Jujuy (Spanish pronunciation: [xuˈxui̯]) is a province of Argentina, located in the extreme northwest of the country, at the borders with Chile and Bolivia. The only neighbouring Argentine province is Salta to the east and south.
Coat of arms
Location of Jujuy within Argentina
|Capital||San Salvador de Jujuy|
|Municipalities and municipal commissions||61|
|• Governor||Gerardo Morales (Radical Civic Union)|
|• Total||53,219 km2 (20,548 sq mi)|
|• Density||13/km2 (33/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−3 (ART)|
|ISO 3166 code||AR-Y|
|HDI (2016)||0.834 Very High (17th)|
Geography and climate
There are three main areas in Jujuy; the Altiplano, a plateau 3,500 meters high with peaks of 5,000 meters, covers most of the province. The Río Grande of Jujuy cuts through the Quebrada de Humahuaca canyon, of heights between 1,000 and 3,500 meters. To the southeast, the sierras descends to the Gran Chaco region. The vast difference in height and climate produces desert areas such as the Salinas Grandes salt mines, and subtropical Yungas jungle.
The terrain of the province is mainly arid and semi-desertic across the different areas, except for the El Ramal valley of the San Francisco River. Temperature difference between day and night is wider in higher lands, and precipitation is scarce outside the temperate area of the San Francisco River.
Pre-Columbian inhabitants known as the Omaguacas and Ocloyas practiced agriculture and domesticated the guanaco. They had huts made of mud, and erected stone fortresses to protect their villages. An example of such fortresses is Pucará de Tilcara, Pucará meaning "fortress" (word also used for the Argentine combat aircraft Pucara). Omaguacas and Ocloyas were later conquered by the Incas during their expansion period.
In 1593, a small settlement was erected in the Jujuy valley by the effort of Francisco de Argañaraz y Murguía. In spite of the attacks of the Calchaquíes and Omaguacas aborigines, the population and activity of the village consolidated and grew.
During the May Revolution and the battles for the independence of the United provinces of the South, many confrontations took place in Jujuy because the Spanish concentrated their forces in Peru. The people of Jujuy had to endure the Jujuy Exodus, a massive evacuation with a scorched earth policy, led by General Manuel Belgrano. Eventually the Spanish surrendered, but the war had seriously affected the economy of the area.
After a series of internal conflicts, the province declared its autonomy from Tucumán and Salta Provinces on November 18, 1834. Jujuy started a gradual process of economic and social improvement, and at the end of the 19th century the sugarcane industry arose. At the beginning of the 20th century, the railway connected the province with Buenos Aires, and La Paz, Bolivia.
In 1945, heavy industry first arrived in Jujuy at the hand of General Manuel Savio, a presidential economic advisor who, had Argentina's first modern steel mill installed in Jujuy. In 1969, Jujuy joined oil-rich neighboring Salta Province with the discovery of petroleum by the state-owned YPF.
The Gobernador Horacio Guzmán International Airport has operated since 1967.
The Colla people are indigenous people who have been living in Jujuy for centuries, practising subsistent living and farming with llamas and goats. A group of small producers from Suqueños have been fighting in defense of Pachamama and their rights as members of Atacama people. Thirty-three villages have united to oppose the lithium extraction as it requires much water which the region has very little of. As of 2019, at a single salt lake 10 billion liters of water were being pumped up from 450 meter depth into solar ponds. They also claim that lithium operations have contaminated the air with residuals of chemicals used to extract lithium like lye, hydrated sodium carbonate and others. The dust irritates the eyes of llamas and can cause blindness.
Jujuy is, despite its rural profile, not particularly agrarian. Agriculture contributes about 10% to output and the main agricultural activity is sugarcane. Its processing represents more than half of the province's gross production, and 30% of the national sugar production. The second agricultural activity is tobacco, cultivated in the Southeastern valley, as a major national producer.
Other crops include beans, citrus and tomatoes, and other vegetables for local consumption. Cattle and goats are raised on a small scale, mainly for local dairies, and llamas, vicuñas and guanacos are raised in significant numbers for wool.
Manufacturing is more prominent in Jujuy than in some neighboring provinces, adding 15% to its economy. Jujuy is the second largest Argentine producer of iron, used by the Altos Hornos Zapla steel mill.
Other industrial activities include mining for construction material, petroleum extraction at Caimancito, salt production from Salinas Grandes salt basin, and paper production fed by the Jujuy's forests with 20% of the industrial product of the province.
Argentina is the world's second largest lithium brine producer which is located in Jujuy. The so-called Lithium Triangle, consisting of NW Argentina, Bolivia and NE Chile holds more than half the world's supply.
An important and still growing activity, tourism in the area brings a number of Argentine tourists (80%), tourists from other South American countries (12%) and Europeans (7%). Most tourists head for San Salvador de Jujuy to start their exploration of the province. The Horacio Guzmán international airport, 34 km from San Salvador, connects the province with Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and some destinations in Bolivia.
Apart from the fantastic contrast of land colours and formations, tourists are attracted also by the strong aboriginal roots in the culture of Jujuy. Aymará and Quechua cultures coexist in the area, and ruins of the Incas are well conserved.
Tourists who come to Jujuy visit the area of the Quebrada de Humahuaca and its Cerro de los Siete Colores, Pucará de Tilcara, Salinas Grandes and many small towns. Other less frequent destinations include the Calilegua National Park in the Yungas jungle, La Quiaca, Laguna de Pozuelos, and Laguna Guayatayoc.
The province is divided into 16 departments (in the Spanish language, departamentos).
- Cochinoca (Abra Pampa)
- El Carmen (El Carmen)
- Doctor Manuel Belgrano (San Salvador de Jujuy)
- Humahuaca (Humahuaca)
- Ledesma (Libertador General San Martín)
- Palpalá (Palpalá)
- Rinconada (Rinconada)
- San Antonio (San Antonio, Jujuy)
- San Pedro (San Pedro)
- Santa Bárbara (Palma Sola, Jujuy)
- Santa Catalina (Santa Catalina)
- Susques (Susques)
- Tilcara (Tilcara)
- Tumbaya (Tumbaya)
- Valle Grande (Valle Grande)
- Yavi (La Quiaca)
Filmed in Jujuy Province
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-09-01. Retrieved 2015-03-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Información para el desarrollo sostenible: Argentina y la Agenda 2030" (PDF) (in Spanish). United Nations Development Programme. p. 155. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- Iglesias, Jorge (5 June 2014). "Secan la Puna jujeña para extraer litio". colectivoapacheta (Interview). Interviewed by Enredando las Mañanas.
- "Kann das Elektro-Auto die Umwelt retten? Reportage & Dokumentation". Das Erste. 3 June 2019. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
- "El déficit consolidado de las provincias rondará los $11.500 millones este año" (in Spanish). Instituto Argentino para el Desarrollo de las Economías Regionales. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- "Lithium—For Harnessing Renewable Energy" (PDF). U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. April 2014. p. 1.
- Katwala, Amit (5 August 2018). "The spiralling environmental cost of our lithium battery addiction". Wired.
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