Kannur (also known by its former anglicized name Cannanore and Portuguese name Cananor) is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Kannur district, state of Kerala, India. It is the administrative headquarters of the Kannur District and situated 518 km north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. During British rule in India, when Kannur was a part of the Malabar District (Madras Presidency), the city was known as Cannanore. Kannur is the largest city of North Malabar region. As of 2011 census population of Kannur was 232,486. Kannur is one of the million-plus urban agglomerations in India with a population of 1,642,892 in 2011.
Clockwise from top: Gandhi Circle (formerly Caltex), St Angelo Fort, Sea Pathway, Payyambalam Beach, Thavakara Bus Terminal,
Land of looms and lores
|Coordinates: 11.8689°N 75.3555°E|
|Talukas||Kannur, previously known as Chirakkal Taluk|
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Kannur Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Smt. Suma Balakrishnan|
|• District Collector||Sri. T.V Subhash IAS|
|• District Police Chief||Sri. Pratheesh Kumar IPS|
|• Inspector General of Police (Kannur Range)||Sri. Mahipal Yadav IPS|
|• Principal District & Sessions Judge||Sri. R. Reghu|
|• City||73 km2 (28 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,003 km2 (387 sq mi)|
|• Density||3,200/km2 (8,300/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-KL|
|Vehicle registration||KL-13 KL-58 KL-59 KL-78|
Kannur was an important trading centre in the 12th century, with active business connections with Persia and Arabia. It served as the British military headquarters on India's west coast until 1887. The modern town is referred to as Kannur Town. Kannur, as a district and surrounding areas, were mostly ruled by the famous Kolathiri Rajas (kings). When the state of Kerala was formed the district took the name Kannur since the administrative offices were established here. Before that, Kannur was under the Chirakkal taluk of Madras state under British rule. When the British dominated this part of the world, they preferred Madras and Cochin as their major stations and Kannur started to lose its old glory. The people of Kannur are still waiting for their old glory to get back and they feel they are being sidelined because the state administration is located the exact opposite side of the state. Part of the original city of Kannur was under Kerala's only Muslim Royalty called the Arakkal and this area is still known as City.
St. Angelo Fort was built in 1505 by Dom Francisco de Almeida, the first Portuguese Viceroy of India. The Dutch captured the fort from the Portuguese in 1663. They modernised the fort and built the bastions Hollandia, Zeelandia, and Frieslandia that are the major features of the present structure. The original Portuguese fort was pulled down later. A painting of this fort and the fishing ferry behind it can be seen in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. The Dutch sold the fort to king Ali Raja of Arakkal in 1772. During the 17th century, Kannur was the capital city of the only Muslim Sultanate in Kerala, known as Arakkal. Then the British conquered it in 1790 and used it as one of their major military stations on the Malabar Coast. During the British Raj, Kannur was part of the Madras province in the North Malabar District.
The guerrilla war by Pazhassi Raja, the ruler of Kottayam province, against the British had a huge impact on the history of Kannur. Changes in the socio-economic and political sectors in Kerala during the initial decades of the 20th century created conditions congenial for the growth of the Communist Party. Extension of English education initiated by Christian missionaries in 1906 and later carried forward by government, rebellion for wearing a cloth to cover upper parts of body, installing an idol at Aruvippuram in 1888, Malayali Memorial in 1891, establishment of SNDP Yogam in 1903, activities, struggles etc. became factors helpful to accelerate changes in Kerala society during a short time. Movements for liberation from the colonial rule of British imperialism and struggles launched by these movements grew with them.
Very soon, ideas about socialism and Soviet Revolution reached Kerala. Such ideas got propagated in Kerala through the works of Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai, Sahodaran Ayyappan, P. Kesavadev and others. By the beginning of the 1930s, some other useful developments were taking place. Important among them was Nivarthana Agitation in Travancore. That was the demand of people suppressed so far as untouchables and weaker sections for participation in government. This brought to the forefront struggles like proportional representation in government and reservation of jobs. This imparted a new enthusiasm among oppressed masses.
- District: Kannur
- Governing Body: Kannur Municipal Corporation
- Taluk/Tehsil: Kannur
- Block: Kannur
- Assembly Constituency: Kannur
- Parliament Constituency: Kannur
- Police Station: Kannur Town PS, Kannur Traffic PS, Kannur City PS, and Edakkad PS
- Post Office: Kannur 670001-670005
- Telephone Exchange: Kannur 0497
- Railway Station: Kannur Railway Station (CAN)
- Airport: Kannur International Airport (CNN)
Kannur, particularly the rural areas, has been referred to as a stranglehold of the left parties – locally known as 'party gramam'. Gramam means 'village' in Malayalam and usually denote local allegiance to only one party. Kannur has a strong presence of trade unions as well as left-leaning organizations. However, other parties also have strong influence.
According to the 2011 census of India, Kannur city has a population of 56,823. Males constitute 46.2% of the population and females 53.8%. Kannur has an average literacy rate of 96.23%, higher than the national average of 74.04%. Male literacy is 98% and female literacy is 94%. In Kannur, 12% of the population is under six years of age.
Hindus form the majority of the population with 32,026 members forming 56.3% of the population. There are 21,557 Muslims forming 37.9% of the population. Christians form 5% of the population with 2,892 members. The Anglo-Indian community in Kannur live mainly in the Kannur Cantonment of Burnacherry and its surrounding areas of Thillery, No.3 Bazaar and Camp Bazaar. Malayalam is the administrative and local language.
- Indian Naval Academy is situated in Ezhimala, Kannur. Naval cadets are trained here in 2500 acres vast campus.
- Indian Coast Guard Academy, the first coast guard academy in India is under construction in Azhikkal.
- Kannur District has five Kendriya Vidyalaya at Kannur, Keltron Nagar, Payyanur, Ezhimala, and Thalassery.
- Kannur University was established by Act 22 of 1996 of the Kerala Legislative Assembly. The University by the name "Malabar University" had come into existence earlier by the promulgation of an ordinance by the governor of Kerala, on 9 November 1995. The university was inaugurated on 2 March 1996 by the Chief Minister of Kerala. The objective of the Kannur University Act 1996 was to establish in the state of Kerala a teaching, residential and affiliating university so as to provide for the development of higher education in Kasargod and Kannur revenue districts and the Mananthavady Taluk of Wayanad district. Kannur University is a multi-campus university.
- Government Brennen College, the first college in Kannur provide education to more than 2500 students.
- Government College of Engineering, Kannur was established in 1986 near Dharmasala, Kannur as a center for imparting engineering education in northern Kerala. The college is among the top ten engineering colleges of the state, providing higher studies in the field of technical education.
- The thirteenth National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) Campus in Kannur is located at Anthoor near Dharmasala, Kannur 12 km north of Kannur Corporation.
Kannur has a good road network connecting to Mangalore, Bangalore, Mysore, Kodagu and Cochin. The railway station is also well connected to all parts of India. The Kannur International Airport which is about 30 kilometres from the city began operations on December 9 and is the fourth international airport in the state. Other nearby airports are at Calicut and Mangalore. Kannur is on National Highway 66 or NH 66 (formerly National Highway 17) between Kozhikode and Mangalore. This highway is scheduled to be expanded to four lanes. A bypass for Kannur city is proposed under the NH widening project. Kannur is connected to Kodagu, Mysore and Bangalore in Karnataka by the Thalassery–Coorg–Mysore interstate highway.
Kannur railway station is one of the major stations of the Southern Railway zone, under the jurisdiction of the Palakkad. All trains including the Thiruvananthapuram Rajdhani Express and Kochuveli Garib Rath stop at Kannur. Six daily trains and around 15 weekly or bi-weekly trains connect Kannur to the capital Thiruvananthapuram. Kannur is well connected through rail with Mangalore and Kozhikode.
Kannur International Airport in Mattanur inaugurated on 9 December 2018. It is the fourth international airport in Kerala. The airport will have a 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) runway(the longest in the State) and state of the art passenger terminal as well other amenities. It will be well connected by a comprehensive network of roads and a proposal for railway line has also been mooted. In the 2016–17 Union Railway budget, ₹400 crore (US$58 million) were dedicated for under Extra Budgetary Resource (EBR) in which a part of the bill will be borne by the State Government towards the railway line.
Many local cable television channels are available in Kannur. The most popular cable channels are City Channel, City Gold, City Juke, Network Channel(s), Zeal Network, Kannur Vision, World Vision, Worldvision Music, Chakkarakkal, and Gramika channel Koothuparamba.
All India Radio is broadcast in Kannur at 101.5 MHz. Private FM radio stations in Kannur include:
- Radio Mango 91.9 (Malayala Manorama Co Ltd)
- Club FM 94.3 (Mathrubhumi Printing And Publishing Co Ltd)
- Red FM 93.5 (Sun Network)
- Best FM 95.0 (Asianet Communications Ltd)
A number of newspapers are published from Kannur, including the Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Madhyamam, Deshabhimani, Deepika, Rashtra Deepika, Chandrika, Kerala Kaumudi, Mangalam, Janmabhumi, Veekshanam, Thejas, Siraj, Suprabhaatham, Janayugom and The New Indian Express.
Actors: Sreenivasan, M. N. Nambiar, Malavika Mohanan, Samvrutha Sunil, Geetu Mohandas, Mamta Mohandas, Jishnu Raghavan, Vineeth, Vineeth Kumar, Deepak Parambol, Sanusha, Sanoop Santhosh, Nikhila Vimal, Nivetha Thomas, Sreekala Sasidharan, Anju Aravind, Athmiya, Sruthi Lakshmi
Cinematographer: K. U. Mohanan
Dancer: Shamna Kasim
Geography and climate
Kannur experiences a rare humid tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate classification (Am). In April and May, the average daily maximum temperature is about 35 °C (95 °F). Temperatures are moderate in December and January: about 24 °C (75 °F). Like other areas on the Malabar Coast, this town receives heavy rainfall during the Southwest monsoon. The annual average rainfall is 3438 mm, around 68% of which is received in summer.
|Climate data for Kannur (1978–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.8
|Average high °C (°F)||32.7
|Average low °C (°F)||21.5
|Record low °C (°F)||16.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||3.9
|Average rainy days||0.2||0.0||0.5||2.5||7.9||24.2||25.0||21.6||11.2||10.5||5.2||1.3||110.0|
|Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Cannanore.|