Jura (department)

Jura (/ˈ(d)ʒʊərə/ JOOR-ə, ZHOOR, French: [ʒyʁa] (listen)) is a department of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in the east of France named after the Jura Mountains.

Jura

Flag

Coat of arms
Location of Jura in France
Coordinates: 46°40′31″N 5°33′16″E
CountryFrance
RegionBourgogne-Franche-Comté
PrefectureLons-le-Saunier
SubprefecturesDole
Saint-Claude
Government
  President of the General CouncilGérard Bailly
Area
  Total4,999 km2 (1,930 sq mi)
Highest elevation
1,200 m (3,900 ft)
Lowest elevation
200 m (700 ft)
Population
 (2016)
  Total260,517
  Rank79th
  Density52/km2 (130/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Department number39
Arrondissements3
Cantons17
Communes494
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2

History

Historically, Jura belonged to the Free County of Burgundy, known in French as the Franche-Comté. Dole was the capital until the region was conquered by Louis XIV and the capital was moved to Besançon. Dole is now a sous-préfecture, or sub-prefecture, of Jura.

As early as the 13th century, inhabitants of the southern two-thirds of Jura spoke a dialect of Arpitan language. It continued to be spoken in rural areas into the 20th century.

Jura is one of the original 83 departments, it being the created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790. It was created from part of the former province of Franche-Comté. The prefecture (capital) is Lons-le-Saunier.

Demographics

Population development since 1801:

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1801288,151    
1806300,050+0.81%
1821301,768+0.04%
1831312,504+0.35%
1841316,884+0.14%
1851313,299−0.11%
1861298,053−0.50%
1872287,634−0.32%
1881285,263−0.09%
1891273,028−0.44%
1901261,288−0.44%
1911252,713−0.33%
1921229,062−0.98%
1931229,109+0.00%
1936220,797−0.74%
1946216,386−0.20%
1954220,202+0.22%
1962225,682+0.31%
1968233,547+0.57%
1975238,856+0.32%
1982242,925+0.24%
1990248,759+0.30%
1999250,857+0.09%
2010261,534+0.38%
2016260,587−0.06%
source:[1]

Geography

Jura is one of eight departments of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region and is surrounded by the French departments of Doubs, Haute-Saône, Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, and Ain, as well as the Swiss canton of Vaud on the east.

The Jura mountains are wooded and rolling, not craggy and rocky like the Alps.

Many lakes can be found throughout the Jura - the largest natural lake being Lac de Chalain, measuring 3 km long and 1 km wide. Lac de Vouglans was formed after the building of a hydro-electric dam. It is one of the largest man-made lakes in France.

Politics

The President of the General Council is Jean Raquin (Miscellaneous Right).

Partyseats
Union for a Popular Movement15
Socialist Party8
Miscellaneous Left6
French Communist Party3
Miscellaneous Right2

Current National Assembly Representatives

ConstituencyMember[2]Party
Jura's 1st constituency Danielle Brulebois La République En Marche!
Jura's 2nd constituency Marie-Christine Dalloz The Republicans
Jura's 3rd constituency Jean-Marie Sermier The Republicans

Climate

The climate of the Jura varies greatly by elevation. The lower valleys are temperate and pleasant, but the high mountain valleys have bitterly cold winters.

Economy

Jura is a wine-growing region. The Jura wines are very distinctive and unusual wines, such as vin jaune, which is made by a similar process to sherry, developing under a flor of yeast. This is made from the local Savagnin grape variety. Other grape varieties include Poulsard, Trousseau, and Chardonnay.

The department contains no industrial cities: the few towns function as administrative and commercial centres serving Jura's rural economy. In the absence of large-scale industrial enterprises, small artisanal businesses play an important role. The Jura CFA (Centre for apprenticeship and training) recently recorded 752 current apprenticeships in trades such as building, baking, butchery, hair dressing, car repairing, sales and other non-factory based occupations.

Tourism

The Jura mountains provide ample opportunities for hiking, skiing, and other winter sports.

See also

References

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