Kalix (Kalix dialect: Kôlis, pronounced [ˈcʰ(j)ɞɽɪs], phonemically /kɞɽis/; Finnish: Kainuu; Meänkieli: Kainus) is a locality and the seat of the Kalix Municipality in Norrbotten County, Sweden. The name Kalix is believed to originate from the Sami word Gáláseatnu, or "Kalasätno", meaning "The cold river" the ancient name of the Kalix River. It had 7,299 inhabitants in 2005, out of 17,300 inhabitants in the municipality of Kalix.
|Coordinates: 65°51′N 23°10′E|
|• Total||7.57 km2 (2.92 sq mi)|
|• Density||964/km2 (2,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
There is a culinary speciality specific to Kalix, called Kalix Löjrom, also referred to as caviar of Kalix. It is basically fish eggs (caviar) of the Common bleak, but because of the large influx of fresh water from the huge rivers around and in Kalix, this has transformed the taste of the fish eggs, rendering them unique in flavour to this area alone. It is the special mix of the elements bromine, strontium, iodine, selenium, molybdenum, barium and lithium, along with a unique ratio between strontium and barium, that makes the Kalixlöjrom unique, which is why the EU has granted the Protected Geographical Status for the Kalixlöjrom. The Kalix Löjrom has been present at many Nobel dinners through the years, and among others, the 1990 Gastronomy Academy gold medal winner Norbert Lang of Paul & Norbert in Stockholm likes his Kalixlöjrom.
Sites of interest
Bergön is known as having the best sauna in the Kalix archipelago. Halsön has a large white sand beach with barbecue camps. The true gem however, is Malören. Malören is the final outpost of the archipelago and has as such had maritime pilots placed there from the 1830s all the way up to 1967. The island has a church, a small village with houses mostly used as summer cabins today, but also interesting remains of a time past, like one or two graves, a labyrinth and a wreck. The archipelago is important to the people of Kalix - if one does not have a cabin there then at least a good boat to get from island to island in. And one of the summer highlights for the local population is the sailing races organized by the Kalix sail- and race boat society (Kalix Segel och Motorbåtssällskap, KSMS).
The perhaps most interesting building in Kalix is Kalix Church. The building of the church started in the first half of the 15th century. The first time it is mentioned in writing is in an indulgence letter written on June 29, 1472 by archbishop Jakob Ulfsson Örnfot of Uppsala. The letter of indulgence was written on the same day that the archbishop inaugurated the polyptych. The church also has a very interesting history, with a remarkably well preserved girl buried under the entrance dressed like a bride, and the fact that the church was used as a stable for the horses of the Russian army in 1808.
About 4500 years ago the climate in the north of the Nordic countries started to warm up after the last ice age. The warmth together with isostasy made it possible to inhabit the area around Kalix.
Already around year 1000 Kalix had goods from the forest and river which would cause people from the south to sail all the way up to Kalix. The tradition of trading seems to have continued across the centuries because when Carl von Linné and his apprentice Lars Montin visited the Kalix marketplace in 1732 and 1749 he complained about the haggling with the Kalix' traders which allowed the people of Kalix a good price on butter and tar but drove up the inflation in Stockholm.
Kalix as a socken (Nordic name for local geographic area with its own administration) was first mentioned in 1482. Before this point the area had been referred to with many different names: Caliss, Kaliss, Calixe, Calix and Neder Kalix. To confuse things further, a current municipality called Överkalix (Upper Kalix) was a part of the Kalix municipality until 1644, when it became its own municipality, with the result that people started referring to Kalix as "Nederkalix (Lower Kalix).
During the 18th century each village in the Kalix area had its own part of the river to fish Salmon and Common whitefish. The villages along the coast line caught Common bleak and Herring. Part of the catch was transported down south, along with Seal blubber and tar. Around 1660 a copper mine was opened south of Bodträsk by Moån village. At the end of the 18th century Björkfors village also opened a mine, and in Törefors village an iron mine opened in 1801.
On March 25, 1809, Kalix was the location of the capitulation of the Swedish Army in the Finnish war. In effect it surrendered Finland to Russia. Peace talks were initiated in the Finnish town Fredrikshamn (or Hamina in Finnish), and a peace treaty was signed on August 30.
The biggest employer in Kalix is the municipality, with 1600 employees. The hospital in Kalix comes second with 503 employees.
In the private sector the biggest employers are:
- Billerud Karlsborg AB 420 employees
- Part AB 164 employees
- Borö pannan AB 110 employees
- Samhall AB 110 employees
- Silja Line/Tallink AB 83 employees
- Rolfs såg och hyvleri 76 employees
The income and employment for many people in Kalix still revolves around the forest industry (Billerud Karlsborg AB and Rolfs Såg och hyvleri, and partially Part AB). Billerud is a paper packaging industry. Karlsborg is today one of Europe's biggest makers of white, porous paper for packaging of building materials, but they also have production of other strong packaging paper, and some white, long fiber sulphate mass. Part AB makes prefabricated bathrooms that they sell all over Europe. Rolfs Såg och hyvleri AB refined wood into building material like planks, but also saw dust pellets to heat houses. Borö Pannan AB makes accumulator tanks for water heating. Silja Line/Tallink AB are a phone service based office, taking advantage of the perception that the northern accent is pleasant to listen to over the phone, not to mention that the salaries up north are lower than in the south of Sweden.
The financial situation for the municipality of Kalix looks dark. The economy of the municipality has deteriorated over the past few years. In 2005 the tax incomes from local inhabitants was 562.5 million SEK in 2005 compared to 616.2 million SEK in 2008, but even so, the debt has increased by 8,8% (from 459,278,410 SEK to 499,997,708 SEK). During the same time period, meaning 2005 to 2008, the tax subsidies from the state taxes has increased from 197.1 million SEK to 210.1 million SEK. The municipality population has been steadily decreasing since 1955, and 321 people have left the municipality just between 2005 and 2008. Kalix has, in other words, a smaller population with a higher tax pressure, but also a much bigger debt than ever before.
The following sports clubs are located in Kalix:
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kalix.|
- "Tätorternas landareal, folkmängd och invånare per km2 2005 och 2010" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-08-14. Retrieved 2010-04-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Swedish public radio - Kalixlöjrom protected
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-04-14. Retrieved 2010-04-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Nobel Prize dinners with Kalixlöjrom
- Norbert Lang and Kalix Löjrom on Swedish television
- Norbert Lang back on Swedish television with another Kalixlöjrom recipe
- , Upplev bottenviken.
- , KSMS 2010.
- , Nederkalix församling 2010.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-08-14. Retrieved 2010-04-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), Kalix Historia
- Billerud Karlsborg AB
- Part AB
- Borö Pannan AB, Kalix
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-05-03. Retrieved 2010-04-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Silja Line/Tallink AB Kalix office
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-08-23. Retrieved 2010-04-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Kalix municipality facts 2009