Joint Photographic Experts Group

The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is the joint committee between ISO/IEC JTC 1 and ITU-T (formerly CCITT) that created and maintains the JPEG, JPEG 2000, and JPEG XR standards. It is one of two sub-groups of ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) – titled as Coding of still pictures.[1][2][3] In the ITU-T, its work falls in the domain of the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG). ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 Working Group 1 (working together with ITU-T Study Group 16 – SG16[4] and previously also with Study Group 8 – SG8[5][6]) is responsible for the JPEG and JBIG standards.[7] The scope of the organization includes the work of both the Joint Photographic Experts Group and Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group.[1][8]

In April 1983, ISO started to work to add photo quality graphics to text terminals. In the mid-1980s, both CCITT (now ITU-T) and ISO had standardization groups for image coding: CCITT Study Group VIII (SG8) – Telematic Services and ISO TC97 SC2 WG8 – Coding of Audio and Picture Information.[9][10] They were historically targeted on image communication. In 1986, it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Photographic Expert Group.[11] The JPEG committee was created in 1986.[12] In 1988, it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Bi-level Image Group (JBIG).[11] The group typically meets three times annually in North America, Asia and Europe. The group often meets jointly with the JBIG committee.[10][13] The current JPEG president is Touradj Ebrahimi,[14][15] who was previously chairman of the JPEG 2000 development group[16] and led the MPEG-4 standards committee.[17]

Joint Bi-level Image experts Group

The Joint Bi-level Image experts Group (JBIG) is the second sub-group of the same working group (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) as the Joint Photographic Experts Group, which focuses on binary images.[1] They created the JBIG and JBIG2 standard.[7][13]

Standards published and under development

The JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) as a sub-group of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 Coding of Still Pictures (working as a joint team with ITU-T SG 16) have developed various standards, which have been published by ITU-T and/or ISO/IEC. The standards developed by the JPEG and JBIG sub-groups are referred to as a joint development of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 and ITU-T SG 16. The JPEG standards consist of different Parts. Each part covers a certain aspect of the whole specification. Some of the published JPEG standards were revised by later amendments and/or new editions. Standards developed and under development by JPEG are shown in the table below.[2][18]

Joint Photographic Experts Group - standards published and under development
Common NamePartFirst public release date (First edition)ISO/IEC NumberITU NumberFormal Title
JPEGPart 11992ISO/IEC 10918-1ITU-T Rec. T.81Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images – Requirements and guidelines
Part 21994ISO/IEC 10918-2ITU-T Rec. T.83Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images – Compliance testing
Part 31996ISO/IEC 10918-3ITU-T Rec. T.84Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Extensions
Part 41998ISO/IEC 10918-4ITU-T Rec. T.86Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Registration of JPEG profiles, SPIFF profiles, SPIFF tags, SPIFF colour spaces, APPn markers, SPIFF compression types and Registration Authorities (REGAUT)
Part 52013ISO/IEC 10918-5ITU-T Rec. T.871Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF)[19]
Part 62013ISO/IEC 10918-6ITU-T Rec. T.872Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Application to printing systems
Part 7under developmentISO/IEC 10918-7Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Reference software[20]
JPEG-LSPart 11998ISO/IEC 14495-1ITU-T Rec. T.87Information technology – Lossless and near-lossless compression of continuous-tone still images: Baseline
Part 22002ISO/IEC 14495-2ITU-T Rec. T.870Information technology – Lossless and near-lossless compression of continuous-tone still images: Extensions
JPEG 2000Part 12000ISO/IEC 15444-1ITU-T Rec. T.800Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system – Core coding system
Part 22004ISO/IEC 15444-2ITU-T Rec. T.801Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system – Extensions
Part 32002ISO/IEC 15444-3ITU-T Rec. T.802Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Motion JPEG 2000
Part 42002ISO/IEC 15444-4ITU-T Rec. T.803Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Conformance testing
Part 52003ISO/IEC 15444-5ITU-T Rec. T.804Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Reference software
Part 62003ISO/IEC 15444-6Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system – Part 6: Compound image file format
Part 82007ISO/IEC 15444-8ITU-T Rec. T.807Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Secure JPEG 2000
Part 92005ISO/IEC 15444-9ITU-T Rec. T.808Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Interactivity tools, APIs and protocols
Part 102008ISO/IEC 15444-10ITU-T Rec. T.809Information technology –JPEG 2000 image coding system: Extensions for three-dimensional data
Part 112007ISO/IEC 15444-11ITU-T Rec. T.810Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Wireless
Part 122004ISO/IEC 15444-12Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system – Part 12: ISO base media file format
Part 132008ISO/IEC 15444-13ITU-T Rec. T.812Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: An entry level JPEG 2000 encoder
Part 142013ISO/IEC 15444-14ITU-T Rec. T.813Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system – Part 14: XML structural representation and reference
MRC1999ISO/IEC 16485ITU-T Rec. T.44Information technology – Mixed Raster Content (MRC)
JPSearchPart 12007ISO/IEC TR 24800-1Information technology – JPSearch – Part 1: System framework and components
Part 22011ISO/IEC 24800-2Information technology – JPSearch – Part 2: Registration, identification and management of schema and ontology
Part 32010ISO/IEC 24800-3Information technology – JPSearch – Part 3: Query format
Part 42010ISO/IEC 24800-4Information technology – JPSearch – Part 4: File format for metadata embedded in image data (JPEG and JPEG 2000)
Part 52011ISO/IEC 24800-5Information technology – JPSearch – Part 5: Data interchange format between image repositories
Part 62012ISO/IEC 24800-6Information technology – JPSearch – Part 6: Reference software
JPEG XRPart 12011ISO/IEC TR 29199-1T.Sup2Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 1: System architecture
Part 22009ISO/IEC 29199-2ITU-T Rec. T.832Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 2: Image coding specification
Part 32010ISO/IEC 29199-3ITU-T Rec. T.833Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 3: Motion JPEG XR
Part 42010ISO/IEC 29199-4ITU-T Rec. T.834Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 4: Conformance testing
Part 52010ISO/IEC 29199-5ITU-T Rec. T.835Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 5: Reference software
AICPart 1under developmentISO/IEC TR 29170-1Information technology – Advanced image coding and evaluation methodologies – Part 1: Guidelines for codec evaluation
Part 22015ISO/IEC 29170-2Information technology – Advanced image coding and evaluation – Part 2: Evaluation procedure for nearly lossless coding
JPEG XTPart 12015ISO/IEC 18477-1Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 1: Core Coding System Specification
Part 22016ISO/IEC 18477-2Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 2: Coding of High Dynamic Range Images
Part 32015ISO/IEC 18477-3Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 3: Box file format
Part 4under developmentISO/IEC 18477-4Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 4: Conformance Testing
Part 5under developmentISO/IEC 18477-5Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 5: Reference software
Part 62016ISO/IEC 18477-6Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 6: IDR Integer coding
Part 72017ISO/IEC 18477-7Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 7: HDR Floating-Point Coding
Part 82016ISO/IEC 18477-8Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 8: Lossless and Near-lossless Coding
Part 92016ISO/IEC 18477-9Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 9: Alpha channel coding

JPEG XL

In 2017, JTC1/SC29/WG1 issued a Call for proposals for JPEG XL  the next generation image coding standard.[21] The standard is expected to follow still image compression performance shown by HEVC HM, Daala and WebP. The core requirements include better compression efficiency, 8–10 bits per component, RGB/YCbCr/ICtCp color encoding, animated images, alpha channel coding, Rec.709 color space and gamma, Rec.2100 wide color gamut and high dynamic range, and high-quality compression of synthetic images, such as bitmap fonts and gradients. Additional requirements include higher bit depths (12–16 bit integer and floating point), different color spaces (Rec. 709, Rec.2020/2100, and LogC), embedded preview images, lossless alpha channel encoding, image region coding, and low-complexity encoding. Any patented technologies would be licensed on a royalty-free basis.[22] The current target publication date is October 2019.[23] Reference software implementation of JPEG XL will losslessly transcode JPEG images while reducing their size by 20%,[24] and will also include lightweight lossless conversion to JPEG for backward compatibility.

Joint Photographic Experts Group - evolution of JPEG XL
Common NamePartFirst public release date (First edition)ISO/IEC NumberITU NumberFormal Title
JPEG XLunder developmentISO/IEC WD 18181JPEG XL Image Coding System

See also

References

  1. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 (2009-05-07). "ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 - Coding of Still Pictures (SC 29/WG 1 Structure)". Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
  2. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29. "Programme of Work, (Allocated to SC 29/WG 1)". Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
  3. ISO. "JTC 1/SC 29 - Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information". Retrieved 2009-11-11.
  4. "ITU-T Home : Study Groups : Study Group 16 - Question 6/16 – Visual coding". ITU-T. Retrieved 2010-03-07.
  5. ITU-T, ITU-T Study Group 8 List of Questions under Study (Study Period 1997 - 2000) (DOC), retrieved 2010-03-07
  6. ITU-T. "ITU-T Study Group 8 (Study Period 1997-2000)". Retrieved 2010-03-07.
  7. JPEG. "Joint Photographic Experts Group, JBIG Homepage". Retrieved 2009-11-08.
  8. JPEG, JBIG (2007). "About our committee". Archived from the original on 2009-10-17. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
  9. ITU-T. "ITU-T extensions to JPEG-1". Retrieved 2010-03-07.
  10. chiariglione.org (2009-09-06). "Riding the Media Bits, The Faultline". Archived from the original on October 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
  11. ITU-T (2005-07-23), The First Joint ITU ISO/IEC Still Image Compression Standards (PDF), p. 3, retrieved 2009-11-12
  12. JPEG. "Joint Photographic Experts Group, JPEG Homepage". Retrieved 2009-11-08.
  13. JPEG. "How does JPEG work?". Archived from the original on 2010-06-12. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
  14. Pessina, Laure-Anne (12 December 2014). "JPEG changed our world". EPFL News. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  15. "JPEG changed our world". Phys.org. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  16. Taubman, David; Marcellin, Michael (2012). JPEG2000 Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice: Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781461507994.
  17. Ebrahimi, Touradj; Pereira, Fernando (2002). The MPEG-4 Book. Prentice Hall Professional. ISBN 9780130616210.
  18. ISO. "JTC 1/SC 29 - Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information". Retrieved 2009-11-07.
  19. JPEG (2009-04-24). "Press Release - 48th WG1 meeting, Maui, USA - JPEG XR enters FDIS status, JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF) to be standardized as JPEG Part 5". Archived from the original on 2009-10-08. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
  20. Press Release of the 78th JPEG Meeting in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  21. "JPEG - Next-Generation Image Compression (JPEG XL) Final Draft Call for Proposals". Jpeg.org. April 23, 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  22. "JPEG XL reaches Committee Draft". JPEG Org. 3 August 2019. Archived from the original (html) on 3 August 2019. Retrieved 3 August 2019. The current contributors have committed to releasing it publicly under a royalty-free and open source license.
  23. "N79010 Final Call for Proposals for a Next-Generation Image Coding Standard (JPEG XL)" (PDF). ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 (ITU-T SG16). Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  24. https://jpeg.org/items/20190803_press.html
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