1996).
  • Kh-35U - Base upgrade unified missile (can be used with any carrier), version for Russia in production (as of July 1, 2015).[12][22] Capable of striking land targets.[7]
  • Kh-35UE[23] - Export version of Kh-35U, in production.
  • Kh-35V - Version for Russia, launched from a helicopter.
  • 3M-24EMV - Export version of Kh-35 missile-target without warhead for Vietnam.
  • Kh-35 Uran/Uran-E (SS-N-25 'Switchblade', 3M-24) - Shipborne equipment of the control system with a missile Kh-35/Kh-35E.[24]
  • Bal/Bal-E - Coastal (SSC-6 Sennight) missile complex with Kh-35/Kh-35E missiles (2008).
  • KN-09 Kumsong/GeumSeong-3 (Venus 3 금성3호 金星3号) - KN0v 0x 01, KN19 Reported North Korean copy of the Kh-35U. Kumsong-3 is North Korean domestic variant/clone of Kh-35 likely based on Kh-35U due to range.[25] Demonstrated range in 2017, June 8 test is 240 km.[26] .
  • Kh-37 or Kh-39 - possible name for nuclear-tipped variant.
  • KCT-15 - License-produced Kh-35E by Vietnam.[21]
  • Neptune - Ukrainian derivative


Current operators

  •  Algeria
  •  Azerbaijan – Bal Coastal missile complex suspended[27]
  •  India
  •  Iran
  •  Russia – 112 Kh-35 (3M-24) delivered in 2009-2010.[28]
    • The Russian Navy has deployed 4 Bal coastal missile brigades, each of 16 mobile launch systems as of October 2016.[29]
      • 11th Black Sea Fleet Brigade, Utash, Krasnodar
      • 46th Separate Division of the Caspian Flotilla, Dagestan
      • 15th Black Sea Fleet Brigade, Sevastopol, Crimea
      • 72nd Pacific Fleet Regiment, Smolyaninovo, Primorsky Krai.
      • At least one more complex was delivered to the Western Military District in mid-2016.[30]
      • Two Bal missile systems delivered in 2017 and one more in November 2018 for the BSF.[31][32][33] One more system in 2019 for the PF.[34]
    • The Russian Air Force has acquired since 2014 an unknown number of Kh-35U missiles integrated with the Sukhoi Su-35S fighter aircraft and the Sukhoi Su-34 fighter-bombers.[35][36][37]
  •  Venezuela – Bal Coastal missile complex being delivered.
  •  Vietnam – 198 Kh-35E missiles delivered in 2001-2015. The missile is also license-produced as KCT-15 by Vietnam.[38]
  •  Myanmar Navy
  •  North Korea – Kh-35U derivative Kumsong GeumSeong-3 (Venus 3) 금성3호 金星3号[39]
mobile coastal defence (anti ship) KN-19 on a tracked chassis

See also

Notes and references

  1. annual report Tactical Missiles Corporation 2010.p. 92
  2. Rosoboronexport Air Force Department and Media & PR Service, AEROSPACE SYSTEMS export catalogue (PDF), Rosoboronexport State Corporation, p. 123, archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-30
  4. "Новая ракета X-35: гроза американских эсминцев". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  5. Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2011. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. Russia's New 5th Generation Fighter Jet Just Turned Into a Deadly 'Ship Slayer' -, 3 May 2017
  9. "Tactical Missiles Corporation JSC Kh-35E". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  10. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2011-09-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. "Russia: JSC Tactical Missile Arms Presents New Target Seeker". Naval Today. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  12. "Tactical Missiles Corporation JSC Kh-35UE". Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  13. ""Уран-Э": рождение конструкторского замысла". Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  14. "Kh-37", Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, 2008-08-01
  15. "/". Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  16. Bal-E coastal missile system with Kh-35 antiship missile to defend Russia coast of Caspian Sea -, 5 December 2011
  17. Russia's Bal-E coastal defense system to be equipped with upgraded Kh-35 missile -, 28 October 2015
  21. Vietnam to launch Kh-35-based Anti-ship Missile Production -, 12 June 2016
  22. "ТАСС: Армия и ОПК - "Тактическое ракетное вооружение" за три года запустило в серию 14 видов ракет". ТАСС. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  23. "Kh-35UE". Rosoboronexport.
  24. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-09-11. Retrieved 2012-04-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. «Коммерсантъ» узнал об отказе Москвы поставить ракетные комплексы Баку
  28. Annual report Tactical Missiles Corporation 2010.p. 92
  29. "Береговой ракетный комплекс "Бал" поступил на Тихоокеанский флот". Archived from the original on 16 January 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  35. "Kh-35U ASM enters Su-35S fighter jet weapon package". Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  38. "Vietnam to launch Kh-35-based Anti-ship Missile Production". 12 June 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  39. "Trade Registers". Retrieved 19 December 2014.

External sources

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