Ken Rosewall

Kenneth Robert Rosewall AM, MBE (born 2 November 1934) is a former world top-ranking amateur and professional tennis player from Australia. He won a record 23 tennis Majors,[2] including 8 Grand Slam singles titles and, before the Open Era, a record 15 Pro Slam titles;[3] overall, he reached a record 35 Major finals. He won the Pro Grand Slam in 1963. Rosewall won 9 slams in doubles with a career doubles grand slam. He is considered to be one of the greatest tennis players of all time.[4][5] He had a renowned backhand and enjoyed a long career at the highest levels from the early 1950s to the early 1970s. Rosewall was one of the two best male players for about nine years and was the World No. 1 player for a number of years in the early 1960s. He was ranked among the top 20 players, amateur or professional, every year from 1952 through 1977. Rosewall is the only player to have simultaneously held Pro Grand Slam titles on three different surfaces (1962–1963). At the 1971 Australian Open he became the first male player during the open era to win a Grand Slam tournament without dropping a set. Rosewall won pro world championship tours in 1963, 1964, and the WCT titles in 1971 and 1972.

Ken Rosewall
Full nameKenneth Robert Rosewall
Country (sports) Australia
ResidenceSydney, Australia
Born (1934-11-02) 2 November 1934
Sydney, Australia
Height1.70 m (5 ft 7 in)
Turned pro1956
PlaysRight-handed (one-handed backhand), born left-handed
Prize moneyUS$ 1,602,700
Int. Tennis HoF1980 (member page)
Career record1655–627 (72.5%) (during pre Open Era & Open Era)[1]
Career titles133 (35 listed by the ATP)
Highest rankingNo. 1 (1960, Lance Tingay)
Grand Slam Singles results
Australian OpenW (1953, 1955, 1971, 1972)
French OpenW (1953, 1968)
WimbledonF (1954, 1956, 1970, 1974)
US OpenW (1956, 1970)
Other tournaments
TOCF (1958)
Tour FinalsRR – 3rd (1970)
WCT FinalsW (1971, 1972)
Professional majors
US ProW (1963, 1965)
Wembley ProW (1957, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963)
French ProW (1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966)
Career record211–113 (Open Era)
Career titles14 listed by the ATP
Grand Slam Doubles results
Australian OpenW (1953, 1956, 1972)
French OpenW (1953, 1968)
WimbledonW (1953, 1956)
US OpenW (1956, 1969)
Mixed doubles
Career record21–6
Career titles1
Grand Slam Mixed Doubles results
French OpenSF (1953)
WimbledonF (1954)
US OpenW (1956)
Team competitions
Davis CupW (1953, 1955, 1956, 1973)

A natural left-hander, he was taught by his father to play right-handed. He developed a powerful and effective backhand but never had anything more than an accurate but relatively soft serve. He was 1.70 m (5 ft 7 in) tall, weighed 67 kg (148 lb) and was ironically nicknamed "Muscles" by his fellow-players because of his lack of them. He was, however, fast, agile, and tireless, with a deadly volley. His sliced backhand was his strongest shot, and, along with the very different backhand of former player Don Budge, has generally been considered one of the best, if not the best, backhands yet seen.[6]

The father of two and grandfather of five, Rosewall now lives in northern Sydney.

Early life and tennis

Rosewall was born on 2 November 1934 in Hurstville, Sydney. His father, Robert Rosewall, was a grocer at Penshurst, New South Wales and when Ken was one year old they moved to the Rockdale where his father bought three clay tennis courts.[7] Ken started playing tennis at age three with a shortened racket and using both hands for forehand and backhand shots.[8] They practiced early in the morning, focusing on playing one type of shot for a period of weeks. He was a natural left-hander but was taught to play right-handed by his father. He played his first tournament when he was nine and lost to the eventual winner. At age eleven Rosewall won the Metropolitan Hardcourt Championships for under fourteen.[9] In 1949 at age 14 he became the junior champion at the Australian Hardcourt Championships in Sydney, the youngest player to win an Australian title.[10][11]

Tennis career

Amateur career: 1950 through 1956

In October 1950 at the age of 15 and still a junior player, Rosewall reached the semifinals of the 1950 New South Wales Metropolitan Championships (not to be confused with the New South Wales Championships), where he was defeated by the world-class adult player Ken McGregor.[12] The following year, he won his first men's tournament in Manly.

In 1952, still only 17, Rosewall reached the quarterfinals of the U.S. Championships, upsetting the top-seeded Vic Seixas in the fourth round in five sets before losing to Gardnar Mulloy in five sets.[13] In his end-of-year rankings, the British tennis expert Lance Tingay ranked Rosewall and Lew Hoad, his equally youthful doubles partner, jointly as the tenth best amateur players in the world.[14]

Rosewall was only 18 years old when, in 1953, he won his first singles title at a Grand Slam event after defeating compatriot Mervyn Rose at the Australian Championships.[15] He also won the French Championships and the Pacific Southwest Championships. He was the top seed at Wimbledon but lost the quarterfinal match to Kurt Nielsen.[16] Rosewall reached the semifinals at the U.S. Championships, where he was defeated by Tony Trabert in straight sets.[17] He lost again to Trabert in the Challenge Round of the Davis Cup in Melbourne in three sets. Rosewall, however, won the fifth and deciding rubber of that tie, defeating Seixas in four sets.[18] At the end of the year, Tingay placed Trabert first and Rosewall second in his annual amateur rankings.

In 1954, Rosewall defeated Trabert in a five-set semifinal at Wimbledon but lost the final to crowd-favorite Jaroslav Drobný in four sets.[19]

Rosewall won the singles title at the Australian Championships for the second time in 1955, defeating Hoad in the final in three sets. He did not play in the 1955 French Championships because it did not fit in the preparation of the Australian team for the Davis Cup. At the U.S. Championships, Trabert defeated Rosewall in the final in three sets.

In 1956, Rosewall and Hoad captured all the Grand Slam men's doubles titles except at the French Championships, from which Rosewall was absent. For several years in their youthful careers, Rosewall and Hoad were known as "The Gold-dust Twins." In singles, Rosewall lost to Hoad in the final of two Grand Slam tournaments. At the Australian Championships, Hoad defeated Rosewall in four sets and at Wimbledon, Hoad won in four sets. Rosewall, however, prevented Hoad from winning the Grand Slam when Rosewall won their final at the U.S. Championships in four sets.

During his amateur career, Rosewall helped Australia win three Davis Cup Challenge Rounds (1953, 1955 and 1956). Rosewall won 15 of the 17 Davis Cup singles rubbers he played those years, including the last 14 in a row.

Professional career: 1957 through March 1968

Promoter and former tennis great Jack Kramer tried unsuccessfully to sign the "Whiz Kids" (Lew Hoad and Rosewall) to professional contracts in late 1955. But one year later, Rosewall accepted Kramer's offer on 30 Dec, 1956.[20] Rosewall, during the Challenge Round of the Davis Cup, tried to convince his partner Hoad to do the same, but he rejected the proposition.[21]


Rosewall played his first professional match on 14 January 1957, at Kooyong Stadium in Melbourne against the reigning king of professional tennis, Pancho Gonzales who won after a close five-set match.[22] The following day Rosewall defeated Gonzales in straight sets.[23] Rosewall explained later that there was a huge gap between the amateur level and the professional level. In their series of head-to-head matches in Australia and the U.S. (until May), Gonzales won 50 matches to Rosewall's 26. During this period, Rosewall also entered two tournaments, the Ampol White City Tournament of Champions at Sydney in February and the U.S. Pro in Cleveland, Ohio in April. At both events he was defeated in the semifinal in straight sets; by Frank Sedgman (second best pro in 1956) and Pancho Segura (third best pro in 1956), respectively.[24] At the Forest Hills Tournament of Champions, a round robin event held in New York, Rosewall defeated Segura and Hoad but lost to Gonzales, Sedgman and Trabert to finish in joint third place.[24]

In September, Rosewall won the Wembley Pro title, beating Segura in a five-set final. This was a significant victory for Rosewall because, of the top professional players, only Sedgman and Tony Trabert did not play. At the end of the year, Rosewall won an Australian tour featuring Lew Hoad, Sedgman, and Segura.[25] Rosewall was offered an undercard position against Trabert for the 1958 world championship tour, but declined.


At the Kooyong Tournament of Champions at Kooyong in January, the richest tournament of the era, Rosewall finished in fourth place, beating Trabert and Segura, but losing to Sedgman, Hoad, and Gonzales. Rosewall was the runner-up at the Forest Hills Tournament of Champions in June. Both he and Gonzales won five round robin matches and lost one but Gonzales claimed the title as he won their head-to-head encounter. Rosewall tied for second (with Pancho Gonzales and Sedgman) behind an undefeated Segura in the Masters Round Robin Pro in Los Angeles in July. Those tournaments were among the most important of the year. Kramer designated Forest Hills, Kooyong, Sydney, and Los Angeles as the four major pro tennis tournaments.[26][27] In September, Rosewall had the opportunity to show that he was still one of the best players on clay. The previous year, no French Professional Championships (also known as the "World Pro Championships on Clay" when organised at Stade Roland Garros) had been held. This tournament returned in 1958, and Rosewall beat Jack Kramer, Frank Sedgman to reach the final in which he defeated an injured Lew Hoad in four sets to claim the title.[28] At the Wembley Pro, Rosewall lost a close five set semi-final to Trabert.


In the AMPOL points standings in February, part of a fifteen tournament world circuit, Rosewall finished second with 12 points behind Hoad with 13.[29][30][31] For the first time since he turned professional, Rosewall had a favourable 6–4 win-loss record against Pancho Gonzales for the year. Rosewall won both editions of the Queensland Pro Championships in Brisbane, both included in the Ampol world tour, defeating Tony Trabert in the January final in five sets and Gonzales in the December final in four sets.[32] At the Forest Hills Tournament of Champions, Rosewall lost a close semi-final to Hoad in four sets, and beat Trabert to win third place.[33] At the Roland Garros World Professional Championships, Rosewall lost in the semi-final to Trabert, and was beaten by Hoad in the third place match.[34] At the White City Tournament of Champions in Sydney in early December, Rosewall lost in the semif-final to Gonzales in three straight sets.[35] In the final Ampol tournament in the world series, played at Kooyong from December 26, 1959 to January 2, 1960, Rosewall finished runner-up to Hoad, losing the deciding match to Hoad in four close sets. Kramer acclaimed this match as one of the greatest ever played. Rosewall finished third on the Ampol world championship tour with 41 bonus points, behind Hoad in first place (51 bonus points), and Gonzales in second place (43 bonus points). Rosewall was 2 wins and 6 losses against Hoad on the Ampol tour, and 3 wins and 1 loss against Gonzales on the tour.


The following year Rosewall was incorporated in a new World Pro tour, from January to May, featuring Gonzales, Segura and new recruit Alex Olmedo. This tour was perhaps the peak of Gonzales's entire career. The finals standings were: 1) Gonzales 49 matches won – 8 lost, 2) Rosewall 32–25, 3) Segura 22–28, 4) Olmedo 11–44. Rosewall was therefore far behind Gonzales on this tour, the American having won almost all their direct confrontations (20 wins for Gonzales to 5 wins for Rosewall). Halfway through the North American part of the tour the standings were Gonzales 23–1 (his only match lost in three sets to Olmedo in Philadelphia) and Rosewall 11–13.[36]

Just after Gonzales played and won a minor tournament on 16 May 1960 he decided to retire (as often it was temporary because rapidly needing money Gonzales was back on 30 December 1960). In the absence of Gonzales, Rosewall became the leader, winning six tournaments including the two main tournaments of the year, the French Pro at Roland Garros, defeating Hoad in the final in four sets, and Wembley Pro, defeating Segura.[37][38] Hoad won four tournaments in 1960, defeating Rosewall in all four finals.[39]


After ten years of World touring, Rosewall decided to take several long breaks in order to spend time with his family and entered no competitions in the first half of 1961, withdrawing from Kramer's World Professional Championship tour. He trained his long-time friend Hoad when the pros toured in Australia where Gonzales, back to the courts after a 7 12-month retirement, won another World tour featuring Hoad (withdrew with injury), Olmedo (replacing Rosewall), Gimeno and the two new recruits MacKay and Buchholz (Segura, Trabert, Cooper and Sedgman sometimes replaced the injured players).

In the summer Rosewall returned to the circuit and won the two biggest tournaments (all the best players participating[40][41]): the French Pro (clay) and Wembley Pro (wood). At the French he captured the title by beating Gonzales in the final in four sets, and at Wembley he defeated Hoad in the final.[42]

In the summer Rosewall won a short head-to-head tour of France over Gonzales 4-2 and had a 7-4 edge over Gonzales for the entire year.[43]

Rosewall teamed with Hoad to win the inaugural Kramer Cup trophy (the pro equivalent of the Davis Cup) in South Africa. Rosewall lost to Trabert in the first rubber, but defeated MacKay to set up the fifth and deciding rubber between Hoad and Trabert.

After having won on clay and on wood Rosewall ended the season by winning on grass at the New South Wales Pro Championships in Sydney, defeating Butch Buchholz in the final, cementing his status as the best all-court player that year.[44]

Although Gonzales had won Kramer's 1961 World Professional Championship tour, later in the year Rosewall won both Wembley Pro and French Pro,[45] where Gonzales was reported in one source to lose his title.[46] The USPLTA reported Rosewall as the world No. 1 ranked pro followed by Gonzales and Trabert.[47] Robert Roy of L'Équipe[48], Kléber Haedens and Philippe Chatrier of Tennis de France[49], Michel Sutter (who has published "Vainqueurs 1946–1991 Winners")[50], Christian Boussus (1931 French Championship amateur finalist), Peter Rowley, Robert Geist[51], Tony Trabert, John Newcombe, Rod Laver and also the New York Times and World Tennis magazine[52] considered Rosewall as the new No. 1 in the world.


In 1962 Rosewall was the leading pro, winning most pro tournaments of all the players during the year. [53] He retained his Wembley Pro and French Pro crowns and also won tournaments at Adelaide, Melbourne, Christchurch, Auckland, Geneva, Milan and Stockholm.[53] There was no World Series in 1962 and many of the top pros (Rosewall included) did not play pro matches in America during the year.[53]

Per records found, Rosewall lost only 8 matches in 1962 : Hoad twice (in the Adelaide Professional Indoor Tournament and in the Australian TV series tournament), Gimeno, Ayala, Buchholz, Segura, Anderson and Robert Haillet.


In an Australasian tour (Australia and New Zealand) played on grass for the Australian portion, Rosewall defeated Laver 11 matches to 2.

A US tour followed with Rosewall defending his world pro title[54][55][56][57] against Laver, Gimeno, Ayala and two Americans: Butch Buchholz and Barry MacKay (Hoad was recovering from a shoulder injury). Rosewall entered as defending world pro titlist. In the first phase of this tour, lasting two and a half months, each player faced each other about eight times. Rosewall ended first (31 matches won – 10 lost in front of Laver (26–16), Buchholz (23–18), Gimeno (21–20), MacKay (12–29) and Ayala (11–30)). In this round-robin phase Rosewall beat Laver in the first 5 meetings, ensuring thus a 13-match winning streak (in counting the last 8 matches in Australasia) and Laver won the last 3. Then a second and final phase of the tour opposed the first (Rosewall) and the second (Laver) of the first phase to determine the final winner (the third (Buchholz) met the fourth (Gimeno)). In 18 matches Rosewall beat Laver 14 times to conquer the US tour first place (Gimeno beat Buchholz 11–7) and thus successfully defended his world pro title.[58]

In mid-May the tournament season started. In those occasions Rosewall only beat Laver 4–3 and won 5 tournaments (the same as Laver), but in particular he won the three main tournaments of the year 1963: chronologically the U.S. Pro at Forest Hills (without Gimeno and Sedgman) on grass where he defeated Laver in three straight sets, neither Rosewall nor Laver receiving any payment for the event.[59] the French Pro at Coubertin on wood where his opponent in the final was again Laver who later praised his victor: "I played the finest tennis I believe I've ever produced, and he beat me",[60] Rosewall won the Wembley Pro for the fourth consecutive time after a four-sets win against Hoad in the final. In those tournaments Rosewall won three times while Laver reached two finals and one quarterfinal (Wembley). Rosewall then beat Laver 34 matches to 12.


In early 1964, Rosewall finished third behind Hoad and Laver in a 4-man 24-match tour of New Zealand.

In 1964 Rosewall won one major pro tournament: the French Pro over Laver on an indoor wood surface (at Coubertin). At the end of the South African tour, Rosewall also beat Laver in three straight sets in a Challenge Match considered by some as a World Championship match, on cement, held in Ellis Park, Johannesburg. In the official pro points rankings (7 points for the winner, 4 points for the finalist, 3 points for third, 2 for fourth place and 1 point to each quarterfinalist) taking into account 19 pro tournaments, Rosewall ended No. 1 in 1964 with 78 points beating No. 2 Laver (70 points) and No. 3 Gonzales (48 points). Nevertheless, that ranking a) brushed aside at least 10 tournaments because McCauley has traced at least 29 pro tournaments played by the touring pros (plus some minor tournaments) and several short tours and b) granted each tournament the same points.

The majority of tennis observers (Joe McCauley, Robert Geist, Michel Sutter) and the players themselves agreed this points rankings for they considered Rosewall the number one in 1964. Rod Laver himself after his triumph over Rosewall at the Wembley Pro said "I’ve still plenty of ambitions left and would like to be the world's No. 1. Despite this win, I am not there yet – Ken is. I may have beaten him more often than he has beaten me this year but he has won the biggest tournaments except here. I’ve lost to other people but Ken hasn’t.".[61]

Laver had a great season and could also claim the top rank. He captured two of the major pro tournaments, a) the U.S. Pro (outside Boston) over Rosewall (suffering from food poisoning) and Gonzales and b) Wembley Pro over Rosewall in one of their best matches ever (Gonzales won arguably the fourth greatest tournament of that year, the U.S. Pro Indoors, at White Plains, defeating in succession Anderson, Laver, Hoad and Rosewall).

In 1964, Rosewall beat Gonzales 13 times out of 17, while Laver was beaten by Gonzales 7 times out of 12. In 1964 Laver had a leading win-loss record against Rosewall of 17–7.[62]


Next year until mid-September Rosewall and Laver were quite equal, the latter winning more tournaments including the US Pro Indoors at New York City and the Masters Pro at Los Angeles but Rosewall won the U.S. Pro on the Longwood C.C. (outside Boston) grass courts crushing Gonzales in three sets and Laver in three sets in the last rounds and again Laver in three sets in the French Pro on the fast wooden courts at Coubertin.


Laver and Rosewall shared all the titles and the finals of the five greatest tournaments. Rosewall won the Madison Square Garden and the French Pro tournaments over Laver, the latter capturing Forest Hills Pro, the U.S. Pro (outside Boston) and Wembley Pro with Rosewall finalist (or second) each time.


Rosewall's decline began in 1967. Not only did Laver reach the apogee of his career, but Gimeno threatened Rosewall's second place. The 20 main tournaments of the year were shared by a) Laver, ten titles including the five biggest ones, all played on fast courts (U.S. Pro, French Pro, Wembley Pro, Wimbledon Pro, Madison Square Garden, World Pro in Oklahoma, Boston Pro (not to be confused with the U.S. Pro), Newport R.R., Johannesburg Ellis Park, Coubertin Pro in April (not to be confused with the French Pro at Coubertin in October), b) Rosewall, six titles (Los Angeles, Berkeley, U.S. Pro Hardcourt in St Louis, Newport Beach, Durban and Cape Town), c) Gimeno, three titles (Cincinnati, East London, Port Elizabeth) and d) Stolle, one tournament (Transvaal Pro). Including lesser tournaments Laver's supremacy was even more obvious: 1) Laver 18 tournaments plus two small tours, 2) Rosewall seven tournaments, 3) Stolle four tournaments and 4) Gimeno three tournaments. In head-to-head matches Rosewall trailed Laver 5–8 and was equal with Gimeno 7–7.

Before 1967 Gimeno always trailed Rosewall in direct confrontations but that year they split their matches. Rosewall defeated Gimeno in Los Angeles, Madison Square Garden, St Louis, Newport, Johannesburg (challenge match), Durban and Wembley whereas Gimeno won in Cincinnati, U.S. Pro, East London, Port Elizabeth, Johannesburg (tournament), Marseille, French Pro.

Forbidden to contest the greatest traditional events, Davis Cup and Grand Slams, during nearly eleven and a half years from 1957 to 30 March 1968, Rosewall reached his best level during this period, in particular from 1960 to 1966, by winning at least 62 tournaments (including 16 less-than-eight-man events) and seven small tours.

Open-closed career: April 1968 through July 1972


During the 1968 season several categories of players coexisted:

  • Amateur players, dependent on their national and international federations, allowed to play the amateur events and open events but forbidden to receive official prize money
  • Registered players, also dependent on their national and international federations, eligible to play the Davis Cup and forbidden to play pro events as an amateur, but authorised to take prize money in the open events (e.g. Okker)
  • Professionals under contract with the National Tennis League (NTL)
  • Professionals under contract with the World Championship Tennis (WCT)
  • Freelance professionals (e.g. Hoad, Ayala, Owen Davidson and Mal Anderson).

In 1968 there were a) an amateur circuit including the Davis Cup (closed to any "contract" professional until 1973) and the Australian Championships, b) two pro circuits: WCT and NTL, which met at four tournaments, and c) an open circuit (with a little more than 10 tournaments). At the beginning of the open era WCT founder Dave Dixon did not allow his players to enter tournaments where NTL players were present: there were no WCT players at the first two open tournaments, the British Hard Court Championships and French Open, while all the NTL players were present. The first tournament where NTL and WCT players competed against each other, was the U.S. Pro, held at Longwood in June. Several events were still reserved to the amateur players between 1968 and 1972.

Two tournaments were at the top in 1968: Wimbledon (a 128-man field), and the US Open (a 100-man field), both played on grass, where all the best players competed. Other notable tournaments that year were the Queen's Club tournament and the greatest pro tournaments where all the NTL and WCT pros competed (but without amateur or registered players) as the U.S. Pro (outside Boston, on grass), the French Pro (coming back to Roland Garros after the 5-edition interlude at Coubertin), the first Pacific Southwest Open in Los Angeles (64-man field) with all the best players present, the Jack Kramer Tournament of Champions at Wembley in November and the Madison Square Garden Pro in December with the four best pros of each organisation.

In this context Rosewall played almost all NTL pro tournaments in 1968, the four "NTL-WCT" tournaments and some open tournaments. He entered his first open tournament at 33 years at Bournemouth on clay (the WCT players did not take part) and defeated Gimeno and Laver to win the first open tennis title. At the French Open, the first Grand Slam tournament of the Open Era, Rosewall confirmed his status of best claycourt player in the world by defeating Laver in the final in four sets.[63] Defeats followed against some of the upcoming 1967 amateur players (Roche twice on grass at the US Pro and at Wimbledon, Newcombe on clay at the French Pro and Okker on grass at the U.S. Open) but his end of the year was better. He reached the semifinals of the US Open, was finalist to Laver at the Pacific Southwest Open, defeating the new US Open winner, Arthur Ashe, and in November captured the Wembley Pro tournament over WCT player, John Newcombe. At age 34 Rosewall was still ranked No. 3 in the world behind Laver and Ashe according to Lance Tingay and Bud Collins.


His true decline, having begun in 1967, was confirmed in 1969. Rosewall was no longer the best claycourt player as Laver had stolen his crown in the final of the French Open at Roland Garros. Rosewall was ranked No. 4 that year by Collins and Tingay and won three tournaments (Bristol, Chicago, Midland).

At age 35 he had won almost all the great events except for Wimbledon, and subsequently this tournament became Rosewall's priority. The Wimbledon crown had eluded him during his 11-year professional career (1957–1967), when he was excluded from entering the event, at a time when he was at his best—particularly between 1961 and 1965 (except 1964) when he was arguably the best grasscourt player in the world. Realising that if he reached the last rounds of the French Open he could be too tired to play well at Wimbledon (as had happened in 1968 and 1969, when he lost in the fourth and third rounds respectively), Rosewall decided not to play the French Open any more in the seventies in order to be in optimal condition for Wimbledon.


Being an NTL player at the beginning of 1970 he didn't play the Australian Open held at the White City Stadium in Sydney in January because NTL boss, George McCall, and his players thought that the prize money was too low for a Grand Slam tournament. In March, a tournament, sponsored by Dunlop, was organised at the same site, with a higher quality field because of better prize-money and a better date. The same class players as in the Australian Open were present and in addition not only the NTL pros participated but also some independent pros, such as Ilie Năstase, who usually did not make the trip to Australia. Laver won the tournament after defeating Rosewall in a five-set final watched by a crowd of 8,000.[64] As both the NTL and the WCT boycotted the Roland Garros tournament because it refused to pay guarantees Rosewall also missed the second Grand Slam tournament of the year.[65][66] All the best players met again at Wimbledon. This time a rested Rosewall reached the final and took Newcombe, his junior by 9 12-years, to five sets but ultimately succumbed.[67] In July Rosewall became a WCT player after that organisation took over the NTL and its players.[68] Two months later at the U.S. Open, one of the two 1970 Grand Slams with all the best players, Rosewall won over Newcombe in their semifinal match in three straight sets before defeating Tony Roche in the final to win his sixth Grand Slam tournament.

To fight against the WCT and NTL promoters, who controlled their own players and did not allow them to compete where they wanted, Kramer introduced the Grand Prix tennis circuit in December 1969, open to all players. The first Grand Prix circuit was held in 1970 and comprised 20 tournaments from April to December. These tournaments gave points according to their categories and the players' performances with the top six ranked players invited to a season-ending tournament called the Masters. All the amateurs and independent pros fully invested themselves in this circuit while the contract pros firstly played their own circuit and eventually played in some Grand Prix tournaments. Rosewall and Laver performed well in both circuits. Rosewall was ranked third in the Grand Prix standings and finished third in the Masters behind winner Stan Smith and his 1970 nemesis Laver.[69] Rosewall earned $140,455 in prize money.

After his 1967–1969 steady decline, 1970 saw a rejuvenated Rosewall who was just one set short of winning the Wimbledon and U.S. Open double.

1970 was a year where no player dominated the circuit, the seven leading tournaments were won by seven different players, and different arguments were given to designate the World No. 1. Some, among them Newcombe and the panel of journalists which made the 1971 WCT draw, considered Laver the best player because he won most tournaments (15), earned the most prize money and had a dominantly positive head-to-head record against both Rosewall (5–0) and Newcombe (3–0). But Laver failed at Wimbledon and the U.S. Open, the two big tournaments, losing each time in the round of 16. Other tennis pundits, as Joe McCauley (World Tennis) or Lance Tingay (Daily Telegraph), narrowly ranked Newcombe first because he won the most prestigious tournament, Wimbledon with Rosewall second and Laver third (McCauley) or fourth (Tingay). Judith Elian of the French sports paper L'Équipe ranked Rosewall as the number one player ahead of Newcombe and the panel of experts for the 'Martini and Rosso' Cup also had Rosewall first, narrowly over Laver. Meanwhile, in his book (see above) Robert Geist ranked the three Australians equal number ones[70].[full citation needed,self-published?]


After his runner-up finishes at Sydney and Wimbledon and his victory at the US Open in 1970, Rosewall continued his good performances in 1971 in the great grass court tournaments. One year after the first Dunlop Open was held in Sydney, Rosewall was back in Sydney in March, this time for the Australian open held on the White City Courts. Because it was sponsored by Dunlop in 1971, all the World Championship Tennis (WCT) players (including the National Tennis League players since spring 1970) entered (John Newcombe, Rosewall, Rod Laver, Tony Roche, Tom Okker, Arthur Ashe) as well as some independent pros. Only Stan Smith (Army's service), Cliff Richey, Clark Graebner, and the clay specialist players Ilie Năstase and Jan Kodeš were missing. Rosewall won the tournament, his second consecutive Grand Slam win and his seventh overall Grand Slam title, without losing a set and defeated Roy Emerson and Okker before beating Ashe in the final in straight sets.

Rosewall and most other WCT players did not play the French Open; yet, Rosewall still tried to reach his seventies goal by winning Wimbledon. In the quarterfinals, Rosewall needed about four hours to defeat Richey in five sets whereas Newcombe quickly defeated Colin Dibley. In the semifinals, the older Rosewall was no match for the fitter Newcombe and lost in straight sets. Later in the summer, Rosewall and some other WCT players (Laver, Andrés Gimeno, Emerson, Cliff Drysdale, Fred Stolle, and Roche) did not play the US Open because of the growing conflict between the International Lawn Tennis Federation (ILTF) and the WCT. His children's illnesses was an additional reason for Rosewall not playing this tournament.

As a contract pro, Rosewall was not allowed to play the Davis Cup and thus concentrated mainly on the WCT circuit organised similarly to the Grand Prix circuit which was the equivalent for the independent pros: 20 tournaments (including the Australian Open), each giving the same points amount. The top eight players in ranking points were invited to the WCT Finals, an eight-man tournament, equivalent of the Grand Prix Masters for the WCT players, played in November in Houston and Dallas, USA. When the WCT players were off they could play tournaments on the Grand Prix circuit. Some tournaments such as Berkeley, which had a stronger field than the US Open, were organised by both organisations. But the war between the ILTF and WCT climaxed in a ban by the ILTF beginning on 1 January 1972, of the WCT players from the Grand Prix circuit.

Rosewall ended third on the 1971 WCT circuit behind Laver and Okker and qualified for the WCT Finals. He won the title, beating Newcombe in the quarterfinals, defeating Okker in the semifinals and beating Laver in a four-sets final in what was considered at the time as the best match, with their 1970 Sydney final, between the two rivals since their 1968 French Open final.[71][72] As a WCT player Rosewall played few Grand Prix tournaments but he had earned enough points to play the Grand Prix Masters held about ten days after his WCT Finals. He refused the invitation as he was tired after a long season and took his holidays at the end of the year.

In 1971 Rosewall won eight tournaments and 76 out of 97 matches (78%) and in direct confrontations trailed Newcombe 1–3, Laver 2–3 but led Smith 1–0. Collins and Elian ranked Rosewall third after Newcombe and/or Smith. Tingay ranked Rosewall 4th, Rino Tommasi 1st, and the Martini-Rossi award was given jointly to Smith and Newcombe. Geist ranked Rosewall co-No. 1 tied with Newcombe and Smith. That year, as in 1970, there was no clear undisputed World No. 1.


1972 saw a return to separate circuits because all traditional ILTF events held from January to July were forbidden to the WCT players. This included the Davis Cup but also Roland Garros and Wimbledon. The 1972 Australian Open organisers used a trick to avoid the ban of the WCT players. They held the tournament from 27 December 1971, four days before the ban could be applied, to 3 January 1972. Thus all contract as well as independent pros could enter but few were interested because it was held during Christmas and New Year's Day period. The draw included only eight non-Australian players. Rosewall reached the final in which he defeated Mal Anderson to win his fourth Australian title and the eight, and last, Grand Slam title of his career.[73][74] A fragile agreement in the spring of 1972 let the WCT players come back to the traditional circuit in August (in Merion, WCT players Okker and Roger Taylor played). The US Open, won by Ilie Năstase, was the greatest event of the year as only in this tournament were all the best players present with the exception of Tony Roche who suffered from a tennis elbow. Later that year two other tournaments had good fields with WCT and independent pros: the Pacific Southwest Open at Los Angeles and, to a lesser extent, Stockholm, both won by Stan Smith.

In many 1972 rankings there were six or seven WCT players in the world top 10 (the three or four independent pros were Smith, Năstase, Orantes and sometimes Gimeno) so the $100,000 season-ending WCT Finals held in May in Dallas were considered as one of the major events of the year. The final, played between Rosewall and Laver, was considered one of the two best matches played in 1972, the other being the Wimbledon final, and the best Rosewall-Laver match of the open era. It was broadcast nationally in the U.S., viewed by twenty-three million people, and became known as the "match that made tennis in the United States." Rosewall won the last major title of his long career by defeating Laver in an epic five-set match which was decided by a tiebreak.[75][76][77] (Laver wrote that the two Australians had played better matches between them in the pre-open days, citing their 1963 French Pro final as the pinnacle; McCauley considered their 1964 Wembley final).

Because of the ILTF's ban once again Rosewall could not enter Wimbledon.

Open career: August 1972 through 1980 (and 1982)


From August 1972 players could enter almost all the tournaments they wanted. The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was created during the US Open. Rosewall won seven tournaments in 1972, including the depleted Australian Open and became the oldest Grand Slam male singles champion (37 years and 2 months old) in the open era,[lower-alpha 1] and was ranked, by Judith Elian or Tingay or McCauley, No. 3 behind Smith and Ilie Năstase (Bud Collins permuting Năstase and Rosewall). He lost in the second round of the 1972 U.S. Open against Mark Cox.


For Rosewall the beginning of 1973 was identical to the second half of 1972: a desert. He recorded possibly his worst defeat in his whole career at the 1973 Australian Open (again with a weak field because as in 1972 among the Top 20 only Rosewall and Newcombe participated) when seeded first he was defeated by German Karl Meiler in his first match (second round) in straight sets. Between May 1972 (victory at Dallas) and April 1973 (victory at Houston, River Oaks) Rosewall captured only two minor titles, Tokyo WCT (not giving points for the WCT Finals) and Brisbane (in December 1972) where he was the only Top 20 player. If 1967 has been the first year of a relative decline with however many highlights, 1973 (and more accurately his "after-Dallas 1972") has been the real start of Rosewall's true decline : admittedly he was still one of the best players but not one fighting for the first place.

Rosewall did not play Wimbledon that year as the edition was boycotted by the ATP players. After an absence of 17 years Rosewall returned to Davis Cup play in November when he played a doubles match with Rod Laver in the interzonal final against Czechoslovakia.[78]

His best performances in 1973 were firstly his semifinal at the US Open (as in 1972 the greatest event of the year) and secondly his third place at the WCT Finals (he was beaten by Ashe in the semifinals and defeated Laver for 3rd place). He also won at Houston WCT, Cleveland WCT, Charlotte WCT, Osaka and Tokyo. He was still ranked in the top 10. Tommasi ranked Rosewall 4, Tingay 6, ATP 6, Collins 5, and McCauley 7.


1974 was the first year since 1952 that Rosewall did not win a single tournament. However, he entered nine tournaments (the one at Hong Kong not finished because of rain) and reached three finals including Wimbledon and US Open. This was his last Wimbledon final, at the age of 39. Despite the strong support of the crowd, who were eager to see him finally claim a Wimbledon title, he lost to the 18 years younger Jimmy Connors.[79][80] Due to the two last strong performances he was ranked between second (Tingay) and the seventh place (Collins) by many tennis journalists. He ranked only 8th in the ATP rankings because he played too few tournaments knowing that he succumbed to the charms of the World Team Tennis "organisation". Rosewall coached the Pittsburgh Triangles team in 1974.

He still stayed in the Top 10 (ATP, Collins, Tommasi) or the Top 15 in 1975 winning 5 tournaments (Jackson, Houston-River Oaks, Louisville, Gstaad, Tokyo Gunze Open) and his two singles in Davis Cup against New Zealand (this event has been finally open to contract pros in 1973 : that year Rosewall was selected by Neale Fraser for the semifinals doubles). Rosewall made his last attempt at Wimbledon, at over 40, and as in his first Wimbledon Open (in 1968) he lost in the same round (4th) and against the same player (Tony Roche).

In 1976 Rosewall dropped out of the Top 10 but stayed in the Top 20 as he won three tournaments: Brisbane, Jackson WCT and Hong Kong (over Năstase then the 3rd player in the world).

1977 was Rosewall's last year in the Top 20, which means he was one of the best players for 26 years (in the Top 20 from 1952 to 1977). In January he reached the semifinal of the 1977 Australian Open, losing in four sets to eventual champion Roscoe Tanner.[81] He won his last two tournaments titles in Hong Kong and Tokyo (Gunze Open) respectively at the age of 43.[82][83] Rosewall played in the Sydney Indoor Tournament in October 1977. Approaching his 43rd birthday he beat the No. 3 in the world Vitas Gerulaitis in a straight-sets semifinal and put in a credible performance losing to Jimmy Connors in the final in three straight sets. The following year he lost in the semifinals at 44 years of age. Afterwards, he gradually retired. In October 1980 at the Melbourne indoor tournament, at nearly 46 years of age, Rosewall defeated American Butch Walts, ranked World No. 49, in the first round before losing to Paul McNamee. Rosewall made a very brief comeback at 47 years of age in a non-ATP tournament, the New South Wales Hardcourt Championships in Grafton in February 1982, where he reached the final, losing to Brett Edwards in two sets.


Gonzales and Laver are the two players that Rosewall most often met. His meetings with Laver are better documented and detailed than those with Gonzales.

Except the first year (1963) and the last year they played (1976), the statistics of their meetings show a domination by Laver; but they are biased before when Rosewall was the better of the two Australians in 1963. In the Open Era a match score of 23–9 in favour of Laver can be documented, overall a score of 80–64.

Including tournaments and one-night stands, Rosewall and Gonzales played at least 182 matches, all of them as professionals, with some results from the barnstorming pro tours either lost or partially recorded. A match score of 107–75 in favor of Gonzales can be documented.

Playing style and assessment

In his 1979 autobiography, Kramer wrote that "Rosewall was a backcourt player when he came into the pros, but he learned very quickly how to play the net. Eventually, for that matter, he became a master of it, as much out of physical preservation as for any other reason. I guarantee you that Kenny wouldn't have lasted into his forties as a world-class player if he hadn't learned to serve and volley." His one-handed backhand which he usually played with backspin was rated as one of the best backhand shots in the history of the game.[84][85][86]

Kramer included the Australian in his list of the 21 greatest players of all time, albeit in the second echelon.[lower-alpha 2]

During his long playing career he remained virtually injury-free, something that helped him to still win tournaments at the age of 43 and remain ranked in the top 15 in the world. Although he was a finalist 4 times at Wimbledon, and also at the Wimbledon Pro in 1967, it was the one major tournament that eluded him.

Rosewall was a finalist at the 1974 US Open at 39 years 310 days old, making him the oldest player to participate in two Grand Slam finals in the same year. Before that, in 1972 Rosewall won the Australian Open final at age 37 and 2 months making him the oldest male player to win a Grand Slam singles title as of 2017.

In 1995 Pancho Gonzales said of him: "He became better as he got older, more of a complete player. With the exception of me and Frank Sedgman, he could handle everybody else. Just the way he played, he got under Hoad's skin, but he had a forehand weakness and a serve weakness." In 201 matches against Gonzales he won 85 and lost 116. In 135 matches against Lew Hoad he won 84 and lost 51. [87]

In the 2012 Tennis Channel series "100 Greatest of All Time" Rosewall was ranked number 13 among all time male tennis players, with only two Australian tennis players ranked ahead of him, Laver and Emerson.[88]

Career statistics

Grand Slam tournament finals

Singles: 16 (8 titles, 8 runner-ups)

Result Year Championship Surface Opponent Score
Win1953Australian ChampionshipsGrass Mervyn Rose6–0, 6–3, 6–4
Win1953French ChampionshipsClay Vic Seixas6–3, 6–4, 1–6, 6–2
Loss1954WimbledonGrass Jaroslav Drobný11–13, 6–4, 2–6, 7–9
Win1955Australian ChampionshipsGrass Lew Hoad9–7, 6–4, 6–4
Loss1955U.S. ChampionshipsGrass Tony Trabert7–9, 3–6, 3–6
Loss1956Australian ChampionshipsGrass Lew Hoad4–6, 6–3, 4–6, 5–7
Loss1956WimbledonGrass Lew Hoad2–6, 6–4, 5–7, 4–6
Win1956U.S. ChampionshipsGrass Lew Hoad4–6, 6–2, 6–3, 6–3
↓ Open Era ↓
Win1968French OpenClay Rod Laver6–3, 6–1, 2–6, 6–2
Loss1969French OpenClay Rod Laver4–6, 3–6, 4–6
Loss1970WimbledonGrass John Newcombe7–5, 3–6, 2–6, 6–3, 1–6
Win1970US OpenGrass Tony Roche2–6, 6–4, 7–6(5–2), 6–3
Win1971Australian OpenGrass Arthur Ashe6–1, 7–5, 6–3
Win1972Australian OpenGrass Malcolm Anderson7–6(7–2), 6–3, 7–5
Loss1974WimbledonGrass Jimmy Connors1–6, 1–6, 4–6
Loss1974US OpenGrass Jimmy Connors1–6, 0–6, 1–6

Pro-Slam tournament finals

* Singles : 15 titles, 4 runner-ups

Result Year Tournament Surface Opponent Score
Win1957Wembley ChampionshipIndoor Pancho Segura1–6, 6–3, 6–4, 3–6, 6–4
Win1958French Pro ChampionshipClay Lew Hoad3–6, 6–2, 6–4, 6–0
Win1960French Pro ChampionshipClay Lew Hoad 6–2, 2–6, 6–2, 6–1
Win1960Wembley ChampionshipIndoor Pancho Segura 5–7, 8–6, 6–1, 6–3
Win1961French Pro ChampionshipClay Pancho Gonzales 2–6, 6–4, 6–3, 8–6
Win1961Wembley ChampionshipIndoor Lew Hoad 6–3, 3–6, 6–2, 6–3
Win1962French Pro ChampionshipClay Andrés Gimeno 3–6, 6–2, 7–5, 6–2
Win1962Wembley ChampionshipIndoor Lew Hoad 6–4, 5–7, 15–13, 7–5
Win1963U.S. Pro ChampionshipGrass Rod Laver6–4, 6–2, 6–2
Win1963French Pro ChampionshipWood (i) Rod Laver 6–8, 6–4, 5–7, 6–3, 6–4
Win1963Wembley ChampionshipIndoor Lew Hoad 6–4, 6–2, 4–6, 6–3
Win1964French Pro ChampionshipWood (i) Rod Laver 6–3, 7–5, 3–6, 6–3
Loss1964Wembley ChampionshipIndoor Rod Laver5–7, 6–4, 7–5, 6–8, 6–8
Win1965U.S. Pro ChampionshipGrass Rod Laver6–4, 6–3, 6–3
Win1965French Pro ChampionshipWood (i) Rod Laver 6–3, 6–2, 6–4
Win1966French Pro ChampionshipWood (i) Rod Laver 6–3, 6–2, 14–12
Loss1966Wembley ChampionshipIndoor Rod Laver 2–6, 2–6, 3–6
Loss1966U.S. Pro ChampionshipGrass Rod Laver4–6, 6–4, 2–6, 10–8, 3–6
Loss1967Wembley ChampionshipIndoor Rod Laver6–2, 1–6, 6–1, 6–8, 2–6
  • * other events (Tournament of Champions, Wimbledon Pro – important professional tournaments – 2 runners-up)

Performance timeline

Ken Rosewall joined professional tennis in 1957 and was unable to compete in 45 Grand Slam tournaments until the open era arrives in 1968. Summarizing Grand Slam and Pro Slam tournaments, Rosewall won 23 titles, he has a winning record of 246–46 which represents 84.24% spanning 28 years.

(W) Won; (F) finalist; (SF) semifinalist; (QF) quarterfinalist; (#R) rounds 4, 3, 2, 1; (RR) round-robin stage; (Q#) qualification round; (A) absent; (NH) not held. SR=strike rate (events won/competed)
Grand Slam tournament Amateur Professional Open Era SR W–L Win %
Australian 1R QF W SF W F A 3R A W W 2R A A SF SF QF 3R 4 / 14 43–10 81.13
French A 2R W 4R A A A W F A A A A A A A A A 2 / 5 24–3 88.89
Wimbledon A 2R QF F SF F A 4R 3R F SF A A F 4R A A A 0 / 11 47–11 81.03
U.S. A QF SF SF F W A SF QF W A 2R SF F A A 3R A 2 / 12 57–10 85.07
Win–Loss 0–1 8–4 21–2 17–4 16–2 17–2 15–2 13–4 13–1 10–1 6–1 5–2 12–2 3–1 4–1 9–3 2–1 8 / 42 171–34 83.41
Pro Slam tournament Professional SR W–L Win %
U.S. Pro SF A A A A A W SF W F SF 2 / 6 12–4 75.00
French Pro NH W SF W W W W W W W SF 8 / 10 30–2 93.75
Wembley Pro W SF SF W W W W F SF F F 5 / 11 29–6 82.86
Total: 15 / 27 71–12 85.54
other Pro
Tournament of Champions SF F SF NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH 0 / 3
Wimbledon Pro NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH NH F 0 / 1 2–1 66.67


All-time records

ChampionshipYearsRecord accomplishedPlayer tied
Pro Slam1963Won the calendar year Professional Grand Slam [89][90]Rod Laver
Pro Slam and Grand Slam1953–197423 combined Major titles overall [91][2]Stands alone
Pro Slam and Grand Slam1953–197435 combined Major finals overallStands alone
Pro Slam and Grand Slam1953–197452 combined Major semifinals overallStands alone
Pro Slam and Grand Slam1953–197457 combined Major quarterfinals overallStands alone
Pro Slam tournaments1957–6727 appearances overallStands alone
Pro Slam tournaments1957–6615 titles overall [92][93]Stands alone
Pro Slam tournaments1957–6719 finals overallStands alone
Pro Slam tournaments1957–6727 semifinals overallStands alone
Pro Slam tournaments1957–6727 quarterfinals overallStands alone
Pro Slam tournaments1957–6785.54% 71-12 match win percentage overallStands alone
Australian Championships1953Youngest singles champion 18 years, 2 months.[94]Stands alone
Grand Slam1953–55Youngest player to reach each Grand Slam final [95]Stands alone
Grand Slam1953–72Only player to win a Grand Slam title in three different decades [96]Stands alone
Australian Championships1953–197219 year gap between first and last singles title [97]Stands alone [98]
Australian Championships1971Won title without losing set [92]Don Budge
John Bromwich
Roy Emerson
Roger Federer
French Championships1953–196815 year gap between first and last singles title [92]Stands alone
French Pro-Championship1958–19668 titles overallStands alone
French Pro-Championships1960–19667 consecutive titles [92]Stands alone
French Pro-Championships1958–196793.75% 30-5 match win percentageStands alone
U.S. Championships1956–197014 year gap between first and last singles title [99]Stands alone
Wembley Pro-Championships1960–19634 consecutive titles[93]Rod Laver
All tournaments1951–197020 wood court titlesStands alone
Career1951–7725 non-consecutive 1+ singles title seasonsStands alone
Career1953–7321 consecutive 1+ singles title seasonsStands alone
Career1952–7625 consecutive years in the top 10 [100]Stands alone
Career1949–82Most matches played 2282 [101]Stands alone
Career1949–82Most matches won 1665 [102]Stands alone

Open Era records

  • These records were attained in Open Era of tennis.
ChampionshipYearsRecord accomplishedPlayer tied
Australian Open1971Won title without losing a setRoger Federer
Australian Open1972Oldest singles champion (37 years, 2 months)[94]Stands alone
US Open1970Oldest singles champion (35 years, 10 months)Stands alone
US Open1974Oldest player in a Grand Slam final (39 years, 5 months)Stands alone
WCT Finals1971–19722 consecutive titlesJohn McEnroe
WCT Finals1971–197387.50% (7–1) winning percentageStands alone[citation needed]

Note: The draw of Pro majors was significantly smaller than the traditional Grand Slam tournaments; usually they only had 16 or even fewer professional players, this meant only four rounds of play instead of the modern six or seven rounds.

Personal life

Ken Rosewall married Wilma McIver at St. John's Cathedral, Brisbane, Queensland on 6 October 1956. It was described in press reports as Brisbane's society wedding of the year with over 2000 people in attendance outside the church, and 800 guests in the Cathedral.[103] The couple then moved to Turramurra, New South Wales and have lived there ever since.

Ken Rosewall was a non Executive Director of the failed stockbroking firm BBY and his son, Glenn Rosewall, was the company's Executive Director.[104]


In the Queen's Birthday Honours of 1971, he was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE).[105] In the Australia Day Honours of 1979, he was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia (AM). Rosewall was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1980. In 1985 he was inducted into the Sport Australia Hall of Fame.[106] He is an Australian Living Treasure.

The Sydney Olympic Park Tennis Centre's central court is the Ken Rosewall Arena, a covered arena.

See also


  1. Arthur Gore won Wimbledon at the age of 41 years in the year 1909 and is the oldest Grand Slam singles winner in the history of tennis.
  2. Writing in 1979, Kramer considered the best ever to have been either Don Budge (for consistent play) or Ellsworth Vines (at the height of his game). The next four best were, chronologically, Bill Tilden, Fred Perry, Bobby Riggs, and Pancho Gonzales. After these six came the "second echelon" of Rod Laver, Lew Hoad, Ken Rosewall, Gottfried von Cramm, Ted Schroeder, Jack Crawford, Pancho Segura, Frank Sedgman, Tony Trabert, John Newcombe, Arthur Ashe, Stan Smith, Björn Borg, and Jimmy Connors. He felt unable to rank Henri Cochet and René Lacoste accurately but felt they were among the very best.


  1. Garcia, Gabriel. "Ken Rosewall: Career match record". Madrid, Spain: Tennismem SL. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  2. "Tennis: Ken Rosewall Arena to get a roof as Sydney ramps up ATP Cup bid". China Global Television Network. 4 January 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  3. McCauley, Joe; Trabert, Tony; Collins, Bud (2000). "Records Section:Past Results of the Three Major Pro Events". The History of Professional Tennis. Windsor, England: The Short Run Book Company Limited. pp. 256–257.
  4. Greatest Player Of All Time: A Statistical Analysis by Raymond Lee, Friday Archived 28 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 14 September 2007
  5. "Ray Bowers on Tennis Server (2000)". Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  6. Greatest Shots in Tennis History, The Backhand: Ken Rosewall
  7. Rosewall & Rowley 1976, p. 15
  8. Rosewall & Rowley 1976, p. 1
  9. Rosewall & Rowley 1976, p. 2
  10. "Tennis Title to N.S.W." The News. Adelaide. 3 September 1949. p. 7 via National Library of Australia.
  11. "Lawn Tennis". The West Australian. Perth. 25 October 1949. p. 14 via National Library of Australia.
  12. "Straight Sets Win To Worthington". Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate. 12 October 1950. p. 14 via National Library of Australia.
  13. "Bright Australian Future". TIME. 15 September 1952. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  14. Collins, Bud (2010). The Bud Collins History of Tennis (2nd ed.). New York: New Chapter Press. pp. 717, 718. ISBN 978-0942257700.
  15. "Singles Title To Rosewall". The Advocate. Burnie, Tas. 19 January 1953. p. 5 via National Library of Australia.
  16. "A Carnation for Victor". TIME. 13 July 1953. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  17. "Melbourne Preview?". TIME. 14 September 1953. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  18. "Davis Cup, World Group Challenge Rounds, 1953". Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  19. "Old Drob". TIME. 12 July 1954. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
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  21. Hoad & Pollack 1958, p. 184
  22. "He starts a bit shakily, but then... our Ken gives US star fight of his life". The Argus. Melbourne. 15 January 1957. p. 16 via National Library of Australia.
  23. "A fighting Ken makes it one-all". The Argus. Melbourne. 16 January 1957. p. 22 via National Library of Australia.
  24. McCauley (2003), p. 206
  25. McCauley (2003), p. 207
  26. World Tennis, November, 1958
  27. McCauley (2003), p. 209
  28. McCauley (2003), p. 211
  29. McCauley (2003), pp. 90–91, 211
  30. "Sedgman Leads Professionals". The Canberra Times. 28 January 1959. p. 20 via National Library of Australia.
  31. McCauley, p. 99
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  34. McCauley, p.214
  35. McCauley, p.215
  36. McCauley (2003), p. 99
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  39. McCauley, P. 216-219
  40. McCauley (2003), p. 111
  41. Jack Kramer (22 December 1962). "Offcourt with Jack Kramer; Rosewall Is One of the Greats". Irish Press. p. 15 via Irish Newspaper Archive.
  42. ""Wonder Kids" At It Again". The Canberra Times. 19 September 1961. p. 20 via National Library of Australia.
  43. {cite web|title=Ken Rosewall Player Activity 1961|url= Base|accessdate=30 June 2019}}
  44. "Easy Singles Win For Ken Rosewall". The Canberra Times. 11 December 1961. p. 16 via National Library of Australia.
  45. Robert Daley (18 September 1961). "Rosewall Conquers Gonzales in 4-Set Tennis Final at Paris; Aussie Captures World Pro Title". The New York Times. p. 42 via
  46. "Gonzalez to Quit Pro Tennis Play". The New York Times. 21 September 1961. p. 45 via
  47. "1961 World Professional Rankings". United States Professional Lawn Tennis Association 1962 Year Book. 1 January 1962.
  48. 1961 Robert Roy's rankings in l'Équipe in January 1962 reproduced in Tennis de France N°106 FEVRIER 1962 (Roy Emerson in cover) page 17 under the title "Un classement open"
  49. Tennis de France N°106 FEVRIER 1962, editorial page 1
  50. "Les Meilleurs du Tennis de Rosewall à Borg 50 champions"(éditions Olivier Orban) page 37
  51. DER GRÖSSTE MEISTER Die denkwürdige Karriere des australischen Tennisspielers Kenneth Robert Rosewall, Kapitel «King Ken» - die Nr.1 der Profis, by Robert Geist, Wienn 1999
  52. "Ken Rosewall now has a claim to the title of World's Best Professional, having won the big pro tournaments at both Roland Garros and Wembley." World Tennis Volume 9 Number 6 (US edition of October 1961, UK edition of November 1961, Donald Dell on cover) page 49
  53. McCauley, Joe; Trabert, Tony; Collins, Bud (2000). The History of Professional Tennis. Windsor, England: The Short Run Book Company Limited.
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  70. "Dreiundzwanzig Jahre also hielt sich Rosewall unter den besten zehn Spieler, davon 18 Jahre unter den ersten Fünf (!), 15 Jahre unter den ersten Drei; 13 Jahre lang war er Bester oder Zweitbester; neun Jahre stand er an der absoluten Spitze der Weltrangliste : 1961 – 1963 allein dominierend, 1959 und 1960 gemeinsam mit Gonzales, 1964 und 1965 ex æquo mit Laver, 1970 zusammen mit Laver und Newcombe, 1971 gemeinsam mit Newcombe und Smith." in 'DER GRÖSSTE MEISTER Die denkwürdige Karriere des australischen Tennisspielers Kenneth Robert Rosewall, Kapitel Eine Zwischenbilanz der Profis, by Robert Geist, Wienn 1999
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  75. "Rosewall at 37 Still Has Enough Tennis". The Milwaukee Journal. 15 May 1972. p. 12.
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  • Hoad, Lew; Pollack, Jack (1958). The Lew Hoad Story. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. OCLC 398749.
  • Rosewall, Ken; Rowley, Peter T. (1976). Ken Rosewall: Twenty Years at the Top. London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-29735-6.
  • Jack Kramer with Frank Deford (1981). The Game : My 40 Years in Tennis. London: Deutsch. ISBN 0233973079. OCLC 59152557. OL 17315708M.
  • Naughton, Richard (2012). Alexander, Helen (ed.). Muscles. Richmond, Vic.: Slattery Media Group. ISBN 9781921778568. OCLC 810217024.
  • McCauley, Joe (2000). The History of Professional Tennis. Windsor: The Short Run Book Company Limited.
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