Jakarta Flood Canal
The Jakarta Flood Canal (Indonesian: Kanal Banjir) refers to two canals that divert floods from rivers around Jakarta instead of going through the city. This first flood control channel was designed by Hendrik van Breen, engineer at the Burgelijke Openbare Werken or BOW (later the Ministry of Public Works), after a big flood hit the city on 13 February 1918.
West and East Flood Canal
With help of Netherlands Engineering Consultants, the "Master Plan for Drainage and Flood Control of Jakarta" was published in December 1973. According to this plan, flood control of Jakarta would revolve around two canals encircling the city.
The canals divert the water flowing from the south around the city and into the sea. These canals are known as West Flood Canal (Indonesian: Banjir Kanal Barat) and East Flood Canal (Indonesian: Banjir Kanal Timur). Other measures to control floods in Jakarta include reservoirs and pumps in areas below sea level. This system built in 1983.
West Flood Canal
The West Flood Canal marked the southern boundary of the Menteng residential area. The flood canal was included in the 1918 Batavia city plan and constructed in 1919. It runs from the floodgate in Manggarai, via Pasar Rumput, Dukuh Atas, Karet Kubur, Tanah Abang, Tomang, Grogol, and Pademangan to the sea at Muara Angke. Another floodgate is located in Karet. A still existing bronze plaque on the Manggarai floodgate honours Van Breen and commemorates the canal's first use in diverting the flood of 1919.
In the 1973 master plan, a system of canals was planned to cut to the flow of water in West Jakarta. This was a continuation of Van Breen's canal and would later be known as the West Flood Canal. The construction was delayed by problems in clearing the heavily populated area. After a flood in January 1979, the central government and the provincial government of Jakarta revised the West Flood Canal plan by the construction of the Cengkareng drainage system.
East Flood Canal
The 23.6 km East Flood Canal flows from East Jakarta to North Jakarta. The width of the canal varies from 100 to 300 m. Construction began on 22 June 2002, but has been delayed due to problems in clearing the area. The East Flood Canal is planned to divert the Ciliwung River, Cipinang River, Sunter River, Buaran River, Jati Kramat River, and Cakung River.
During the 2013 Jakarta Flood, the East Flood Canal was still not connected to the Ciliwung River. The government plans to connect the two via a tunnel.
- "Houdt U gereed!" [Brace yourself!]. Het nieuws van den dag voor Nederlandsch-Indië (in Dutch). Batavia. 6 February 1919. p. 1. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- "West Flood Canal on the website of the Jakartan government" (in Indonesian).
- Silver, Christopher (2007). Planning the Megacity: Jakarta in the Twentieth Century. Planning, History and Environment Series. Routledge. pp. 56–60. ISBN 9781135991227. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- "Huldiging Van Breen" [Honouring Van Breen]. Bataviaasch Nieuwsblad (in Dutch). Batavia. 24 March 1919. p. 3. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- "East canal flood on the website of the Jakartan government" (in Indonesian).
- "Pembangunan Banjir Kanal Timur Terus Tertunda" (in Indonesian).
- "Pembangunan Sudetan Ciliwung – Kanal Banjir Timur akan Dianggarkan Tahun Ini" (in Indonesian).