Jeonju (Korean pronunciation: [tɕʌn.dʑu]) is the 16th largest city in South Korea and the capital of North Jeolla Province. It is both urban and rural due to the closeness of Wanju County which almost entirely surrounds Jeonju (Wanju County has many residents who work in Jeonju). The name Jeonju literally means "Perfect Region" (from the hanja 全 (전; jeon) for perfect, 州 (주; ju) for region). It is an important tourist center famous for Korean food, historic buildings, sports activities, and innovative festivals.
|• Revised Romanization||Jeonju-si|
Emblem of Jeonju
Location in South Korea
|Coordinates: 35°49′N 127°09′E|
|Administrative divisions||2 Gu, 40 dong|
|• Type||City Government|
|• Mayor||Kim Seung-soo (Democratic)|
|• Council||Jeonju City Council|
|• Total||206.22 km2 (79.62 sq mi)|
|• Density||3,163.6/km2 (8,194/sq mi)|
In May 2012, Jeonju was chosen as a Creative Cities for Gastronomy as part of UNESCO's Creative Cities Network. This honour recognizes the city's traditional home cooking handed down over thousands of years, its active public and private food research, a system of nurturing talented chefs, and its hosting of distinctive food festivals.
The Paekche kingdom was located in southwestern Korea which included the area Jeonju is now located. It's believed that Jeonju was founded as a market town within Paekche around 57 BCE.
Jeonju (along with Paekche in general) was conquered by the kingdom of Silla and their Chinese Tang allies in 660 CE. It soon became part of the Silla kingdom and in 685, Jeonju became one of the nine chu (a provincial capital of the kingdom). From 889 and onward, peasant revolts (caused from over taxation) became widespread throughout the kingdom and it also spread to Jeonju where it became the headquarters of one of the most powerful rebel leaders of the time, Kyonhwon. In 892 (or 900), Kyonhwon renamed the city Wansan and established it as the capital of the Later Paekche kingdom. From Wansan, Kyonhwon campaigned against Silla which climaxed with the destruction of Komsung (the capital of the Silla kingdom) and the assassination of King Kyongae in 927. With the decline of Silla, Kyonhwon and Wang Kon (of the Koguryo kingdom) waged battle for control of the peninsula. However, Wang Kon and his forces invaded Later Paekche in 934 and Jeonju surrendered to him in 935.
Under Koguryo rule, Jeonju reverted to being a provincial capital and enjoyed relative stability and economic growth. However, in 1182, the city was taken by peasant rebels with the aid of governmental troops stationed there who resented being forced to do heavy labor along slaves.The rebellion was soon suppressed forty days after it began.
The Joseon defeated Koguryo and founded a new dynasty in 1392 and took all their possessions including Jeonju. The Joseon considered Jeonju their ancestral home (an ancestor of Yi Songgye of Joseon may have fled Jeonju after the 1182 peasant revolt). During the Joseon period, Jeonju became the capital of a reorganized Jeolla (one of the eight provinces of the Joseon). In 1413, Jeonju (along with three other cities) was given the honor of safekeeping copies of the Annals of the Choson Dynasty which still survives extant in the former Confucian academy in Jeonju.
The town was occupied by the Donghak peasants' movement in 1894. Jeonju (like the rest of Korea) was then occupied by the Japanese beginning in 1910. The ancient walls of the old city were destroyed by the Japanese authorities with the P'ungnammum Gate being the only remnant left today. Jeonju's population grew between 1925 and 1949 when it reached 100,000 inhabitants. Jeonju was given metropolitan status in 1935, and the city was founded in 1949. During the Division of Korea, Jeonju was not in the immediate frontline of the war but by the armistice signing in July 1953, Jeonju (along with many other cities) suffered bombardment and the loss of many male residents who fought during the war.
Jeonju was given its modern boundaries and government system in 1963. It has since then industrialized rapidly. Since the Joseon Dynasty period, it was a metropolis, but it did not experience industrialization in the 20th century compared to other parts of Korea. It does not have the industrial infrastructure, manufacturing, or heavy industries found in other Korean major cities. Today, traditional touring and sight seeing is a major industry in the city.
- Jeonju bibimbap 전주비빔밥, a traditional local food, is well known across South Korea. There are several very popular vegetarian restaurants serving Jeonju style food and pine wine.
- The National Jeonju Museum exhibits ancient relics from the Baekje days.
- There are extensive royal museums, temples, a castle fortress on a hillside, and a well-known paper museum, as well as an annual paper fashion show highlighting the latest styles and traditional Korean clothing made of paper.
- The Jeonju Hanok Village (Hanok Maeul) is a traditional-style village in the heart of Jeonju, housing over 800 traditional "hanok" style buildings. It contains many traditional tea shops, souvenir shops, and restaurants.
- Jeongdong Catholic Church was built 1908–1914 by French priest Xavier Baudonet on the site of the Korean Catholic martyrs in 1791 and 1801. This Byzantine and Romanesque church has been designated Korea National Treasure No. 288.
- The Jeonju International Sori Festival was among Songlines' 25 Best International Festivals in 2014.
- The Jeonju International Film Festival draws about 50,000 visitors annually.
- Jeonju is the hometown of the breakdancing crew Last for One, international Battle of the Year champions.
The local mountains and parks are popular for outdoor recreation due to its rural location. There are historical sites in the area. The city has a zoo, a park, and the Hanguk Sound and Culture Hall, a large, modern concert complex on the Chonbuk National University campus.
- Defconn (born Yoo Dae-joon 1976), rapper and TV personality
- Lee Min-woo (born 1979), singer and member of Shinhwa
- Kim Kyu-jong (born 1987), singer and member of SS501
- Yoon Kyun-sang (born 1987), actor
- Taeyeon (born 1989), singer and member of Girls' Generation
- Kim Sung-kyu (born 1989), singer and member of Infinite
- Hwasa (born 1995), singer and member of Mamamoo
- Wheein (born 1995), singer and member of Mamamoo
- Na Jae-min (born 2000), singer and member of NCT
- Jeonju International Film Festival usually runs from the end of April to May for one week annually.
|Climate data for Jeonju (1981–2010, extremes 1918–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.3
|Average high °C (°F)||4.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−0.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−4.6
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||32.7
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||9.3||7.8||10.3||8.6||9.2||10.7||15.9||15.5||9.7||6.7||9.1||9.4||122.2|
|Average snowy days||8.7||5.6||2.7||0.1||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||1.5||6.7||25.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||68.6||66.5||63.7||60.6||65.3||71.3||77.5||76.7||74.1||70.4||69.1||68.9||69.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||151.6||157.7||185.9||211.7||217.9||172.7||136.7||160.6||168.1||194.6||154.5||142.3||2,054.5|
|Percent possible sunshine||48.7||51.3||50.1||53.9||50.0||39.6||30.8||38.4||45.1||55.6||50.0||47.0||46.2|
|Source: Korea Meteorological Administration (percent sunshine and snowy days)|
Jeonju has a cooler version of a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa/Cwa). Jeonju, like all of Korea, has four distinct seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). The winters can have a mix of days that are cool to days that are quite cold. The colder days are often influenced by a high pressure front that brings cold air from Siberia.
In the summer, the humidity of Southeast Asia comes over the Korean peninsula from June through September. Temperatures in spring (late April and through May) and fall (after September 25 and though October) are often in the mid-20s℃ and with low humidity.
- "Jeonju's Gastronomic Greatness Recognized by UNESCO". Chosun Ilbo. 16 May 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- Schellinger, Paul; Salkin, Robert, eds. (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places, Volume 5: Asia and Oceania. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. pp. 195–197. ISBN 1-884964-04-4.
- "A Brief History of Korea, Volume 1".
- "JEONJU BIBIMBAP, THE MOST POPULAR TRADITIONAL KOREAN DISH AMONG FOREIGNERS".
- Jeonju Hanok Village. Visitkorea.or.kr. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- "Travel Highlights". visitkorea. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- "Jeonju Int'l Film Fest to Open This Week". Chosun Ilbo. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- Jeonbuk Hyundai Motors, Jeonbuk Hyundai Motors (2016-04-14). "Jeonbuk Hyundai Motors".
- 평년값자료(1981–2010) 전주(146) (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- 기후자료 극값(최대값) 전체년도 일최고기온 (℃) 최고순위, 전주(146) (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- 기후자료 극값(최대값) 전체년도 일최저기온 (℃) 최고순위, 전주(146) (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- "Climatological Normals of Korea" (PDF). Korea Meteorological Administration. 2011. p. 499 and 649. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jeonju.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Jeonju.|
- "2015년 인구주택총조사 전수집계결과 보도자료" [2015 Population and Housing Census]. Statistics Korea.