Kanpur(/ˈkɑːnpʊər/ pronunciation ; formerly Cawnpore) is a large city in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city is famous for its leather and textile industries. It is the 12th most populous city in India and 11th most populous urban agglomeration. It is also the second largest city proper and the largest urban agglomeration in Uttar Pradesh. Kanpur was an important British garrison town until 1947 when India gained independence. Kanpur is the administrative headquarters of Kanpur Nagar district and Kanpur division.


Clockwise from top right: Green Park Stadium; Civil Lines district; Kanpur Police headquarters; Landmark Hotel; Kanpur Memorial Church; JK Temple
Leather City of the World[1] Manchester of the India[2] Birthplace of Indian Communism
Coordinates: 26.449923°N 80.331874°E / 26.449923; 80.331874
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictKanpur Nagar
Named forRaja Kanh Deo
  MayorPramila Pandey (BJP)
  Divisional CommissionerPradeep Kumar Mohanty, IAS
  District Magistrate and CollectorVijay Vishwas Pant, IAS
  Inspector General, Kanpur RangeAlok Singh, IPS
  Metropolis403.70 km2 (155.87 sq mi)
126 m (413 ft)
  Density6,900/km2 (18,000/sq mi)
  Metro Rank
Demonym(s)Kanpurite, Kanpuriya
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
208 0xx
 • 209 2xx
  • 209 3xx
  • 209 4xx
Telephone code0512
Vehicle registrationUP-78 (Kanpur Urban)
UP-77 (Kanpur Rural)
Coastline0 kilometres (0 mi)
Sex ratio0.855 /
ClimateCwa (Köppen)
WebsiteOfficial District Website

Located on the west bank of the Ganges River, it is a major trade and commercial centre in North India with the first woollen mill of India, the British India Corporation established here in 1876 by Alexander McRobert. The city is widely regarded as "The Leather City of the World" and is also nicknamed as "Manchester of India".

According to 2011 Indian census, it is the eleventh most populous urban city while the population of city and its suburb were around 5 million making it the eighth-most populous metropolitan area in India. Furthermore it is considered the world's most polluted city by particulate matter concentration.[6]


In 1207, Raja Kanh Deo of the Kanhpuria clan established the village of Kanhpur, which later came to be known as Kanpur.[7][8]

In 2018, Kanpur, was considered by the World Health Organization as the city with the world's worst air pollution.[6]

1857 uprising

In the 19th century, Cawnpore was an important British garrison with barracks for 7,000 soldiers. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, 900 British men, women and children were besieged in the fortifications for 22 days by rebels under Nana Sahib Peshwa. They surrendered on the agreement that they would get safe passage to the nearby Satti Chaura Ghat whereupon they would board barges and be allowed to go by river to Allahabad.[9]

Though controversy surrounds what exactly happened at the Satti Chaura Ghat, and who fired the first shot, it is known that, soon afterwards, the departing British were shot at by the rebel sepoys and were either killed or captured. Some of the British officers later claimed that the rebels had, on purpose, placed the boats as high in the mud as possible, to cause delay. They also claimed that Nana Sahib's camp had previously arranged for the rebels to fire upon and kill all the English. Although the East India Company later accused Nana Sahib of betrayal and murder of innocent people, no evidence has ever been found to prove that Nana Sahib had pre-planned or ordered the massacre. Some historians believe that the Satti Chaura Ghat massacre was the result of confusion, and not of any plan implemented by Nana Sahib and his associates. Lieutenant Mowbray Thomson, one of the four male survivors of the massacre, believed that the rank-and-file sepoys who spoke to him did not know of the killing to come.[10]

Many were killed and the remaining 200 British women and children were brought back to shore and sent to a building called the Bibighar (the ladies' home). After some time, the commanders of the rebels decided to kill their hostages. The rebel soldiers refused to carry out orders and butchers from the nearby town were brought in to kill the hostages three days before the British entered the city on 18 July. The dismembered bodies were thrown into a deep well nearby. The British under General Neill retook the city and committed a series of retaliations against the rebel Sepoys and those civilians caught in the area, including women, children and old men. The Cawnpore Massacre, as well as similar events elsewhere, were seen by the British as justification for unrestrained vengeance.[11] "Remember Cawnpore" became a war cry for British for the rest of the rebellion.

Metropolitan area

The metropolitan region defined under JNNURM by Kanpur Nagar Nigam, includes the Kanpur Nagar Nigam area, 8 kilometres around KNN boundary and newly included 47 villages of Unnao district on the north-eastern side, it extends to Murtaza Nagar, in the west its limit is up to Akbarpur, Kanpur Dehat Nagar Panchayat limit, on the eastern side the limit has been expanded on the road leading to Fatehpur and in extended up to. The metropolitan region area includes the area of Shuklaganj Municipal Committee (Nagar Palika), Unnao Municipal Committee (Nagar Palika), Akbarpur Village Authority (Nagar Panchayat) and Bithoor Village Authority (Nagar Panchayat) area.[12] In 1997-98, total metropolitan region area has increased to 89131.15 hectare out of which 4,743.9 hectare (5.31%) was non-defined (prohibited area) and rest 29,683 hectare and 54,704 hectare (61.39%) was urban and rural area respectively.


Kanpur has a dry-winter humid subtropical climate (Cwa) under the Köppen climate classification.

Climate data for Kanpur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.1
Average high °C (°F) 23.1
Average low °C (°F) 7.9
Record low °C (°F) 1.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 18.7
Average rainy days 1.9 1.5 1.0 0.8 1.2 4.6 13.7 10.7 6.8 2.1 0.4 0.7 45.5
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[13][14]


Religion in Kanpur[15]
Religion Percent

As per the provisional results of 2011 census, Kanpur city has a population of 2,767,031.[16] The literacy rate was 84.14 per cent and sex ratio was 842.[16] The Kanpur urban agglomeration had a population of 2,920,067 with a literacy rate of 83.98% and a sex ratio of 842.[17]

There are 35 Parsis in Kanpur with their Fire Temple at The Mall.[18]

Kanpur is majority Hindu with sizeable minorities of Buddhist, Sikh and Muslims.

Administration and Politics

Divisional Commissioner
Pradeep Kumar Mohanty[19][20][21]
District Magistrate
Vijay Vishwas Pant[19][20][21]
Additional Director General, Kanpur Zone Avanish Chandra[22]
Inspector General, Kanpur Range Alok Singh[23]
DIG/Senior Superintendent of Police Sonia Singh[24]
Vice Chairman, Kanpur Development Authority Kinjal Singh[25][26]
Municipal Commissioner Avinash Singh[27][28][29]
District Judge Shashi Kant Shukla[30]
Chief Metropolitan Magistrate
Shabistan Aquil[30]


General administration

Kanpur division which consists of seven districts, and is headed by the divisional commissioner of Kanpur, who is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer of high seniority, the commissioner is the head of local government institutions (including municipal corporations) in the division, is in charge of infrastructure development in his division, and is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the division.[31][32][33][34] The district magistrate of Kanpur reports to the divisional commissioner. The current commissioner is Pradeep Kumar Mohanty.[19][20][21]

Kanpur district administration is headed by the district magistrate of Kanpur, who is an IAS officer. The DM is in charge of property records and revenue collection for the central government and oversees the elections held in the city. The DM is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city.[31][35][36][37] The DM is assisted by a chief development officer; four additional district magistrates for finance/revenue, city, land acquisition, and civil supply; one city magistrat; and seven additional city magistrates.[38] The district has three tehsils viz. Sadar, Bilhaur and Ghatampur, each headed by a sub-divisional magistrate.[38] The current DM is Vijay Vishwas Pant.[19][20][21]

Police administration

Kanpur district comes under the Kanpur Police Zone and Kanpur Police Range, Kanpur Zone is headed by an additional director general-ranked Indian Police Service (IPS) officer, and the Kanpur Range is headed inspector general-ranked IPS officer. The current ADG, Kanpur Zone is Avanish Chandra,[22] and IG, Kanpur Range is Alok Singh.[23]

The district police is headed by a deputy inspector general/senior superintendent of police (DIG/SSP), who is an IPS officer, and is assisted by seven superintendents of police or additional superintendents of police for east, west, south, rural area, crime, traffic and modern control, who are either IPS officers or Provincial Police Service (PPS) officers.[24] Each of the several police circles is headed by a circle officer (CO) in the rank of deputy superintendent of police.[24] The current DIG/SSP is Sonia Singh.[24]

Civic Administration

The development of infrastructure in the city is overseen by Kanpur Development Authority (KDA), which comes under the Housing Department of Uttar Pradesh government. The divisional commissioner of Kanpur acts as the ex-officio Chairman of KDA, whereas a vice chairperson, a government-appointed IAS officer, looks after the daily matters of the authority.[39] The current vice-chairman of Kanpur Development Authority is K. Vijayendra Pandian.[25][26]

The Kanpur Municipal Corporations oversees civic activities in the city, the head of the corporation is the mayor, but the executive and administration of the corporation are the responsibility of the municipal commissioner, who is a Uttar Pradesh government-appointed Provincial Civil Service officer of high seniority. The current mayor of Kanpur is Captain (retired) Jagat Vir Singh Drona,[27] whereas the municipal commissioner is Avinash Singh.[27][28][29]


The Kanpur District Court is headed by the district judge of Kanpur, who is assisted by numerous additional district judges, civil judges (senior division) and additional civil judges. Kanpur is a notified metropolitan area by UP Government under Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, and therefore has a chief metropolitan magistrate, who is assisted by several metropolitan magistrates. The current district judge is Shashi Kant Shukla,[30] and the current chief metropolitan magistrate is Shabistan Aquil.[30]


Kanpur Nagar district encompasses one Lok Sabha constituency and ten Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha constituencies. The current member of parliament in Lok Sabha for Kanpur is Satyadev Pachauri.



Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Airport has scheduled commercial flights to Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore and other cities of India. The nearest International Airport is the Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport in Lucknow, which is around 77.1 km from Kanpur.


Kanpur Central is a major railhead and is among the busiest railway stations in the country. Rail routes connect it to all major cities in the state and the country. It is an A-1 category railway station coming under the Allahabad railway division of North Central Railway zone of Indian Railways. Around 300 trains pass through the station daily.[40] Other major railway stations serving the city include Kanpur Anwarganj, Govindpuri, Panki, Kalianpur, Rawatpur, Chandari, Kanpur Bridge and Chakeri.


The city has had chronic problems with maintaining local roads.[41] There are several important National Highways that pass through Kanpur.

NH No Route Total Length
NH 2 Delhi » Mathura » Agra » Kanpur » Allahabad » Varanasi » Mohania » Barhi » Palsit » Dankuni (near Kolkata) 2542
NH 25 Lucknow » Kanpur » Jhansi 352
NH 86 Kanpur » Hamirpur » Mahoba » Chhatarpur » Sagar » Bhopal » Indore 674
NH 91 Ghaziabad » Aligarh » Etah » Kannauj » Kanpur 405
NH 157 (Proposed) Kanpur » Raebareli » Sultanpur » Shahganj » Azamgarh » Gaura Barhaj » Siwan » Muzaffarpur 581

The UPSRTC Inter State Bus Station (ISBT) of Kanpur officially named as the "Shaheed Major Salman Khan Bus Station". It is locally known as the "Jhakarkati Bus Station". It provides buses to important cities of India.[42] Other UPSRTC controlled Important Bus stations are Chunniganj Bus Stand for Farrukhabad,Bareilly and Uttranchal routes ,Naubasta Bus Stand for Hamirpur route , Fazalganj is another hub for Private carriers .

Ring road

In 2011 it was reported by The Indian Express that "The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is all set to develop a four-lane outer ring road along the periphery of Kanpur with an aim to prevent traffic congestion in the industrial city caused by long-distance heavy vehicles. The new road, which will help the heavy vehicles to bypass the city, will be developed on Built, Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis under the phase-VII of National Highways Development Programme (NHDP)"[43]

Kanpur Metro

Kanpur Metro is an under construction rail based mass transit system in the city of Kanpur, India which shall further be extendable to Kanpur metropolitan area. The work of the first metro depot is 70 percent complete.[44] [45]

Education and research

Higher Education

Educational institutions in the city include three state universities. Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University is one of the largest universities in Asia catering to urban and rural students offering professional and academic courses in disciplines of Arts, Science, Commerce, Law, Engineering, Biotechnology, Computer Applications, Management and Medicine. Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology is an agricultural university named after the Indian revolutionary Chandrashekhar Azad which caters to the needs of the farming community of 29 districts of Uttar Pradesh. Harcourt Butler Technical University (HBTI) offers Bachelors, Masters, and Doctoral programs in engineering, as well as Masters programs in Business Administration, and Computer Applications. A public engineering institution Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur is in the city. It was one of the first Indian Institutes of Technology established in 1959, created with the assistance of a consortium of nine US research universities as part of the Kanpur Indo-American Programme (KIAP).[46][47] There is also a private university in the city: Rama University part of the Rama Group.[48] There are several private Technical and Management institutions.

Medical Education

Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Memorial Medical College (GSVMMC or GSVM Medical College) is a state-run medical college in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. It was founded in 1956 and named after Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi, a freedom fighter and journalist from Kanpur. Lala Lajpat Rai Hospital (LLR Hospital), which is also known as Hallet Hospital, is associated with GSVM, Kanpur.

See also


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