Johann Christian Bach
Johann Christian Bach (September 5, 1735 – January 1, 1782) was a German composer of the Classical era, the eighteenth child of Johann Sebastian Bach, and the youngest of his eleven sons. After a spell in Italy, Bach moved to London in 1762, where he became known as "the London Bach". He is also sometimes known as "the English Bach", and during his time spent living in the British capital, he came to be known as John Bach. He is noted for playing a role in influencing the concerto styles of Haydn and Mozart.
Johann Christian Bach was born to Johann Sebastian and Anna Magdalena Bach in Leipzig, Germany. His distinguished father was already 50 at the time of his birth—an age gap exemplified by the sharp differences in the musical styles of father and son. Even so, father Bach instructed Johann Christian in music until his death in 1750. After his father's death, he worked (and lived) with his second-oldest half brother Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, who was twenty-one years his senior and considered at the time to be the most musically gifted of Bach's sons.
He enjoyed a promising career, first as a composer then as a performer playing alongside Carl Friedrich Abel, the notable player of the viola da gamba. He composed cantatas, chamber music, keyboard and orchestral works, operas and symphonies.
Bach lived in Italy for many years starting in 1750, studying with Padre Martini in Bologna. He became organist at the Milan cathedral in 1760. During his time in Italy, he converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism and devoted much time to the composition of church music, including music for a Requiem Mass and a Te Deum. His first major work was a Mass, which received an excellent performance and acclaim in 1757. In 1762, Bach travelled to London to première three operas at the King's Theatre, including Orione on 19 February 1763. That established his reputation in England, and he became music master to Queen Charlotte. In 1766, Bach met soprano Cecilia Grassi, who was eleven years his junior, and married her shortly thereafter. They had no children. J.C.Bach performed symphonies and concertos at the Hanover Square Rooms on the corner of Hanover Square and Hanover Street. This was London’s premier concert venue in the heart of fashionable Mayfair. The surrounding Georgian homes offered well-to-do clientele for his performances. One of London’s primary literary circles consisting of Jane Timbury, Robert Gunnell Esq., Lord Beauchamp and Her Grace the Duchess of Buccleuch, to note a few, were acquainted with Bach and were regular attendees at his events.
By the late 1770s, both his popularity and finances were in decline. By the time of Bach's death on New Year's Day 1782, he had become so indebted (in part due to his steward embezzling his money), that Queen Charlotte stepped in to cover the expenses of the estate and provided a life pension for Bach's widow. He was buried in the graveyard of St. Pancras Old Church, London.
A full account of J. C. Bach's career is given in the fourth volume of Charles Burney's History of Music.
There are two others named Johann Christian Bach in the Bach family tree, but neither was a composer.
In 1764 Bach met with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who was aged eight at the time and had been brought to London by his father. Bach then spent five months teaching Mozart in composition. Bach is widely regarded as having a strong influence on the young Mozart, with scholars such as Teodor Wyzewa and Georges Saint-Foix describing him as "The only, true teacher of Mozart". Mozart arranged three sonatas from Bach's Op. 5 into keyboard concertos, and in later life Mozart "Often acknowledged the artistic debt he owed" to Johann Christian.
The works of JC Bach are given 'W' numbers, from Ernest Warburton's Thematic catalog of his works (New York City: Garland Publishing, 1999). Bach's compositions include eleven operas, as well as chamber music, orchestral music and compositions for keyboard music.
- Bagnoli, Giorgio (1993). The La Scala Encyclopedia of the Opera. Simon and Schuster. p. 38. ISBN 9780671870423.
- Burnett, Henry (2017). Composition, Chromaticism and the Developmental Process: A New Theory of Tonality. Routledge. p. 211. ISBN 9781351571333.
- Siblin, Eric (2011). The Cello Suites: J. S. Bach, Pablo Casals, and the Search for a Baroque Masterpiece. p. 234. ISBN 9780802197979.
- "Johann Christian Bach". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
- "The Catholic Bach", Cantica Nova Publications
- Stephenson, Joseph. Johann Christian Bach at AllMusic
- Shore, Rebecca Ann (2002). Baby Teacher: Nurturing Neural Networks From Birth to Age Five. R&L Education. p. 86. ISBN 9781461648079.
- Denis Arnold and Basil Smallman, "Bach family", in Oxford Companion to Music, ed. Alison Latham, Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 80. ISBN 978-0-19-866212-9
- Hans T. David, A. Mendel, C. Wolff. The New Bach Reader: A Life of Johann Sebastian Bach in Letters and Documents (NY: Norton, 1998).
- Heinz Gärtner (trans. by Reinhard Pauly). John Christian Bach: Mozart's Friend and Mentor. (Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press, 1994).
- Philipp Spitta (trans. by Clara Bell & J. A. Fuller-Maitland). Johann Sebastian Bach, his work and influence on the music of Germany, 1685–1750, 3 vols. (London: Novello & Co., 1899): Vol I, Vol II, Vol III
- Charles Sanford Terry. John Christian Bach (London: Oxford University Press, 1967).
- Christoph Wolff et al. The New Grove Bach Family. (NY: Norton, 1983) pp. 315ff. ISBN 0-393-30088-9.
- Percy M. Young. The Bachs: 1500–1850 (London: J.M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., 1970).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Johann Christian Bach.|
- Johann Christian Bach at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- J C Bach (classical.net)
- J C Bach (classicalarchives.com)
- J C Bach (pianosociety.com)
- Article: "Gainsborough and Music" by Brian Robins
- Free scores by Johann Christian Bach at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- Piano sonatas Op. 17, 1–6 on YouTube
- Concerto in D major, Op. 13, No. 2, 1st movement on YouTube
- Quartet in B-flat major on YouTube
- Flute sonatas, W. B 10–15, 1780 edition (from the Sibley Music Library Digital Scores Collection)