Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM), located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States (founded in 1893) is the academic medical teaching and research arm of the Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876. The School of Medicine shares a campus with the Johns Hopkins Hospital, established in 1889. Johns Hopkins has consistently ranked among the top medical schools in the United States and in the number of research grants awarded by the National Institutes of Health. Its main teaching hospital, the Johns Hopkins Hospital, was ranked the number one hospital in the United States for 22 years by U.S. News & World Report.
|Endowment||US$ 1.9 billion|
|Dean||Paul B. Rothman|
|Predecessor||Edward D. Miller|
|Students||480 M.D. 1,400 total|
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine is located off Broadway in the East Baltimore campus of the Johns Hopkins University together with the Johns Hopkins Hospital, the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and the School of Nursing. Known collectively as the "Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions" (JHMI) Campus, it spans several city blocks, radiating outwards from the 1889 original landmark red brick Billings building of the Johns Hopkins Hospital with its historic dome (cupola).
The founding physicians (the "Four Doctors") of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine included pathologist William Henry Welch (1850-1934), the first dean of the school and a mentor to generations of research scientists; a Canadian, internist Sir William Osler (1849-1919), regarded as the Father of Modern Medicine, having been perhaps the most influential physician of the late 19th and early 20th centuries as author of The Principles and Practice of Medicine (1892), written at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and published for more than a century; surgeon William Stewart Halsted (1852-1922), who revolutionized surgery by insisting on subtle skill and technique, as well as strict adherence to sanitary procedures; and gynecologist Howard Atwood Kelly (1858-1943), a superb gynecological surgeon credited with establishing gynecology as a specialty and being among the first to use radium to treat cancer.
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, which was finally begun 17 years after its original visionary benefactor Johns Hopkins (1795-1873), died and opened only with the large financial help offered by several wealthy daughters of the city's business elite on condition that the medical school be open equally to students of both sexes, consequently one of the first co-educational medical colleges.
The School of Medicine is affiliated with the Johns Hopkins Hospital, its main teaching hospital, as well as several other regional medical centers, including the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center on Eastern Avenue in East Baltimore; the Howard County General Hospital, near Ellicott City, southwest of Baltimore; Suburban Hospital in Bethesda in suburban Montgomery County, (northwest of Washington, D.C.); Sibley Memorial Hospital in Washington, D.C.; and Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital in St. Petersburg, Florida. Together, they form an academic health science center.
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine is the home of many medical advancements and contributions, including the first of many to admit women and to introduce rubber gloves, which provided a sterile approach to conducting surgical procedures. Johns Hopkins has also published The Harriet Lane Handbook, an indispensable tool for pediatricians, for over 60 years. The Lieber Institute for Brain Development is an affiliate of the School.
For years, Johns Hopkins has been among the nation's top medical schools in the number of competitive research grants awarded by the National Institutes of Health. According to U.S. News and World Report, Johns Hopkins ranks #2 among research-oriented medical schools, and has always ranked in the top 3. Its major teaching hospital, the Johns Hopkins Hospital, was ranked the top hospital in the United States every year from 1991 to 2011 by U.S. News & World Report. International Business Times named an MD from Johns Hopkins one of the five most prestigious degrees in the world. Some achievements attributed to the school include the development of CPR, the discovery of the first effective treatments for severe forms of sickle cell disease, the development of the first biological pacemaker for the heart, and the planning and performance of one of the most challenging double arm transplants to date.
According to the Flexner Report, Hopkins has served as the model for American medical education. It was the first medical school to require its students to have an undergraduate degree and was also the first graduate-level medical school to admit women on an equal basis as men. Mary Elizabeth Garrett, head of the Women's Medical School Fund, was a driving force behind both of these firsts. Sir William Osler became the first Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins and the first Physician-in-Chief at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Osler was responsible for establishing the residency system of postgraduate medical training, where young physicians were required to reside within the hospital to better care for their patients.
Colleges Advising Program
Upon matriculation, medical students at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine are divided into four Colleges named after famous Hopkins faculty members who have had an impact in the history of medicine (Florence Sabin, Vivien Thomas, Daniel Nathans and Helen Taussig). The Colleges were established to "foster camaraderie, networking, advising, mentoring, professionalism, clinical skills, and scholarship" in 2005. In each incoming class, 30 students are assigned to each College, and each College is further subdivided into six molecules of five students each. Each molecule is advised and taught by a faculty advisor, who instructs them in Clinical Foundations of Medicine, a core first-year course, and continue advising them throughout their 4 years of medical school. The family within each college of each molecule across the four years who belong to a given advisor is referred to as a macromolecule. Every year, the Colleges compete in the “College Olympics” in late October, a competition that includes athletic events and sports as well as art battles and dance-offs. Sabin College is the defending Olympics champion from both 2017 and 2018. Taussig College has held the Spirit Award each consecutive Olympics since 2016.
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine is led by Ronald J. Daniels, the president of the Johns Hopkins University, Paul B. Rothman, CEO and dean of the medical faculty, and Ronald R. Peterson, president of the Johns Hopkins Hospital and health system. The CFO of Johns Hopkins Medicine is Richard A. Grossi, who is also the Senior Associate Dean for Finance and Administration and executive vice president of Johns Hopkins Medicine.
Vice deans preside over specific administrative task areas. The vice deans are: William A Baumgartner, Vice Dean for Clinical Affairs; Janice E. Clements, Vice Dean for Faculty Affairs; Landon King, Vice Dean for Research; Daniel E. Ford, Vice Dean for Clinical Investigation; David G. Nichols, Vice Dean for Education; and David Hellmann, Vice Dean for the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. The dean's office also includes over twenty administrators in the position of associate or assistant dean.
- Gregg Semenza – Faculty, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2019
- William Kaelin Jr. – former resident, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2019
- Carol Greider – Faculty, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2009
- Oliver Smithies – Faculty, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2007
- Richard Axel – MD 1971, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2004
- Peter Agre – MD 1974, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 2003
- Paul Greengard – PhD 1953, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2000
- David Hubel – former resident, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1981
- Torsten Wiesel – Faculty, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1981
- Hamilton O. Smith – Faculty, MD 1956, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1978
- Daniel Nathans - Faculty, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1978
- Haldan Keffer Hartline – MD 1927, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1967
- Francis Peyton Rous – MD, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1966
- Joseph Erlanger – MD 1899, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1944
- Herbert Spencer Gasser – MD 1915, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1944
- George Richards Minot – Assistant in Medicine, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1934
- George Hoyt Whipple – MD 1905, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1934
- Thomas Hunt Morgan – PhD 1890, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1933
Notable faculty and alumni
- John Jacob Abel – Pharmacologist, founder and chair of the first department of pharmacology in the U.S.
- Fuller Albright – endocrinologist, trained at Johns Hopkins; Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy; McCune–Albright syndrome
- Dorothy Hansine Andersen - identified cystic fibrosis and Andersen's disease
- John Auer – physiologist and pharmacologist, namesake of the Auer rod in acute myeloid leukemia
- Stanhope Bayne-Jones – Bacteriologist and U.S. Army Brigadier General
- Jeremy M. Berg – former Director of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry; co-author of the widely used Biochemistry textbook
- George Packer Berry - Dean of Harvard Medical School
- John Shaw Billings – Civil War surgeon, pioneering leader in hygiene
- Alfred Blalock – Developed field of cardiac surgery; Blalock–Taussig shunt
- Max Brödel – Acclaimed medical illustrator; illustrated for Harvey Cushing, William Halsted and Howard Kelly
- William R. Brody – Radiologist, President of the Salk Institute, former President of Johns Hopkins University
- Ernesto Bustamante – Biochemist & Molecular Biologist, former Chief of the National Institute of Health of Peru
- Ben Carson – retired pediatric neurosurgeon, U. S. Secretary of housing and urban development, awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom
- Caroline August Chandler - Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Patricia Charache – Microbiologist and infectious disease specialist
- Denton Cooley – Renowned cardiovascular surgeon
- John Fielding Crigler – pediatrician; first described Crigler–Najjar syndrome
- Harvey Cushing – Father of modern neurosurgery; Cushing's syndrome; Cushing ulcer
- Walter Dandy – Neurosurgeon, namesake of the Dandy-Walker malformation
- George Delahunty – physiologist and endocrinologist; Lilian Welsh Professor of Biology at Goucher College
- Harry Dietz – pediatric geneticist; described Loeys–Dietz syndrome
- Catherine Clarke Fenselau – Biochemist and mass spectrometrist
- Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr. - described Li–Fraumeni syndrome; trained at Johns Hopkins
- Irwin Freedberg - former Director of Dermatology
- Ernest William Goodpasture – pathologist, described Goodpasture syndrome
- William Halsted – Father of modern surgery
- J. William Harbour M.D. – Ocular oncologist, cancer researcher and vice chairman at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute in Miami
- Andy Harris – U.S. Congressman, 1st District of Maryland
- Tinsley R. Harrison – Cardiologist, editor of the first five editions of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine
- Arthur Douglass Hirschfelder- apprentice of William Osler; Johns Hopkins' first full-time cardiologist
- Leroy Hood – Invented automated DNA and protein sequencing, Lasker award winner, entrepreneur
- Howard A. Howe - polio researcher
- Ralph H. Hruban – world expert on pancreatic cancer; authored more than 700 peer-reviewed manuscripts and five books; recognized by Essential Science Indicators as the most highly cited pancreatic cancer scientist
- Kay Redfield Jamison – Psychologist and Psychiatry professor, author of An Unquiet Mind
- James Jude – Father of CPR; thoracic surgeon who developed cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- William Kaelin Jr. – Nobel laureate, trained in internal medicine at Johns Hopkins
- Leo Kanner – Father of child psychiatry; first described autism in Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact (1943)
- Chester Keefer - Served as "penicillin czar" during World War II, responsible for managing distribution and allocation of the then-new drug for civilian uses in the United States, and was dean of the Boston University School of Medicine.
- Howard Kelly – Pioneer in Gynecology; credited with establishing Gynecology as a specialty
- Harry Klinefelter – rheumatologist, endocrinologist, namesake of Klinefelter syndrome
- Ricardo J Komotar – Neurosurgeon; the director of the University of Miami Brain Tumor Initiative, the UM Neurosurgery Residency Program, and the UM Surgical Neurooncology Fellowship Program
- William B. Kouwenhoven – electrical engineer who developed the external defibrillator and helped develop cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- Albert L. Lehninger – former chairman of Biological Chemistry; author of widely used Principles of Biochemistry text
- Michael Lesch – described Lesch–Nyhan syndrome
- Bart Loeys – pediatric geneticist; described Loeys–Dietz syndrome
- Howard Markel – pediatrician, historian of medicine, medical journalist; Guggenheim Fellow, member of the National Academy of Medicine
- Donovan James McCune – described McCune–Albright syndrome
- Paul McHugh – former psychiatrist-in-chief at Johns Hopkins
- Victor A. McKusick – Developed the field of medical genetics; namesake of McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine; founder of OMIM
- John Menkes – identified Menkes disease
- Adolf Meyer – first psychiatrist-in-chief at Johns Hopkins
- Vernon Mountcastle – Neuroscientist, Lasker Award winner
- Victor Assad Najjar – pediatrician; first described Crigler–Najjar syndrome
- William Nyhan – pediatrician, described Lesch–Nyhan syndrome
- William Osler – Father of modern medicine; Osler–Weber–Rendu syndrome (hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia)
- Wilder Penfield – Pioneer of epilepsy neurosurgery; developed the cortical homunculus
- Peter Pronovost – Anesthesiologist; Time 100 (2008); authored over 800 articles/chapters on patient safety and the measurement/evaluation of safety efforts; advisor to the World Health Organization's World Alliance for Patient Safety
- Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa – Acclaimed neurosurgeon; former faculty in neurosurgery
- Mark M. Ravitch – Surgeon; pioneered modern surgical staples
- Dorothy Reed – Pathologist, namesake of the Reed–Sternberg cell in Hodgkin's lymphoma
- Dale G. Renlund – Cardiologist, trained at Johns Hopkins
- Mark C. Rogers – First director of the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1977; authored Rogers’ Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care
- David Sabatini – Howard Hughes Investigator and molecular biologist, discovered mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)
- Florence Sabin – Anatomist, namesake of Sabin College at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
- Ernest Sachs – Neurosurgeon; graduated 1904
- Mark Schlissel – President elect of the University of Michigan
- Pamela Sklar – Neuroscientist and psychiatrist
- Solomon H. Snyder – Neuroscientist, Lasker Award winner
- Gertrude Stein – novelist, poet and playwright
- Charlotte Sumner – neurologist
- Helen Taussig – Founder of pediatric cardiology, developed Blalock–Taussig shunt; namesake of Taussig College at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
- Vivien Thomas – Helped develop the Blalock–Taussig shunt, namesake of Thomas College at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
- Thomas Turner – Microbiologist, former Dean of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine (1957–68), Archivist
- Victor Velculescu – Cancer genomics pioneer; entrepreneur
- Bert Vogelstein – Oncologist, trained in pediatrics; pioneer in cancer genetics, elucidated the role of p53 in cancer
- David B. Weishampel – Paleontologist, author of The Dinosauria
- William H. Welch – Pathologist, Dean of American Medicine, first Dean of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
- Bang Wong – Creative director of the Broad Institute at MIT and Harvard University
- Hugh Hampton Young – Urologist, former head of Urology
- Elias Zerhouni – Radiologist, former Director of the NIH (2002–2008)
In popular culture
- In the television drama Grey's Anatomy, two of the cardiothoracic surgeons Preston Burke and Erica Hahn graduated from Hopkins Med, coming first and second in their class respectively. Arizona Robbins, the head of Pediatric Surgery, is also a Hopkins Med graduate.
- In the movie Annihilation, Natalie Portman's character, Lena, is a biology professor at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
- In the television drama Private Practice, the character Charlotte King is a graduate of Hopkins Med and Amelia Shepherd trained at Hopkins for residency.
- In the Fox television program House, Dr. Gregory House is a world-famous diagnostician who attended Johns Hopkins University for his undergraduate degree. He was expelled from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine for cheating, and received his medical degree from the University of Michigan. Neurologist Dr. Eric Foreman also attended Hopkins.
- In The Simpsons, Julius Hibbert is a family physician who graduated from Johns Hopkins School of Medicine (hence his initials J.H.).
- In the animated television series South Park, Butters Stotch is sent to Johns Hopkins Hospital for evaluation.
- Dr. Perry Cox, from the television series Scrubs, attended Johns Hopkins for medical school.
- The Little Couple on TLC features a Hopkins Med graduate - Jennifer Arnold, class of 2000 - now a Neonatologist at Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital and faculty at the School of Medicine
- In the movie Step Brothers, Dr. Robert Doback attends Johns Hopkins for his postgraduate degree. However, this is not good enough for Will Ferrell's character, who says that he "smoked pot with Johnny Hopkins".
- In the TV show Gilmore Girls Hopkins is mentioned as one of the medical schools the character Paris Geller wants to get accepted to, and eventually is.
- Dr. Hannibal Lecter, from The Silence of the Lambs and other books, completed his residency training at Hopkins.
- The character of Alex Cross, created by author James Patterson, is a graduate of Hopkins Med.
- In The West Wing, President Bartlet's middle daughter Ellie is a student at Hopkins Med.
- Johns Hopkins is mentioned many times in Tom Clancy's novels; Jack Ryan's wife, Cathy, is an ophthalmology professor there.
- In the movie Shutter Island, Dr. John Cawley, the head psychiatrist at the Ashecliff Hospital for the criminally insane, is said to have graduated at the top of his class at Johns Hopkins.
- The ABC documentary series Hopkins takes a look at the life of the medical staff and students of the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Health System. This new series is a sequel to the 2000 ABC special Hopkins 24/7. Both Hopkins and Hopkins 24/7 were awarded the Peabody Award.
- The movie Something the Lord Made is the story of two men – an ambitious white surgeon, head of surgery at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and a gifted black carpenter turned lab technician – who defied the racial strictures of the Jim Crow South and together pioneered the field of heart surgery.
- Melanie Barnett from the television series The Game often discusses how she gave up Johns Hopkins for professional football player boyfriend Derwin.
- In the movie Getting In, an applicant to the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine who is placed on the waitlist is suspected of murdering other wait-listed applicants to clear his way to admission.
- In M*A*S*H episode 8.17 'Heal Thyself' the visiting surgeon, Dr. Newsome (Edward Herrmann), shuts up Charles Winchester by disclosing that he is an alumnus of Johns Hopkins.
- Operating Results and Financial Position. Hopkinsmedicine.org (2005-06-30). Retrieved on 2011-11-12.
- "Hopkins Pocket Guide 2007" (PDF).
- https://health.usnews.com/health-care/best-hospitals/articles/best-hospitals-honor-roll-and-overview. Missing or empty
- index. Jhmi.edu. Retrieved on 2011-04-03.
- . Retrieved on 2011-11-02.
- Molnar, Heather. "The History of Johns Hopkins Medicine". Retrieved 2017-02-17.
- "JHU-affiliated Lieber Institute announces brain development research consortium". Retrieved 2019-07-12.
- Best Graduate Schools | Top Graduate Programs | US News Education. Grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved on 2013-06-24.
- U.S. News Best Hospitals: the Honor Roll Archived 2012-08-09 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2012-10-9.
- "Today's Most Prestigious Degrees in the World". 2010-04-05.
- Ludmerer, Kenneth. The Development of American Medical Education from the Turn of the Century to the Era of Managed Care . Accessed July 8, 2007
- Stewart, RW; Barker, AR; Shochet, RB; Wright, SM (2007). "The new and improved learning community at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine resembles that at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry". Medical Teacher. 29 (4): 353–7. doi:10.1080/01421590701477423. PMID 17786750.
- School of Medicine Deans 2008–2009. Hopkinsmedicine.org. Retrieved on 2011-11-02.
- The Johns Hopkins University – Nobel Prize Winners Archived 2014-02-08 at the Wayback Machine. Webapps.jhu.edu. Retrieved on 2011-04-03.
- Altman, Lawrence K., "George P. Berry, 87, Is Dead; Bacteriologist and Educator", New York Times
- "Ralph Hruban, M.D".
- Dr. Gregory House played by Hugh Laurie. House M.D. Guide. Retrieved on 2011-04-03.
- That Squirrel is Nuts (Season 12, Episode 2) – Video Clips. South Park Studios (2008-03-19). Retrieved on 2011-04-03.
- "ABC Hopkins". Archived from the original on January 7, 2009.
- Abc Documentary “Hopkins” Wins Prestigious Peabody Award. Hopkinsmedicine.org (2009-04-02). Retrieved on 2011-04-03.
- Something the Lord Made – An HBO Film. Hopkinsmedicine.org. Retrieved on 2011-04-03.