He graduated from the University of Tartu in 1975. His earlier work dealt with ethology and field ecology. He has studied the mechanisms of species coexistence in species-rich communities and developed mathematical modelling in ecophysiology. Since 1975, he has been the main organiser of annual meetings of theoretical biology in Estonia. In 1992, he became a Professor of Ecophysiology in the University of Tartu. In 1997, he joined the Department of Semiotics, and became a Professor in Biosemiotics. From 2006 to 2018, he was the Head of the Department of Semiotics in the University of Tartu, Estonia. His field of interests include biosemiotics, ecosemiotics, general semiotics, theoretical biology, theory of evolution, history and philosophy of semiotics and life science.
Ecologist Olevi Kull was his younger brother.
- Emmeche, Claus; Kull, Kalevi (eds.) (2011). Towards a Semiotic Biology: Life is the Action of Signs. London: Imperial College Press.
- Favareau, Donald (2010). "Chapter 13: Theoretical Biology on Its Way to Biosemiotics". Essential Readings in Biosemiotics: Anthology and Commentary. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 417–444. ISBN 9781402096501.
- Oren, Ram; Kull, Kalevi; Noormets, Asko (April 2008). "Olevi Kull's lifetime contribution to ecology". Tree Physiology. 28 (4): 483–490. doi:10.1093/treephys/28.4.483. PMID 18244935.