Kees van Prooijen

Kees (Cornelis) van Prooijen (born 7 August 1952) is a creator of computer art.[1] Although it does not bear his name, he independently discovered the Bohlen-Pierce scale,[2][3] a non-octave-repeating scale based on the tritave and spectra containing odd harmonics, in 1978. Van Prooijen came across the scale through an investigation of continued fractions.[4][5][6]

He also invented the Kees height, or an "expressibility" measure for complexity of just intonation pitch classes.[7][8]


  1. Kees van Prooijen Homepage
  2. Kees van Prooijen: "A Theory of Equal-Tempered Scales". Interface, Vol. 7 (1978), pp. 45–56. Swets & Zeitlinger B.V. – Amsterdam.
  3. Kees van Prooijen. "13 tones in the 3rd harmonic",
  4. "What Were They Investigating?", Bohlen-Pierce Site.
  5. Sethares, William A. (2005). Tuning, Timbre, Spectrum, Scale, p.74. ISBN 9781846281136.
  6. Schroeder, Manfred. "Music and Mathematics", p.14. Nova Acta Leopoldina N.F. 92, Nr. 341, ISBN 3-8047-2237-7 (Halle, 2005), pp. 9–15.
  7. "Kees+height", on Xenharmonic Wiki.
  8. "Kees+van+Prooijen", on Xenharmonic Wiki.

Further reading

  • Wolfgang Auhagen, ed. (2005). Science and Music: The Impact of Music: Leopoldina Symposium, Halle/Saale, May 13 to 15, 2004, p. 14. Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina. ISBN 9783804722378.

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