K-edge is the binding energy of the K-shell (innermost, using X-ray notation) electron of an atom. There is a sudden increase in the attenuation coefficient of photons occurring at a photon energy just above the binding energy of the K-shell electron of the atoms interacting with the photons. This sudden increase in attenuation is due to photoelectric absorption of the photons. For this interaction to occur, the photons must have more energy than the binding energy of the K-shell electrons (K-edge). A photon having an energy just above the binding energy of the electron is therefore more likely to be absorbed than a photon having an energy just below this binding energy.
The two radiocontrast agents iodine and barium have ideal K-shell binding energies for absorption of X-rays: 33.2 keV and 37.4 keV respectively, which is close to the mean energy of most diagnostic X-ray beams. Similar sudden increases in attenuation may also be found for other inner shells than the K shell; the general term for the phenomenon is absorption edge.
Dual-energy computed tomography techniques take advantage of the increased attenuation of iodinated radiocontrast at lower tube energies to heighten the degree of contrast between iodinated radiocontrast and other high attenuation biological material present in the body such as blood and hemorrhage.