Janata Dal was an Indian political party which was formed through the merger of Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal, Indian National Congress (Jagjivan), and the Jan Morcha united on 11 October 1988 on the birth anniversary of Jayaprakash Narayan under the leadership of V. P. Singh.
|Founder||V. P. Singh|
|Founded||11 October 1988|
|Merger of||JP, LD, INC(J), JM|
|National affiliation||National Front (1989-1991) United Front (1996-1998)|
V.P. Singh united the entire disparate spectrum of parties ranging from regional parties such as the Telugu Desam Party, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, and the Asom Gana Parishad, together and formed the National Front with N.T.Rama Rao as President and V. P. Singh as convenor with outside support from the Bharatiya Janata Party and Communist Party of India (Marxist) led Left front. They defeated Rajiv Gandhi's Congress (I) in the 1989 parliamentary elections. His government fell after Lalu Prasad Yadav, got Advani arrested in Samastipur and stopped his Ram Rath Yatra which was going to Ayodhya on the site of the Babri Masjid on October 23, 1990 and the Bharatiya Janata Party withdrew support. V.P. Singh lost a parliamentary vote of confidence on November 7, 1990. In the 1991 Indian general election the Janata Dal lost power but emerged as the third largest party in Lok Sabha.Indian general election, 1991. Janata Dal-led United Front formed the government after the 1996 Indian general election with the outside support of the Indian National Congress. But after this the Janata Dal gradually disintegated into various smaller factions, largely regional parties Biju Janata Dal, Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal (Secular) and Janata Dal (United)..
Ascent to power
It first came to power in 1989, after allegations of corruption, known as the Bofors scandal, caused Rajiv Gandhi's Congress (I) to lose the elections. The National Front coalition that was formed consisted of the Janata Dal and a few smaller parties in the government, and had outside support from the Left Front and the Bharatiya Janata Party. V. P. Singh was the Prime Minister. In November 1990, this coalition collapsed, and a new government headed by Chandra Shekhar under Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya) which had the support of the Congress came to power for a short while. Two days before the vote, Chandra Shekhar, an ambitious Janata Dal rival who had been kept out of the National Front government, joined with Devi Lal, a former deputy prime minister under V.P. Singh, to form the Samajwadi Janata Party, with a total of just sixty Lok Sabha members. The day after the collapse of the National Front government, Chandra Shekhar informed the president that by gaining the backing of the Congress (I) and its electoral allies he enjoyed the support of 280 members of the Lok Sabha, and he demanded the right to constitute a new government. Even though his rump party accounted for only one-ninth of the members of the Lok Sabha, Chandra Shekhar succeeded in forming a new minority Government and becoming Prime Minister (with Devi Lal as Deputy Prime Minister). However, Chandra Shekhar's government fell less than four months later, after the Congress (I) withdrew its support.
Its second spell of power began in 1996, when the Janata Dal-led United Front coalition came to power, with outside support from the Congress under Sitaram Kesri, choosing H. D. Deve Gowda as their prime minister. The Congress withdrew their support in less than a year, hoping to gain power with the support of various United Front constituent groups, and I. K. Gujral became the next prime minister. His government too fell in a few months, and in February 1998, the Janata Dal-led coalition lost power to the Bharatiya Janata Party.
List of prime ministers
|1||Vishwanath Pratap Singh||1989-199||343 days||Fatehpur|
|2||H. D. Deve Gowda||1996-97||324 days||N/A (Rajya Sabha MP) from Karnataka|
|3||Inder Kumar Gujral||1997-1998||332 days||N/A (Rajya Sabha MP) from Bihar|
Janata Dal factions
- Janata Dal (United) led by Nitish Kumar
- Lok Janshakti Party led by Ram Vilas Paswan
- Samta Party, party of George Fernandes and now led by Jaya Jaitly and Brahmanand Mandal
- Socialist Janata Dal led by V. V. Rajendran
- Socialist Janata Party led by Attingal Premraj
- Lok Aawaz Dal led by Shambhu Sharan Shrivastava
- Janata Dal (Secular) led by H. D. Deve Gowda
- Rashtriya Janata Dal led by Lalu Prasad Yadav
- Loktantrik Janata Dal led by Sharad Yadav
- Rashtriya Lok Samata Party led by Upendra Kushwaha (left NDA in December 2018)
- Hindustani Awam Morcha (Secular) led by Jitan Ram Manjhi
- Janata Dal (UDF) led by John John
- Biju Janata Dal (BJD) led by Naveen Patnaik
- Samajwadi Party (SP) led by Mulayam Singh Yadav and Akhilesh Yadav
- Pragatisheel Samajwadi Party (Lohiya) led by Shivpal Singh Yadav
- Jannayak Janata Party (JJP) led by Ajay Singh Chautala
- Indian National Lok Dal (INLD) led by Om Prakash Chautala
- Rashtriya Lok Dal led by Ajit Singh
- Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya), party of Late Chandra Shekhar now led by Kamal Morarka
- Loktantrik Samajwadi Party led by Raghu Thakur
- Samajwadi Jan Parishad party of Late Kishen Pattanayak and now led by Adv. Kamal Banerjee
- Jan Adhikar Party Loktantrik led by Pappu Yadav
- Garib Janta Dal (Secular) led by Sadhu Yadav
- Odisha Jan Morcha led by Late Pyarimohan Mohapatra
- Samata Kranti Dal led by Braja Kishore Tripathy
- Rashtriya Samata Party (Secular) led by Arun Kumar
- Socialist Party (India) led by Late. Bhai Vaidya and Dr. Prem Singh
- Socialist Party (Lohia)
- Akhil Bhartiya Socialist Party (ABSP) led by Shri Harinarain Mishra follows ideology of Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia, Raj Narain and Janeshwar Mishra
- Socialist Janata Party led by Manju Mohan (merged with Socialist Party (India))
- Samras Samaj Party led by Nagmani (merged with Rashtriya Lok Samata Party) 
- Socialist Janata (Democratic) Party led by M. P. Veerendra Kumar (merged with Janata Dal (United))
- Janata Party (merged with Bharatiya Janata Party)
- Jan Morcha of Late V. P. Singh and led by Ajeya Pratap Singh (merged with Indian National Congress)
- Samajwadi Janata Dal Democratic led by Devendra Prasad Yadav (merged with Janata Dal (United))
- Odisha Gana Parishad led by Bijoy Mohapatra (merged with Nationalist Congress Party)
- All India Progressive Janata Dal led by Late Ramakrishna Hegde and Late S. R. Bommai (merged with Janata Dal (United))
- Janata Dal (Left) led by Late Surendra Mohan and M. P. Veerendra Kumar (merged with Janata Dal (Secular))
- Lok Shakti led by Late Ramakrishna Hegde (merged with Janata Dal (United))
- Kerala Janata Dal led by Late Arangil Sreedharan (merged with Janata Dal (Secular))
- Janata Dal (Gujarat) led by Late Chimanbhai Patel and Late Chhabildas Mehta (merged with Indian National Congress)
- Janata Dal (Digvijay) led by Digvijay Singh (merged with Bharatiya Janata Party)
- Janata Dal (Ajit) led by Ajit Singh (merged with Indian National Congress)
- Janata Dal (Socialist) led by Late Chandra Shekhar, Devi Lal, Mulayam Singh Yadav (renamed as Late Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya))
- Punjab Janata Morcha (PJM), in English the Punjab Popular Front, was a Sikh political party in the Indian state of Punjab. The party formed in 1989 as a splinter group of the Janata Dal. The party failed to win any election seats in its lifetime. Party president Kirpal Singh announced that the PJM was disbanded in 1997. Most members joined the Jan Morcha by 2003.
New merger initiatives
1. There is a move for the merger of Lok Aawaz Dal, Rashtriya Samata Party (Secular), and Socialist Janata Dal with Samta Party.
2. There is a move to unify seven parties - Loktantrik Janata Dal, Rashtriya Lok Samata Party, Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya), Samajwadi Jan Parishad, Socialist Party (India), Socialist Party (Lohia), and Loktantrik Samajwadi Party.
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