John Turner

John Napier Wyndham Turner PC CC QC (born June 7, 1929) is a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as the 17th prime minister of Canada from June 30 to September 17, 1984.

John Turner

Turner in February 2018
17th Prime Minister of Canada
In office
June 30, 1984  September 17, 1984
MonarchElizabeth II
Governor GeneralJeanne Sauvé
DeputyJean Chrétien
Preceded byPierre Trudeau
Succeeded byBrian Mulroney
Leader of the Opposition
In office
September 17, 1984  February 7, 1990
MonarchElizabeth II
Prime MinisterBrian Mulroney
Preceded byBrian Mulroney
Succeeded byHerb Gray
Minister of Finance
In office
January 28, 1972  September 10, 1975
Prime MinisterPierre Trudeau
Preceded byEdgar Benson
Succeeded byCharles Drury (Acting)
Minister of Justice
Attorney General of Canada
In office
July 6, 1968  January 28, 1972
Prime MinisterPierre Trudeau
Preceded byPierre Trudeau
Succeeded byOtto Lang
Solicitor General of Canada
In office
April 20, 1968  July 5, 1968
Prime MinisterPierre Trudeau
Preceded byLawrence Pennell
Succeeded byGeorge McIlraith
Minister of Consumer and Corporate Affairs
Registrar General of Canada
In office
December 21, 1967  July 5, 1968
Prime MinisterLester Pearson
Pierre Trudeau
Preceded byGuy Favreau
Succeeded byGeorge McIlraith
Member of Parliament
for St. Lawrence—St. George
In office
June 18, 1962  June 25, 1968
Preceded byEgan Chambers
Succeeded byDistrict abolished
Member of Parliament
for Ottawa—Carleton
In office
June 25, 1968  February 12, 1976
Preceded byPaul Tardif
Succeeded byJean Pigott
Member of Parliament
for Vancouver Quadra
In office
September 4, 1984  October 25, 1993
Preceded byBill Clarke
Succeeded byTed McWhinney
Personal details
John Napier Wyndham Turner

(1929-06-07) June 7, 1929
Richmond, Surrey, England
Political partyLiberal
Geills Kilgour (m. 1963)
ParentsLeonard Turner
Phyllis Ross
ResidenceDeer Park, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Alma materUniversity of British Columbia
Magdalen College, Oxford
University of Paris

In his political career, Turner held several prominent Cabinet posts, including Minister of Justice and Minister of Finance, under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau from 1968 to 1975. Amid a global recession and the prospect of having to implement the unpopular wage and price controls, Turner surprisingly resigned his position in 1975. After a hiatus from politics from 1975 to 1984, Turner returned and successfully contested the Liberal leadership. Turner held the office of Prime Minister for 79 days (the second-shortest tenure in Canadian history after Sir Charles Tupper), as he advised the Governor General to dissolve Parliament immediately after being sworn in, and went on to lose the 1984 election in a landslide. Turner stayed on as Liberal leader and led the Opposition for the next six years, leading his party to a modest recovery in the 1988 election; he resigned as Liberal leader in 1990 and stepped down as an MP at the 1993 election. Turner was Canada's first Prime Minister born in the United Kingdom since Mackenzie Bowell in 1896. At age 90, Turner is currently the oldest living former Canadian Prime Minister.

Early life

Turner was born on June 7, 1929,[1] in Richmond, London, England, to Leonard Hugh Turner, an English journalist,[2] and Phyllis Gregory. He had a brother, Michael (who died shortly after birth), born in 1930, and a sister, Brenda.[3] When Turner's father died in 1932, he and his sister moved to Canada with their Canadian-born mother. The family settled in her childhood home in Rossland, British Columbia and later moved to Ottawa, Ontario.[2]

Turner's mother was loving but demanding of her two children.[3] The family was not wealthy.[2][3] His mother remarried in 1945 to Frank Mackenzie Ross, who later served as Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia, and the family relocated to Vancouver, British Columbia.


Turner was educated at Ashbury College and St Patrick's College, Ottawa (senior matriculation). He enrolled at the University of British Columbia in 1945 at age 16, and was among Canada's outstanding track sprinters in the late 1940s, qualifying for the 1948 Olympic team.[4][5][6] He held the Canadian record for the 100 metres, but a bad knee kept him from competing in the 1948 London Olympics.[7] He graduated from UBC with a B.A. Honours in 1949.

Awarded a Rhodes Scholarship, Turner went on to Magdalen College at the University of Oxford, where he earned a B.A., Jurisprudence, 1951; a Bachelor of Civil Law, 1952; and an M.A., 1957. He was on the track and field team at Oxford; one of his teammates was Roger Bannister, who became the first runner to break the four-minute barrier in the mile.[8] At Oxford, Turner was a classmate and friend of future Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser. He also pursued doctoral studies at the University of Paris from 1952 to 1953. While attending UBC, he became a member of the fraternity Beta Theta Pi.

Relationship with Princess Margaret

On May 19, 1959, at a party hosted by his stepfather, as Lieutenant Governor, to celebrate the opening of the new British Columbia Government House, Turner spent a considerable amount of time dancing with Princess Margaret, one year his junior. This was the first time that Turner received significant press attention in Canada; there was considerable speculation about whether the two would become a serious couple.[9][10] According to letters by Princess Margaret obtained by the Daily Mail, the relationship was more serious than previously thought with the princess writing in one letter, seven years later, that she "nearly married him".[11] According to contemporary press reports, the relationship caused serious consternation at Buckingham Palace as Turner is a Roman Catholic, and Margaret would have had to forfeit her place in the line of succession to the throne in order to marry him.[11]

Marriage and family

Turner was married on May 11, 1963, to Geills McCrae Kilgour (b. 1937) who was a grand-niece of Canadian Army doctor John McCrae, the author of what is probably the best-known First World War poem, "In Flanders Fields", and sister of David Kilgour, a long-time Canadian Member of Parliament.[2] The Turners have a daughter named Elizabeth and three sons: David, Michael, and Andrew.

The Turner children attended Rockcliffe Park Public School, in Ottawa, Ontario. All three sons attended Upper Canada College, in Toronto, Ontario.

Early career

Turner practised law, initially with the firm of Stikeman Elliott in Montreal, Quebec, and was elected as a Member of Parliament in 1962.

In 1965, while vacationing in Barbados, Turner noticed that former prime minister and Leader of the Opposition John Diefenbaker, staying at the same hotel, was struggling in the strong surf and undertow and Turner, being a competitive swimmer during university days, jumped in and pulled Diefenbaker to shore.[12]

Cabinet Minister

Prime ministership of Lester Pearson

Turner was seen as "The Golden Boy" of the Liberal Party from the time he entered parliament. An outstanding scholar and athlete, Turner was a successful lawyer, was fluently bilingual, was considered physically attractive by his contemporaries, and had developed political networks across the country.

Turner was also generally respected for his work as a cabinet minister in the 1960s and 1970s, under prime ministers Lester Pearson and Pierre Trudeau. Colleague Walter Gordon wrote that Turner was exceptionally loyal and respectful when dealing with senior ministers in the 1960s.[13]

He served in the Cabinet of Prime Minister Lester Pearson in various capacities, most notably as Minister of Consumer and Corporate Affairs. When Pearson retired, Turner ran to succeed him at the 1968 leadership convention. Turner, at age 38 the youngest of the dozen leadership candidates, stated "My time is now",[14] and remarked during his speech that he was "not here for some vague, future convention in say, 1984". Turner stayed on until the fourth and final ballot, finishing third behind Pierre Trudeau and runner-up Robert Winters.

Prime ministership of Pierre Trudeau

Turner served in Trudeau's cabinet as Minister of Justice for four years. Litt argues that Turner was a hard-working, well-informed minister whose success was assured by his warm relationship with his peers. His achievements, say Litt, included strengthening the rights of individual defendants on trial, greater efficiency in the justice system, creation of the influential Law Reform Commission, selecting highly professional judges, and bringing a policy perspective to the Justice Department. He led the government's position in the highly controversial Official Languages Act, and he took control during the October Crisis in 1970.[15]

Turner then served as Minister of Finance from 1972 until 1975. His challenges were severe in the face of global financial issues such as the 1973 oil crisis, the collapse of the postwar Bretton Woods trading system, slowing economic growth combined with soaring inflation (stagflation), and growing deficits. His positions were more conservative than Trudeau's and they drew apart. In 1975 Turner surprisingly resigned from cabinet, reportedly due to personality conflicts with Trudeau. The Liberals had won the 1974 election by attacking Robert Stanfield's Progressive Conservatives over their platform involving wage and price controls. However, Trudeau decided to implement the wage and price controls in late 1975, so some have suggested that Turner quit rather than carry out that proposal.[16] In a 2013 interview with Catherine Clark on CPAC Turner confirmed his resignation from cabinet was a direct result of refusing to implement wage and price controls, after campaigning against them in 1974.[17]

In his memoirs, Trudeau wrote that Turner said he resigned as Finance Minister in 1975 because he was tired of politics, after 13 years in Ottawa, and wanted to move on to a better-paying job as a lawyer in Toronto, to better support his family and to be with them more, as his children were growing up. Trudeau also suggested that Turner's years as finance minister were very difficult because of turbulent and unusual conditions in the world economy, characterized as stagflation, largely caused by enormous increases in the price of oil.[18]

Bay Street

From 1975 to 1984, Turner worked as a corporate lawyer at Bay Street law firm McMillan Binch. When Pierre Trudeau resigned as Liberal leader in 1979 following an election loss, Turner announced that he would not be a candidate for the Liberal leadership. Trudeau was talked into rescinding his resignation after the government of Joe Clark was defeated by a motion of no confidence, and returned to contest and win the 1980 federal election. Trudeau would serve as Prime Minister until 1984.

Prime minister (June–September 1984)

Trudeau retired after polls showed the Liberals faced certain defeat in the next election if he remained in office.[19] Turner then re-entered politics, and defeated Jean Chrétien, his successor as finance minister, on the second ballot of the June 1984 Liberal leadership convention. He was formally appointed prime minister on June 30. When he was sworn in, Turner was not an MP or senator. Had he wished to have parliament summoned, he would not have been able to appear on the floor of the House of Commons. He also announced that he would not run in a by-election to get into the Commons, but would instead run in the next general election as the Liberal candidate in the British Columbia riding of Vancouver Quadra. This was a sharp departure from usual practice, in which the incumbent in a safe seat resigns to allow a newly elected party leader a chance to get into parliament and the seat Turner intended to contest was held by the Tories instead. However, this was part of Turner's strategy to rebuild the Liberals' image in western Canada; at the time, the party held no seats west of Winnipeg.

In his final days of office, Trudeau recommended that Governor General Jeanne Sauvé appoint over 200 Liberals to patronage positions, including senators, judges, and executives on various governmental and crown corporation boards. The large number of appointments, as well as doubtful qualifications of some appointees, generated a severe backlash across the political spectrum.[19] Turner then made a further 70 appointments himself, one of Trudeau's conditions for retiring earlier than he had planned.[19][20]

1984 election

On July 9, only nine days after being sworn in, Turner asked Sauvé to dissolve parliament and advised her to call an election for early September. Turner was persuaded by internal polls that showed the Liberals were ahead of the Tories; after Turner won the leadership his party surged in the polls to take a lead, after trailing by more than 20 percentage points before he was selected.[19] Progressive Conservative leader Brian Mulroney and other experts had expected Turner to tour Canada during the summer and early autumn, accompanying Queen Elizabeth II and Pope John Paul II on their upcoming visits, and then call the election for later in the autumn.[19] However, the Liberals' polling data was faulty; they had in fact not polled since May and the situation had since changed, not least because of the public uproar over the patronage appointments. As the campaign unfolded, the Tories and Mulroney, who was fighting his first general election in any capacity, soon took the lead.[19][20]

Early in the campaign, Turner appeared rusty and old fashioned. His policies contrasted with Trudeau and seemed to legitimize the Tory calls for lowering the deficit, improving relations with the United States, cutting the bureaucracy, and promoting more federal-provincial harmony. He spoke of creating "make work programs", a discarded phrase from the 1970s that had been replaced by the less patronizing "job creation programs". Turner was also caught on television patting the bottoms of Liberal Party President Iona Campagnolo and Vice-President Lise St. Martin-Tremblay, causing an uproar among feminists, who saw such behaviour as sexist and condescending.[21]

During the televised leaders' debate, Turner attacked Mulroney over the patronage machine that the latter had allegedly set up in anticipation of victory, comparing it to the Union Nationale governments of Quebec. Mulroney responded by pointing to the raft of patronage appointments made on the advice of Trudeau and Turner. Turner had the right to advise Sauvé to cancel Trudeau's appointments—advice that she was bound to follow by convention—but failed to do so and added to his own. Mulroney demanded that Turner apologize to the country for what he called "these horrible appointments." Turner claimed that "I had no option" except to let them stand. Mulroney responded, "You had an option, sir  to say 'no'  and you chose to say 'yes' to the old attitudes and the old stories of the Liberal Party." He highlighted the Liberals long record in government and resulting patronage appointments.[22] Many observers believed that Mulroney clinched the election at this point, as it made Turner look weak and indecisive. Analysts agreed he was "done in by television."[23]

Turner discovered late in the campaign that the Liberals' electoral hopes were poor in their traditional stronghold of Quebec.[24] The party had previously relied on Trudeau's appeal, patronage, and traditional dislike of the Progressive Conservatives for victory in recent elections. Turner had surrounded himself with Trudeau's factional opponents and Trudeau himself did not endorse Turner.[25] In a last-minute turnaround, Turner rehired much of Trudeau's staff during the final weeks, but this had little effect. Quebec's disaffection with the federal Liberals regarding the patriation of constitution in 1982 further contributed to their defeat. Mulroney, a native Quebecker, was able to harness that discontent to the Progressive Conservatives' advantage by promising a new constitutional agreement.[26]

The last days of the campaign saw one Liberal blunder piled upon another. Turner continued to make gaffes that caused voters to see him as incompetent and a relic from the past.[27] On September 4, the Liberals were swept from power in a Tory landslide.[28] The Liberals were cut down to 40 seats, the fewest in the party's history until 2011, against 211 for the Progressive Conservatives. The Liberals had fallen to 17 seats in Quebec, all but four in and around Montreal. Eleven members of Turner's cabinet were defeated. At the time, it was the worst defeat ever suffered for a governing party in the federal parliament.

Turner stepped down as prime minister on September 17. The election having been called just over a week after his being sworn in, Turner held the office of prime minister for two months and seventeen days, the second-shortest stint in Canadian history, ahead of only Sir Charles Tupper, who took office after dissolution of parliament. Turner, along with Tupper and later Kim Campbell, were the only PMs who never faced a parliament and never implemented any legislative initiatives.

Leader of the Opposition

Turner managed to defeat the Tory incumbent in Vancouver Quadra, Bill Clarke by 3,200 votes, a surprising result given the size of the Tory wave, and became leader of the opposition. He was the only Liberal MP from British Columbia, and one of only two from west of Ontario. The Liberals, amid their worst showing in party history and led by an unpopular Turner, were said by some pundits to be following the British Liberals into oblivion. Though the Liberals had not fared much better in the 1958 election, they had clearly emerged as the main opposition party back then. After the 1984 election, however, the NDP were not far behind with 30 seats, and their leader Ed Broadbent consistently outpolled Turner and even Mulroney.

The Liberals responded by using their large Senate majority, built up over years of Liberal majorities in the Commons, to stall Mulroney's legislation. In addition, a group of young Liberal MPs, known as the "Rat Pack", pestered Mulroney at every turn. The group included Sheila Copps, Brian Tobin, Don Boudria and John Nunziata.

Turner's leadership was frequently questioned, and in the lead up to the 1986 Liberal convention, a vote of confidence loomed large. The popular Chrétien resigned his seat, creating a stir in caucus. The ongoing and often open unpopularity of Turner within his own party led to many editorial cartoonists drawing him with a back stabbed full of knives. Keith Davey and other Liberals began a public campaign against Turner, coinciding with backroom struggles involving Chrétien's supporters. The public conflict is said to have influenced many Liberals to support Turner, and he ended up getting 75% of the delegate vote.

The Liberals faced more internal conflict in the next few years, but polls frequently had them in front of the Progressive Conservatives (however, with Turner last in preferred prime minister categories). The upcoming Canada–US Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and Meech Lake Accord threatened to divide the party until Turner took the position of being pro-Meech Lake and against the FTA. Turner asked the Liberal Senators to hold off on passing the legislation to implement the agreement until an election was held. It was later revealed that Mulroney planned to have an election called, anyway.

1988 federal election

When the election was called in 1988, the Liberals had some early struggles, notably during one day in Montreal where 3 different costs were given for the proposed Liberal daycare program. The campaign was also hampered by a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation report that stated there was a movement in the backroom to replace Turner with Chrétien.

Turner campaigned much more vigorously than in 1984, rallying support against the proposed FTA, an agreement that he said would lead to the abandonment of Canada's political sovereignty to the United States. His performance in the debate and his attacks on Mulroney and the FTA, where he accused the Progressive Conservative Prime Minister of "selling Canada out with one signature of a pen", raised his poll numbers, and soon the Liberals were hoping for a majority. This prompted the Progressive Conservatives to stop the relatively calm campaign they had been running, and go with Allan Gregg's suggestion of "bombing the bridge" that joined anti-FTA voters and the Liberals: Turner's credibility. The ads focused on Turner's leadership struggles, and combined with over $6 million in pro-FTA ads, stopped Turner's momentum. Also not helping the Liberals was that the NDP had opposed the FTA as well (though not as vocally); this likely resulted in vote-splitting between the opposition parties. Although most Canadians voted for parties opposed to free trade, the Tories were returned with a majority government, and implemented the deal.

The Liberals more than doubled their representation to 83 seats, and kept their role as the Official Opposition; the NDP had also made gains but finished a distant third with 43 seats. The Progressive Conservatives won a reduced majority government with 169 seats. Although this election confirmed the Liberals as Canada's second major party, the results were considered a disappointment for Turner, as mid-campaign polls had predicted a Liberal majority.

The election loss seemed to confirm Turner's fate; he announced he was standing down from the party leadership in May 1989, officially resigning in June 1990. Turner resigned as Official Opposition leader, while still holding the Liberal leadership, so Herb Gray became the caucus leader for the interim. Chrétien won that year's leadership convention over Paul Martin. Although not officially endorsed by Turner himself, Martin was widely the favourite of Turner's supporters.

Turner continued to represent Vancouver Quadra in the House of Commons for another few years as a backbencher before retiring from politics in the 1993 election.

After politics

Turner returned to private practice as a lawyer at Miller Thomson LLP, eventually also heading that partnership's scholarships program. Turner is also a member of the boards of directors of several large Canadian companies.

In 1994, he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada.

In late 2004, Turner headed the delegation of Canadian election monitors to Ukraine who helped monitor the Ukrainian presidential runoff vote of December 26. The monitoring was the first mission of the new Canada Corps.

Turner, along with other former prime ministers, has taken part in the reality series Canada's Next Great Prime Minister. He was intending on taking part during the 2007 edition, but due to illness, had to be replaced at the last minute by Paul Martin. Turner's health had recovered sufficiently for him to participate in the 2008 edition of the show. He is the oldest living former Canadian prime minister.

The Centre for the Study of Democracy at Queen's University produced in 2008 a revised and updated 40th anniversary edition of selected Turner speeches and writings, entitled Politics with Purpose, published by McGill-Queen's University Press; the book had been published originally in 1968. Turner's career was honoured by CSD in a special day-long tribute at Queen's on October 24, 2008.

Turner has voiced his support for the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, an organisation which campaigns for democratic reformation of the United Nations, and the creation of a more accountable international political system.[29]

In 2017 he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society [30]


Companion of the Order of Canada (C.C.)
  • Awarded on 19 October 1994
  • Invested on 3 May 1995
  • [31]
Centennial Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal
Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal for Canada
125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal
Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal for Canada
Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal for Canada

According to Canadian protocol, as a former prime minister, he is styled The Right Honourable for life.

Turner was ranked No. 18 out of the first 20 Prime Ministers of Canada (through Jean Chrétien) by a survey of Canadian historians in 1999. The survey was used in the book Prime Ministers: Ranking Canada's Leaders by J. L. Granatstein and Norman Hillmer.

Turner was appointed a Companion of the Order of Canada on October 19, 1994, and was invested on May 3, 1995. His citation reads:

He became Canada's seventeenth Prime Minister, crowning a distinguished parliamentary career during which he held several key Cabinet portfolios. Parallel to his political life, he has been a respected member of the law profession and supporter of many charitable organizations, in particular Mount Sinai Hospital and the Community Foundation of Toronto. His passion for his country is admired by all Canadians.[33]

Coat of arms of John Turner
Issuant from a coronet érablé Gules the rim bearing a frieze of alternating dogwood lily and trillium flowers all Argent a demi wolf Or charged on each shoulder with a poppy Gules seeded Sable and bearing in the dexter forepaw an ansul Gules;
Gules four canoe paddles their handles conjoined in cross between four canoes Or on a canton the mark of the Prime Ministership of Canada (Argent four maple leaves conjoined in cross at the stem Gules);
On a grassy mound rising above barry wavy Argent and Azure set between two stems growing thereon roses Gules thistles and shamrocks Or and standing in front of river cedar trees Vert dexter a caribou buck Or gorged with a collar of river cedar branches Vert pendant therefrom the badge of a member of the House of Commons of Canada sinister a caribou doe Or gorged with a like collar pendant therefrom a medallion per bend barry wavy Azure and Argent and Vert;
ESSE QUAM VIDER (To Be Rather Than To Seem) [34]

Honorary Degrees

Honorary Degrees
 New BrunswickOctober 1968University of New BrunswickDoctor of Laws (LL.D) [35]
 OntarioSpring 1968York UniversityDoctor of Laws (LL.D) [36]
 New Brunswick1980Mount Allison UniversityDoctor of Civil Law (DCL) [37]
 British Columbia24 November 1994University of British ColumbiaDoctor of Laws (LL.D) [38][39]
 OntarioJune 1996University of TorontoDoctor of Laws (LL.D) [40]
 Ontario2002Assumption UniversityDoctor of Laws (LL.D) [35]

See also

  • List of Canadian Prime Ministers


  1. Keith Pott Turner (May 19, 2016). Turner Trees. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1-365-11697-1.
  2. Martin, Douglas (June 18, 1984). "MAN IN THE NEWS; NEW LEADER FOR CANADA: JOHN NAPIER TURNER". The New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
  3. "John Turner: Destiny and determination to lead". CBC. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
  4. "John Turner". UBC Sports Hall of Fame. University of British Columbia. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved October 6, 2008.
  5. "Former Prime Minister John Turner to be inducted into UBC Sports Hall of Fame". Canadian Interuniversity Sport. March 25, 2004. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved October 6, 2008.
  6. WRITERSGROUP "They still gather to honour John Turner" Check |url= value (help). The Daily Observer. 2008. Retrieved October 6, 2008.
  7. Allemang, John (June 5, 2009). "True Grit". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
  8. True Grit, by John Allemang, The Globe and Mail, June 6, 2009.
  9. "Destiny and determination to lead". CBC Television. June 16, 1984. Retrieved May 1, 2008.
  10. Delacourt, Susan (May 25, 2012), "When the Queen is your boss", Toronto Star, retrieved May 27, 2012
  11. "Princess Margaret 'nearly married' John Turner before he became Canada's prime minister, letters reveal". National Post. February 22, 2015. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  12. "A future prime minister rescues a former prime minister". First Among Equals. Library and Archives Canada. January 29, 2002. Retrieved May 1, 2008.
  13. A Political Memoir, by Walter Gordon, Toronto 1977, McClelland & Stewart publishers.
  14. "The Long Run: The Political Rise of John Turner – CBC Archives". CBC News.
  15. Paul Litt (2011). Elusive Destiny:The Political Vocation of John Napier Turner. UBC Press. pp. 5–7. ISBN 9780774822671.
  16. Litt, Elusive Destiny, p 190
  17. Video on YouTube
  18. Pierre Elliott Trudeau, Memoirs, (McClelland & Stewart, 1993).
  19. Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, Toronto 1991, McFarlane, Walter, and Ross publishers.
  20. Donaldson, p. 320; Newman, p. 71.
  21. "The Long Run: The Political Rise of John Turner – CBC Archives". CBC News.
  22. "CBC Archives".
  23. Litt, Elusive Destiny p. 286
  24. John Sawatsky, The Insiders: Government, Business, and the Lobbyists, (1987)
  25. Howard Rae Penniman (1988). Canada at the Polls, 1984: A Study of the Federal General Elections. Duke University Press. pp. 106–13. ISBN 0822308215.
  26. Sawatsky, Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition
  27. Newman, pp. 71–72.
  28. Howard Rae Penniman (1988). Canada at the Polls, 1984: A Study of the Federal General Elections. Duke U.P. p. 37. ISBN 0822308215.
  29. "Supporters". Campaign for a UN Parliamentary Assembly. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  30. "Gold Medal-Award Recipients since its inception in 1972". RCGS. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
  31. General, Office of the Secretary to the Governor (June 11, 2018). "Recipients". The Governor General of Canada.
  32. " - is for sale (Dominion Of Canada)".
  33. "Order of Canada".
  34. General, The Office of the Secretary to the Governor. "Turner, John Napier [Individual]".
  35. "POMP AND CIRCUMSTANCE - Graduation Ceremonies 1828 - Present".
  36. "Honorary Degree Recipients - University Secretariat".
  37. "Mount Allison University - Honorary degree recipients 20th century".
  38. "Honorary Degrees – Chronological - University Archives Blog".
  39. "UBC Archives - Honorary Degree Citations - 1992-1995".

Further reading

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