James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde
James FitzJames Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde, KG (29 April 1665 – 16 November 1745) was an Irish statesman and soldier. He was the third of the Kilcash branch of the family to inherit the earldom of Ormond. Like his grandfather the 1st Duke, he was raised as a Protestant, unlike his extended family who held to Roman Catholicism. He served in the campaign to put down the Monmouth Rebellion, in the Williamite War in Ireland, in the Nine Years' War and in the War of the Spanish Succession but was accused of treason and went into exile after the Jacobite rising of 1715.
The Duke of Ormonde
|Lord Lieutenant of Ireland|
19 February 1703 – 30 April 1707
|Preceded by||The Earl of Rochester|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Pembroke|
26 October 1710 – 22 September 1713
|Preceded by||The Earl of Wharton|
|Succeeded by||The Duke of Shrewsbury|
|Born||29 April 1665|
|Died||16 September 1745 80) (aged|
Papal Enclave of Avignon
|Spouse(s)||Lady Anne Hyde|
Lady Mary Somerset
|Parents||Thomas Butler, 6th Earl of Ossory|
Emilia van Nassau-Beverweerd
|Awards||Knight of the Garter|
Williamite War in Ireland
Nine Years' War
War of the Spanish Succession
Jacobite rising of 1715
The son of Thomas Butler, 6th Earl of Ossory and his wife Emilia (née van Nassau-Beverweerd), and grandson of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, Butler was born in Dublin and was educated in France and afterwards at Christ Church, Oxford. On the death of his father on 30 July 1680 he became Baron Butler in the English peerage and Earl of Ossory by courtesy. He obtained command of a cavalry regiment in Ireland in 1683, and having received an appointment at court on the accession of James II, he served against the Duke of Monmouth at the Battle of Sedgemoor in July 1685. Having succeeded his grandfather as Duke of Ormonde on 21 July 1688, he was appointed a Knight of the Order of the Garter on 28 September 1688. In 1688 he also became Chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin and Chancellor of the University of Oxford.
In January and February 1689 he voted against the motion to put William of Orange and Mary on the throne and against the motion to declare that James II had abdicated it. Nevertheless, he subsequently joined the forces of William of Orange, by whom he was made colonel of the Queen's Troop of Horse Guards on 20 April 1689, and commanded the Queen's Troop at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 during the Williamite War in Ireland. In February 1691 he became Lord Lieutenant of Somerset.
He served on the continent under William of Orange during the Nine Years' War and, having been promoted to major-general, he fought at the Battle of Steenkerque in August 1692 and the Battle of Landen in July 1693, where he was taken prisoner by the French and then exchanged for the Duke of Berwick, James II's illegitimate son. He was promoted to lieutenant-general in 1694.
After the accession of Queen Anne in March 1702, he became commander of the land forces co-operating with Sir George Rooke in Spain, where he fought in the Battle of Cádiz in August 1702 and the Battle of Vigo Bay in October 1702 during the War of the Spanish Succession. Having been made a Privy Councillor, Ormonde succeeded Lord Rochester as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1703.
Following the dismissal of the Duke of Marlborough, Ormonde was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Forces and colonel of the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards on 4 January 1711/2 and Captain-General on 26 February 1711/2. In the Irish Parliament Ormonde and the majority of peers supported the Tory interest.
The Guiscard affair
He played a dramatic role at the celebrated meeting of the Privy Council on 8 March 1711 when Antoine de Guiscard, a French double agent who was being questioned about his treasonable activities, attempted to assassinate Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford, against whom he had a personal grudge for drastically cutting his allowance, by stabbing him with a penknife (how he managed to get into the Council room with a weapon remains a mystery). Harley was wounded, but not seriously, due largely to the fact that he was wearing a heavy gold brocade waistcoat, in which the knife got stuck. Several Councillors, including Ormonde, stabbed Guiscard in return. Guiscard implored Ormonde to finish the deed, but Ormonde replied that it was not for him to play the hangman. In any case he had the sense to see that Guiscard must be kept alive at least long enough to be questioned, although as it turned out Guiscard's wounds were fatal and he died a week later.
The last campaign
On 23 April 1712 he left Harwich for Rotterdam to lead the British troops taking part in the war. Once there he allowed himself to be made the tool of the Tory ministry, whose policy was to carry on the war in the Netherlands while giving secret orders to Ormonde to take no active part in supporting their allies under Prince Eugene of Savoy. In July 1712 Ormonde advised Prince Eugene that he could no longer support the siege of Quesnoy and that he was withdrawing the British troops from the action and instead intended to take possession of Dunkirk. The Dutch were so exasperated at the withdrawal of the British troops that they closed the towns of Bouchain on Douai to British access despite the fact that they had plenty of stores and medical facilities available. Ormonde took possession of Ghent and Bruges as well as Dunkirk in order to ensure his troops were adequately provided for. On 15 April 1713 he became Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk.
Ormonde's position as Captain-General made him a personage of much importance in the crisis brought about by the death of Queen Anne and, during the last years of Queen Anne, Ormonde almost certainly had Jacobite leanings and corresponded with the Jacobite Court including his cousin, Piers Butler, 3rd Viscount Galmoye, who kept barrels of gunpowder at Kilkenny Castle. King George I on his accession to the throne in August 1714 instituted extensive changes and excluded the Tories from royal favour. Ormonde was stripped of his posts as Captain-General, as colonel of the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards and as Commander in Chief of the Forces with the first two posts going to the Duke of Marlborough and the role of Commander-in-Chief going to the Earl of Stair. On 19 November 1714 Ormonde was instead made a member of the reconstituted Privy Council of Ireland.
Accused of supporting the Jacobite rising of 1715, during which the rebels had shouted "High church and Ormond", he was impeached for high treason by Lord Stanhope on 21 June 1715. He might have avoided the impending storm of Parliamentary prosecution, if he had remained in England and stood trial but instead he chose to depart for France in August 1715 and initially stayed in Paris with Lord Bolingbroke. On 20 August 1715 he was attainted, his estate forfeited, and honours extinguished. The Earl Marshal was instructed to remove the names and armorial bearings of Ormonde and Bolingbroke from the list of peers and Ormonde's banner as Knight of the Garter was taken down in St George's Chapel.
On 20 June 1716, the Parliament of Ireland passed an act extinguishing the regalities and liberties of the county palatine of Tipperary; for vesting his estate in the crown and for giving a reward of £10,000 for his apprehension, should he attempt to land in Ireland. But the same parliament passed an act 24 June 1721, to enable his brother Charles Butler, 1st Earl of Arran, to purchase his estate, which he accordingly did.
Ormonde subsequently moved to Spain where he held discussions with Cardinal Alberoni. He later took part in a Spanish and Jacobite plan to invade England and put James Francis Edward Stuart on the British throne in 1719, but his fleet was disbanded by a storm near Galicia. In 1732 he moved to Avignon, where he was seen in 1733 by the writer, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Ormonde died in exile on 16 November 1745, and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 22 May 1746.
Marriage and children
In 1682 he married Lady Anne Hyde, daughter of Viscount Hyde of Kenilworth; they had one daughter. Following the death of his first wife (which is known to have caused him intense grief) in 1685, he married Lady Mary Somerset, daughter of the Duke of Beaufort and Mary Capel in 1685; they had a son and two daughters. Mary was a Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Anne.
Notes and references
- Faculty of Advocates (Scotland). Library (1867). Catalogue of the Printed Books in the Library of the Faculty of Advocates: A-Byzantium. 1867. W. Blackwood and sons. p. 812.
- "The Peerage.com". Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- Handley 2004, p. 164, left column: "in 1680 he immatriculated at Christ Church, Oxford."
- "James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- London Gazette 1688, Issue 2386, page 2: "Whitehall, Sept 28. This day a Chapter being held of the most Noble Order of the Garter, his Grace the Duke of Berwick and his Grace the Duke of Ormond were Elected Knights Companions of that Order, and invested with the Garter ..."
- "Former Chancellors". University of Dublin. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- Salter, pp.38–39
- Smollett 1800, p. 193: "The Earl of Wharton surrendered his commission of Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, which the Queen conferred on the Duke of Ormond."
- London Gazette 1711a, Issue 4948, page 1: "Whitehall, January 4. Her Majesty hath been graciously pleas'd to Constitute his Grace the Duke of Ormonde Commander of all Her Majesty's Land Forces in that part of the Kingdom of Great Britain call'd England, and Colonel of Her Majesty's First Regiment of Foot Guards."
- London Gazette 1711b, Issue 4971, page 1: "Whitehall, Feb. 26. Her Majesty hath been graciously pleas'd to sign a Commission, appointing His Grace the Duke of Ormond Captain-General of all and singular Her Majesty's Forces, rais'd or to be rais'd and emplyed in Her Service, within the Kingdom of Great Britain, or which are or shall be employ'd Abroad, in Conjunction with the Troops of her Allies."
- Smollett 1800, p. 213: "In the Irish Parliament held during the summer, the Duke of Ormond and the majority of the peers supported the Tory interest."
- Gregg, Edward Queen Anne Yale University Press 1980 p.337
- Gregg p.337
- Hamilton, p.181
- Hamilton, pp.181–2
- London Gazette 1712, Issue 4994, page 1: "Hague April 26 NS. His Grace the Duke of Ormond who set Sail from Harwich on the 23rd Instant, with a Convoy of Seven Men of War, two Yatchts, and about forty Transports, arriv'd at the Mouth of the Maes Yesterday Morning; where meeting a contrary Tide, His Grace took the Boat and went directly to Rotterdam ..."
- Smollett 1800, p. 238: "In the mean time the Duke of Ormond, who was now invested with the supreme command of the British forces, received a particular order that he should not hasard an engagement."
- Smollett, p.219
- Smollett, p.222
- London Gazette 1713, Issue 5112, page 1: "At the Court at St. James's, April 15, 1713. ... THIS day His Grace, James Duke of Ormond, took the Oaths appointed to be taken instead of the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy, his Grace being Lord lieutenant of the County of Norfolk, and of the City of Norwich and County of the same."
- "Treason". Kilkenny Castle. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- Smollett, p.264
- Smollett 1800, p. 300: "The Duke of Ormond was dismissed from his command, which the King restored to the Duke of Marlborough ..."
- London Gazette 1714, Issue 5278, page 4: "St. James's, November 16. ... His Majesty has been pleased to dissolve the Privy Council of Ireland, and to appoint a new one consisting of the Persons following, viz. ... James Duke of Ormonde ..."
- Smollett 1800, p. 312: "The people even obliged the life-guards, who patroled through the streets, to join in the cry of 'High-church and Ormond!'."
- Smollett 1800, p. 314: "On the twenty-first day of June, Mr. Secretary Stanhope impeached James Duke of Ormond, of high-treason ... "
- HMC 1902, p. 387: "1715, Wednesday night [Aug. 7]. Your Majesty is already informed of the D. of O[rmonde's] arrival in this place ..."
- London Gazette 1715a, Issue 5352, page 1: "Paris, August 9. The Duke of Ormond came to this Place on Wednesday last from Dieppe where he landed the Sunday before with one Renauld his Domestick Servant."
- London Gazette 1715b, Issue 5357, page 1: "Westminster, August 20. ... An act for the Attainder of James Duke of Ormond of High Treason, unless he shall render himself to Justice by a day certain therin mentioned."
- Smollett 1800, p. 321, line 24: "The Duke of Ormond and Lord Viscount Bolingbroke having omitted to surrender themselves within the limited time, the House of Lords ordered the Earl-Marshall to raze out of the list of Peers their names and armorial bearings."
- Smollett 1800, p. 321, line 29: "... the Duke's achievements as a knight of the Garter were taken down from St. George's chapel at Windsor."
- Dunboyne 1968, pp. 16–17: "Butler Family Tree condensed"
- Moody, T. W.; et al., eds. (1989). A New History of Ireland. 8: A Chronology of Irish History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-821744-2.
- London Gazette 1719a, Issue 5715, page 1: "By the Lords Justices and Council of Ireland a Proclamation. ... An Act for Extinguishing the Regalities and Liberties of the County of Tipperary, and Cross Tipperary, commonly called, the County Palatine of Tipperary, and for Vesting in his Majesty, the Estate of James Butler commonly called James Duke of Ormond, and for giving a Reward of Ten Thousand Pounds to any Person who shall seize or secure him, in Case he shall attempt to Land in this Kingdom."
- Lodge, p.63
- London Gazette 1719b, Issue 5727, page 1: "Paris March 15. Our freshest Advices from Spain say, that the late Duke of Ormond took his Leave of that Court the 14th of the last Month, and set out from Madrid the next Day for Cadiz 5 that Eight Men of War, and about 50 Transport Ships, were fitted out in that Port, on board which 13 Battallions and a Regiment of Dragoons, all or most of them Irish, were to embark ..."
- Smollett, p.336
- "The battle of Glen Shiel 1719". The Sons of Scotland. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- London Gazette 1719c, Issue 5799, page 1: "Dublin Nov. 10. Upon Advice from England of the late Duke of Ormond's being at Sea, with some Spanish Ships and Land Forces, intending probably to make an Attempt on this Kingdom;"
- Dahl, Michael. "Portrait of Lady Mary Somerset, Duchess of Ormond (1665–1733)". Fergus Hall Master Paintings.
- "Mary (née Somerset), Duchess of Ormonde, 1665–1733. Lady of the Bedchamber and second wife of 2nd Duke of Ormonde". National Galleries Scotland. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- Dunboyne, Patrick Theobald Tower Butler, Baron (1968), Butler Family History (2nd ed.), Kilkenny: Rothe House
- Handley, Stuart (2004), "Butler, James, second duke of Ormond (1665–1745)", in Matthew, Henry Colin Gray.; Harrison, Brian (eds.), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 9, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 163–168, ISBN 0-19-861359-8
- Hamilton, Elizabeth (1969). The Backstairs Dragon – a life of Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford. Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 978-0800805876.
- Historical Manuscripts Commission (HMC) (1902), Calendar of the Stuart Papers, 1, London: HM Stationery Office
- Lodge, John (1789). The Peerage of Ireland or, A Genealogical History of the Present Nobility of That Kingdom, Vol. IV.
- Salter, H.E. (1954). Chancellors of the University of Oxford, A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 3: The University of Oxford. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- Smollett, Tobias (1800), The History of England, 2 (A new ed.), London: T. Cadell - From the revolution to the death of George the Second
- "Whitehall, September 28", The London Gazette, no. 2386, 27 September – 1 October 1688
- "Whitehall, January 4", The London Gazette, no. 4948, 3–5 January 1711
- "Whitehall, Feb. 26", The London Gazette, no. 4971, 26–28 February 1711
- "Hague, April 26 NS", The London Gazette, no. 4994, 19–22 April 1712
- "At the Court at St. James's, April 15, 1713", The London Gazette, no. 5112, 14–18 April 1713
- "St. James's, November 16", The London Gazette, no. 5278, 16–20 November 1714
- "Paris, August 9", The London Gazette, no. 5352, 2–6 August 1715
- "Westminster, August 20", The London Gazette, no. 5357, 20–23 August 1715
- "By the Lords Justices and Council of Ireland a Proclamation", The London Gazette, no. 5715, 24–27 January 1719
- "Paris March 15 [NS]", The London Gazette, no. 5727, 7–10 March 1719
- "Dublin Nov. 10", The London Gazette, no. 5799, 14–17 November 1719
- Earl of Clarendon, Edward (1736). A vindication of the conduct of James, Duke of Ormonde during his long and faithful administration in Ireland.
- Wilson, Rachel (2015). Elite Women in Ascendancy Ireland, 1690–1745: Imitation and Innovation. Boydell and Brewer, Woodbridge. ISBN 978-1783270392.
Media related to James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde at Wikimedia Commons
- "Archival material relating to James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde". UK National Archives.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ormonde, James Butler, 2nd Duke of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 297–298.