Jaguar XF (X250)

The Jaguar XF (X250) is a rear-wheel-drive executive car manufactured and marketed by Jaguar Land Rover. The XF is available as a four-door saloon and five-door estate.

Jaguar XF
ManufacturerJaguar Land Rover
AssemblyCastle Bromwich Assembly, Birmingham, England
Pune, India (CKD)[1][2]
DesignerIan Callum (2005)
Body and chassis
Body style4-door saloon
5-door estate
LayoutFR layout
F4 layout
PlatformFord DEW98 platform
RelatedLincoln LS (2000–2006)
Ford Thunderbird (2002–2005)
Jaguar S-Type (1999–2008)
2.0 T I4
3.0 Jaguar AJ-V6
3.0 S V6
4.2 (S) – 5.0 (S) Jaguar AJ-V8
2.2 I4
2.73.0 Jaguar AJD-V6
Transmission6-speed automatic[3]
8-speed automatic[3]
6-speed manual (2015–)[4]
Wheelbase2,909 mm (114.5 in)[3]
Length4,961 mm (195.3 in)[3] Saloon
4,966 mm (195.5 in)[3] Sportbrake
Width1,877 mm (73.9 in)[3] (exc. mirrors; 2008–2011)
2,077 mm (81.8 in)[3] (inc. mirrors; 2008–2011)
80.8 in (2,052 mm) (2012–)
Height1,460 mm (57.5 in)
Kerb weight1,850 kg (4,079 lb)[3]
PredecessorJaguar S-Type
SuccessorJaguar XF

Launched by Jaguar in autumn 2007 as a replacement for the Jaguar S-Type, the XF was designated internally as the X250.[5]

The second generation XF is the Jaguar XF (X260), introduced in 2015.


The XF was developed at Jaguar's Whitley design and development HQ in Whitley, Coventry and was built at Castle Bromwich Assembly facility in Birmingham.

The XF was launched at the 2007 Frankfurt Motor Show,[6][7] following the public showing of the C-XF concept in January 2007 at the North American International Auto Show. Customer deliveries commenced in March 2008,[8] with a range of V6 and V8 engines.[9]

Designed by Jaguar's design director Ian Callum,[10] the styling incorporates an oval mesh grille recalling the original Jaguar XJ of 1968. The boot lid retained the S-Type's chromed blade to its edge and included a "leaper" hood ornament.

The XF was launched with a variety of trims called, depending on country, 'SE', 'Luxury', 'Premium Luxury' (or 'Premium'), 'Portfolio' (or 'Premium Portfolio'), 'SV8' (or 'Supercharged') and 'R'. For the UK market, company car-friendly 'Executive Edition' and 'SE Business' models with a lower tuned versions of the 3.0 L and 2.2 L diesel engines respectively are available.

The interior included air conditioning vents which are flush-fitting in the dash, rotating open once the engine is started, and a rotating gearshift dial, marketed as JaguarDrive Selector, which automatically elevates from the centre console.[11] Another departure from the traditional Jaguar cabin ambiance is the use of pale-blue backlighting to the instruments, switchgear, and around major control panels. Some minor systems, such as the interior lighting, are controlled by touching the light covers. The glove compartment also opens to the touch. The XF has no cloth interior option, with all trim levels featuring leathers. Wood veneers are available along with aluminium, carbon fibre and piano black lacquer trims.

XF Supercharged (2010–2015)

The 2008 4.2-litre supercharged engined was replaced by the new 5.0-litre supercharged engine rated at 470 PS (346 kW; 464 hp), and came with Adaptive Dynamics (computer controlled continuously variable damping) and Active Differential Control (electronically controlled rear differential).[12]

XFR (2009–2015)

The XFR was announced at Detroit's North American International Auto Show in January 2009 as a new performance derivative of the XF range, and featured the new 5.0-litre supercharged AJ-V8 Gen III engine rated 510 PS (375 kW; 503 hp), a revised front bumper and spoiler and 20-inch (508 mm) alloy wheels.[13][14]

Facelift (2011)

In April 2011, Jaguar revealed the details of a facelift for the XF at the New York International Auto Show, with manufacturing beginning in July 2011.[15]

The facelift includes front and rear styling changes which are based on the original Jaguar C-XF concept car, internal trim enhancements, adaptive cruise control, and a new four-cylinder 187 bhp (139 kW; 190 PS) 450 N⋅m (332 lb⋅ft) 2.2-litre diesel engine, which is combined with a new eight-speed automatic transmission and stop-start technology to emit 149 g/km CO2 and fuel consumption of 52.3 mpgimp (5.40 L/100 km; 43.5 mpgUS).[16]

XF Sportbrake (2012–2015)

The Sportbrake was formally revealed in March 2012, and went on-sale date in October of the same year. It is available with all of the saloon's engines and has a loading capacity of 550 litres (19 cubic feet) with the seats up and 1,675 litres (59.2 cubic feet) with them folded.[17] The maximum capacity surpasses that of rivals BMW 5 Series Touring,[18] Cadillac CTS Sport Wagon,[19] and the Mercedes-Benz_CLS-Class_(W218) Shooting Brake.[20] The extended roofline increases rear headroom by 48 mm (1.9 inches) and the rear bench includes a 60:40 split and remote-controlled 'one-touch' folding function. The load area is fitted with multi-function rails and is 1,970 mm (78 inches) long and 1,064 mm (41.9 inches) wide.[21]


An R-S version of the XF was confirmed in 2012 following an image released shortly before the Los Angeles Auto Show. It uses the same 5.0-litre supercharged V8 engine as the Jaguar XKR-S.

The engine produces 550 PS (542 bhp; 405 kW) at 6500 rpm and 680 N⋅m (502 lb⋅ft) of torque at 5500 rpm. The XFR-S has a 0–60 mph (97 km/h) time of 4.4 seconds and a top speed of 186 mph (299 km/h). The XFR-S differs from the XFR as it has bespoke 20-inch alloy wheels, wider front grills and carbon fibre. The front grills aid aerodynamic efficiency as does the large rear wing. There is a rear diffuser and quad tailpipes.[22]



The car body was developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) before the car ever saw a wind tunnel. Every area from the outer skin to the lightweight, composite undertray to the cooling airflow (even the shape of the exterior mirrors) was optimised using this process. The higher, squarer tail is more efficient aerodynamically than a lower, rounded one, and the XF's coupé-like roofline and raised bootlid lip improve airflow over the rear of the car.


The basic substructure of the XF has been carried over from the S-Type, although the body has been stretched to meet crash safety requirements, and heightened to provide additional headroom while still retaining the "saloon within a coupé" proportions. The suspension and mountings are the same as that used on the XK, while the engine line-up is basically similar to that used in the S-Type.

Sound and vibration insulation is provided by the addition of a special underbody tray and engine mounts, a tuned exhaust system, and a double bulkhead between the engine bay and passenger compartment.

Engine specifications

All XF models are automatic and are Euro 5 compliant. The naturally-aspirated petrol 3.0 V6 was discontinued in Europe in 2010, but continues to be sold elsewhere.

Next Green Car (NGC) an organisation that analyses vehicle emissions and rates them from 0 (cleanest) to 100 (dirtiest) – analysed the emissions from Jaguar's current XF range:[23] ADAC's EcoTest has also rated three of the diesel engines.

StartEndModel & transmissionEnginePowerTorqueTop speed0–60 mph (0–97 km/h)EconomyEmissionsNGCEcoTest
2012Jaguar XF 2.0 i4 Ti2.0 L, I4241 PS (177 kW; 238 hp)340 N⋅m (251 lb⋅ft)150 mph (241 km/h)7.5 s  (7.9 s)31.7 mpgimp (8.9 l/100 km)207 g/km
20082011Jaguar XF 3.0 V63.0 L, V6238 PS (175 kW; 235 hp)293 N⋅m (216 lb⋅ft)148 mph (238 km/h)7.6 s  (8.0 s)26.9 mpgimp (10.5 l/100 km)249 g/km
2012Jaguar XF 3.0 V6 SC3.0 L, V6340 PS (250 kW; 335 hp)450 N·m (332 lb·ft)155 mph (249 km/h) Limited5.7 s  (5.9 s)30.0 mpgimp (9.4 l/100 km)224 g/km61[24]
20082009Jaguar XF 4.2 V84.2 L, V8300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp)420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft)155 mph (249 km/h) Limited6.5 s  (6.7 s)25.5 mpgimp (11.1 l/100 km)264 g/km
20082009Jaguar XF 4.2 V8 SC4.2 L, V8420 PS (309 kW; 414 hp)560 N⋅m (413 lb⋅ft)155 mph (249 km/h) Limited5.2 s  (5.4 s)22.4 mpgimp (12.6 l/100 km)299 g/km
20092012Jaguar XF 5.0 V85.0 L, V8385 PS (283 kW; 380 hp)515 N⋅m (380 lb⋅ft)155 mph (249 km/h) Limited5.4 s  (5.7 s)25.8 mpgimp (10.9 l/100 km)254 g/km70[25]
2009Jaguar XF 5.0 V8 SC5.0 L, V8470 PS (346 kW; 464 hp)575 N⋅m (424 lb⋅ft)155 mph (249 km/h) Limited4.9 s  (5.2 s)25.4 mpgimp (11.1 l/100 km)264 g/km70[26]
20092015Jaguar XF R 5.0 V8 SC5.0 L, V8510 PS (375 kW; 503 hp)625 N⋅m (461 lb⋅ft)155 mph (249 km/h) Limited4.7 s  (4.9 s)24.4 mpgimp (11.6 l/100 km)270 g/km71[27]
20122015Jaguar XF RS 5.0 V8 SC5.0 L, V8550 PS (405 kW; 542 hp)680 N⋅m (502 lb⋅ft)186 mph (299 km/h) Limited4.4 s  (4.6 s)24.4 mpgimp (11.6 l/100 km)270 g/km73[28]
20112015Jaguar XF 2.2 TDi4 163 2.2 L, I4163 PS (120 kW; 161 hp)400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft)130 mph (209 km/h)9.8 s  (10.5 s)55.4 mpgimp (5.10 l/100 km)135 g/km41[29]
20112012Jaguar XF 2.2 TDi4 1902.2 L, I4190 PS (140 kW; 187 hp)450 N⋅m (332 lb⋅ft)140 mph (225 km/h)8.0 s  (8.5 s)52.3 mpgimp (5.40 l/100 km)149 g/km43[30] 82
20122015Jaguar XF 2.2 TDi4 2002.2 L, I4200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp)450 N⋅m (332 lb⋅ft)140 mph (225 km/h)8.0 s  (8.5 s)52.0 mpgimp (5.43 l/100 km)139 g/km41[29]
20082009Jaguar XF 2.7 TDV6 2042.7 L, V6204 PS (150 kW; 201 hp)435 N⋅m (321 lb⋅ft)142 mph (229 km/h)8.2 s  (8.5 s)37.7 mpgimp (7.49 l/100 km)199 g/km 65
20102011Jaguar XF 3.0 TDV6 2113.0 L, V6211 PS (155 kW; 208 hp)450 N⋅m (332 lb⋅ft)149 mph (240 km/h)8.1 s  (8.4 s)41.5 mpgimp (6.81 l/100 km)179 g/km51[31] 76
20092015Jaguar XF 3.0 TDV6 2403.0 L, V6240 PS (177 kW; 237 hp)500 N⋅m (369 lb⋅ft)155 mph (249 km/h) Limited6.7 s  (7.1 s)46.0 mpgimp (6.14 l/100 km)159 g/km46[32]
20092015Jaguar XF S 3.0 TDV6 2753.0 L, V6275 PS (202 kW; 271 hp)600 N⋅m (443 lb⋅ft)155 mph (249 km/h) Limited5.9 s  (6.4 s)46.0 mpgimp (6.14 l/100 km)159 g/km46[32]

The 2.7-litre V6 diesel engine, replaced in 2009 with a new 3.0-litre V6 diesel,The engine is the same as the 3.0L TDV6 Land Rover Discovery 4 with the newly used ZF 8 speed automatic transmission. AJ-V6D Gen III,[33] came in two states of tune.[34] The diesel engines are a product of the joint venture between Ford and Peugeot-Citroën.[35]


The XF was launched with only an automatic gearbox, and all models initially used the six-speed ZF 6HP26 automatic transmission. For model years 2010–2012, some engines (the 3.0 l diesel and 5.0 l supercharged petrol) used the second generation six-speed ZF 6HP28 transmission. During 2012–2013, 8-speed ZF 8HP70 transmissions replaced the 6-speed boxes for all engines. The gears can either be selected using a rotary dial that rises from the centre console on start-up or can be manually controlled using paddles behind the steering wheel. AWD is available in both RHD and LHD markets with variances according to consumer demand for engine types. Smaller 2.0l diesel models are available in AWD in UK RHD, however petrol AWD models are not.


Sound system

The standard audio system comprises a ten-speaker, 250 W set-up that includes a radio, CD player, WMA and MP3 compatibility as well as USB storage devices.[36]

From 2008 to 2012, there was an optional Bowers & Wilkins (B&W) sound system available. At its core there are 14 speakers which (with the exception of the aluminium high-frequency tweeters) employ B&W's Kevlar composite speaker cones. Each front door contains a 168 mm (6.6 in) woofer, a 100 mm (3.9 in) mid-range speaker and a 25 mm (1.0 in) dome tweeter (the latter two wired in parallel with a crossover), while each rear door houses a similar 168 mm (6.6 in) woofer and 25 mm (1.0 in) tweeter. As a centre speaker there is a 100 mm (3.9 in) full-range driver, similar to the two 100 mm (3.9 in) full-range 'surround' speakers located on the rear parcel shelf. The B&W system has been reviewed by journalists at Autocar magazine, who proclaimed it the best in-car system they have ever heard.[37]

For 2013 models, Jaguar introduced the option of a new Meridian sound system upgrade instead of B&W; with a choice of 380 W 11-speaker or an 825 W surround sound 17-speaker system.[38]

Multimedia interaction

A 7-inch full-colour screen is fitted to the dashboard of all XFs and can be used to control most multimedia systems. The same screen can also be upgraded with analogue and digital television capability. Available as an option is JaguarVoice which allows the driver to speak commands to control everything from the sound and navigation systems to telephone calls and the climate control system.[36]


The XF was crash tested in 2010 by Euro NCAP and it gained a four star rating. The XF's result was seen as a disappointment by some car magazines.[39][40] When retested in 2011, the XF turned in improved scores in adult occupant, child occupant and pedestrian areas.

Jaguar XF
Euro NCAP 2010
Jaguar XF
Euro NCAP 2011
Adult Occupant2878%
Child Occupant3265%
Pedestrian Impact1643%
Safety Assist571%
Adult Occupant2879%
Child Occupant3673%
Pedestrian Impact2262%
Safety Assist571%

The Australasian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP) also tested the XF and gave it a score of 32.38 points out of 37, giving it an ANCAP rating of 4 out of 5.[41]

Thatcham's New Car Whiplash Ratings awarded the XF 'good' score for Geometric, Dynamic and Overall ratings.[42]


Deadlocks, an alarm and an engine immobiliser are fitted as standard to the XF. The car also locks itself when it reaches a pre-set speed to help protect against carjackings.[43] The XF was tested by Thatcham's New Vehicle Security Ratings (NVSR) organisation and achieved the following ratings:[44]

Theft of car:
Theft from car:

Jaguar speed record

On 7 November 2008, a modified XFR was driven by Paul Gentilozzi of Rocketsports, who propelled the car to a new Jaguar record of 225.675 mph (363.189 km/h) on the Bonneville Salt Flats. The new record beat the previous Jaguar record of 217.1 mph (349.4 km/h) in an XJ220 in 1992.[45] Changes to the stock vehicle included low-mounted rear spoiler, increased power to 510 PS (375 kW; 503 hp) by a remapped ECU, a modified air intake and exhaust system and revised supercharger settings.[46]

Police car

A special version of the XF Diesel S was announced in 2009 for the UK police car market, with the first police force orders in 2010.[47] Its emergency vehicle equipment included a roof-mounted light bar with 3,600 light elements, side alley lights, blue and white strobing LEDs in the grille and blue flashing LEDs along the side of the car, blue and red flashing LED lights in the rear light clusters.[48][49]

Critical reception

Jeremy Clarkson of Top Gear reviewed the XFR during episode 5 of series 13. During the review he said: "I'm not going to, even for a minute suggest that it's [XFR] better than the M5, but it's as-good-as. And praise does not get higher than that". During the same episode The Stig managed a lap time of 1:26.7 s with the XFR, making the XFR only 0.5 s slower than its rival the BMW M5 (1:26.2).[50]

Worldwide sales

Total sales do not include years 2007 and 2008.[51]

Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total
Units sold 30,906 34,368 30,646 34,693 47,391 48,375 35,675 36,544 202,678


  • The concept C-XF was awarded 2007 North American Production Preview Vehicle of the Year award.[52]
  • What Diesel? magazine awarded the XF both the Car of the Year and Best Executive Car awards in 2008.[53]
  • In 2009, What Diesel? magazine, for the second year running, awarded the XF both the Car of the Year and Best Executive Car awards.[53]
  • The XF won the What Car? Best Executive Car category again in 2009,[54]
  • The XF won the What Car? Best Executive Car award for the third time in 2010.[55]
  • For the fourth successive year, the XF won the What Car? Best Executive Car award in 2011.[56]
  • In August 2011, the XF was awarded Car of the Decade by Auto Express[57]
  • In November 2016, the XF was awarded Best Saloon by Golden Steering Wheel Awards[58][59]


  1. Rakesh Datt. "Jaguar Land Rover to assemble XJ sedan and Evoque Crossover in India". Indian Cars Bikes.
  2. Rajesh Kurup. "Business Line : Companies News : JLR starts assembling Jaguar XF in India". Business Line. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  3. "XF Specifications". Jaguar Cars.
  4. "Latest news on Jaguar XF".
  5. "November 28, 2006". Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  6. Neff, John (11 September 2007). "Frankfurt 2007: Jaguar XF in the flesh". Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  7. "Jaguar XF made its Frankfurt debut". Top Speed. Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  8. Neff, John (27 August 2007). "2009 Jaguar XF bringing sexy back". Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  9. "Evo October 2007". 4 October 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  10. "Autocar August 28, 2007". Autocar. 28 August 2007. Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  11. "Sydney Morning Herald August 28, 2007". The Sydney Morning Herald. 28 August 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  12. Lavrinc, Damon (29 June 2009). "Jaguar reveals all-new XF Supercharged model for North America". Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  13. Ramsey, Jonathon (12 January 2009). "Detroit 2009: Jaguar XFR makes us purrrrr... really, really fast". Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  14. "2009 Jaguar XF Specs – 2009 Jaguar XF Specifications – Motor Trend Magazine". Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  15. "Autocar 20 April 2011". Autocar. 21 April 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
  16. "XF leads new dawn for Jaguar". Auto Express. Dennis Publishing. April 2011. Archived from the original on 8 August 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  17. Jaguar Dealer. "Jaguar UK – XF Sportbrake Loadspace Features". Retrieved 11 May 2012.
  18. "BMW 5 Series Estate Car Review". Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  19. "Cadillac Luxury Cars and SUVs". Cadillac Europe. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
  20. Autocar wrote:. "First drive: Mercedes-Benz CLS 350 CDI Shooting Brake Review". Autocar. Retrieved 22 September 2012.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  21. "Jaguar XF Sportbrake (2013)". Retrieved 11 May 2012.
  22. "Jaguar XF – Engines & Performance – Specifications". Jaguar Retail.
  23. "Next Green Car". Next Green Car. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
  24. "JAGUAR XF 3.0 V6 Petrol Premium Luxury Supercharged 340PS Auto – CO2 224g/km". Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  25. "JAGUAR XF 5.0 V8 Petrol Portfolio Auto – CO2 264g/km". Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  26. "JAGUAR XF 5.0 V8 Petrol Portfolio Auto – CO2 254g/km". Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  27. "JAGUAR XF 5.0 V8 XFR Supercharged 510PS Auto – CO2 268g/km". Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  28. "JAGUAR XF 5.0 V8 XFR-S Supercharged 550PS Auto – CO2 270g/km". Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  29. "JAGUAR XF 2.2 Diesel SE 163PS Auto – CO2 135g/km". Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  30. "JAGUAR XF 2.2 Diesel Luxury 190PS Auto – CO2 149g/km". Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  31. "JAGUAR XF 3.0 V6 Diesel Executive Edition Auto – CO2 179g/km". Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  32. "JAGUAR XF 3.0 V6 Diesel Luxury 240PS Auto – CO2 159g/km". Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  33. Abuelsamid, Sam (29 December 2008). "Jaguar announces new XF Diesel S, 0–60 5.9s, 35 mpg". Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  34. Simister, John (18 May 2009). "Evo May 2009". Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  35. "The Independent 24 February 2008". The Independent. London. 24 February 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  36. Jaguar. "Jaguar UK – XF Audio Systems". Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  37. Vicky Parrott (4 December 2007). "Autocar Article". Autocar Article. Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  38. "2013 Jaguar XJ and XF Sportbrake – First Look". Road & Track. 28 June 2012. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  39. "Shock Euro NCAP result for Jaguar". Yahoo!. Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  40. "Jaguar XF improvements promised after disappointing four-star NCAP safety rating". Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  41. "Jaguar safety | XF crash test". ANCAP. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  42. "Safety New Car Whiplash Ratings | Thatcham MIRRC". Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
  43. Jaguar Dealer. "Jaguar Uk – A Focus On Safety". Retrieved 11 May 2012.
  44. "New Vehicle Security Ratings | Thatcham MIRRC". Archived from the original on 2 August 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  45. "Evo January 2009". Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  46. Paukert, Chris (15 January 2009). "Detroit 2009: Faster Pussycat – Jaguar XFR pounces on Bonneville, hits 225 mph!". Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  47. "Autocar April 28, 2010". Autocar. 28 April 2010. Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  48. "Performance Jaguar Xf in Police Pursuit". 27 May 2009. Archived from the original on 17 December 2010. Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  49. Ramsey, Jonathon (27 May 2009). "Jaguar UK launches new police package for XF". Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  50. Chris Shunk RSS feed. "VIDEO: Top Gear pits Jaguar XFR against BMW M5". Retrieved 11 May 2012.
  51. "Tata Motors – Investors – JLR Volumes". Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  52. Abuelsamid, Sam (26 June 2007). "Jaguar C-XF wins Production Preview concept award". Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  53. "What diesel car of the year awards 2009". What Diesel Magazine. 9 April 2009. Retrieved 24 December 2009.
  54. "What Car? Car of the Year awards 2009 – Executive". What Car. 22 January 2009. Retrieved 24 December 2009.
  55. "Car of the Year awards 2010 – Executive winner". What Car?. 15 January 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
  56. "What Car? Car of the Year awards 2011 – Executive car winner". What Car?. 13 January 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
  57. "A Decade of Driver Power". Auto Express. 31 August 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  58. "The Golden Steering Wheel Award Winners Announced". Auto Express. 8 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.