JNR Class EF66

The Class EF66 (EF66形) is a six-axle, three-bogied (Bo′Bo′Bo′) DC electric locomotive designed for fast freight used by Japanese National Railways (JNR) and later operated by its descendants JR West and JR Freight.[1] As of 1 April 2016, 39 locomotives remained in service, all operated by JR Freight.[2]

Class EF66
JR Freight EF66 27 in May 2013
Type and origin
BuilderKawasaki Sharyo, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kisha Seizo
Total produced89
Specifications
Configuration:
  UICBo′Bo′Bo′
  CommonwealthBo-Bo-Bo
Gauge1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
BogiesDT133A (outer), DT134A (centre)
Wheel diameter1,120 mm (44.09 in)
Length18,200 mm (59 ft 8 12 in)
Width2,800 mm (9 ft 2 14 in)
Height4,200 mm (13 ft 9 38 in)
Loco weight100.8 tonnes (99.2 long tons; 111.1 short tons)
Electric system/s1,500 V DC overhead lines
Current pickup(s)Pantograph
Traction motorsDC motors (MT56) (x6)
TransmissionSingle-stage reduction gear (20:71), flexible quill drive
Performance figures
Maximum speed110 km/h (70 mph)
Power output3.9 MW (5,200 hp)
Tractive effort192 kN (43,000 lbf)
Career
Operators
Number in class39 (as of 1 April 2016)
Delivered1966
DispositionIn service

Variants

  • EF66-900: Prototype locomotive EF66 901, delivered in 1966
  • EF66-0: Full-production type (EF66 1 – 55), built 1968 to 1975
  • EF66-100: Later type (EF66 101 – 133), built 1989 to 1991

Technical

The locomotives were designed to be able to haul 1,000-tonne trains at 100 km/h (60 mph). Each traction motor has a power output of 650 kW (870 hp), (about 50% more powerful than the Class EF65). The bogies have an air suspension system to limit the impulsive forces on the track.

Operations

During the JNR era, these locomotives were used for freight trains and also for passenger work - primarily hauling night trains such as the Hayabusa sleeping car limited express.[3]

By 1 April 2009, 73 EF66s (including all 33 EF66-100s) were in service, with 63 owned by JR Freight (all based at Suita Depot in Osaka), and 10 owned by JR West (all based at Shimonoseki Depot).[4]

As of 1 April 2016, 39 locomotives remained in service (six EF66-0 and 33 EF66-100 locomotives), all operated by JR Freight.[2]

History

Background

With the opening of the Meishin Expressway between Nagoya and Kobe in 1965 and the Tomei Expressway between Tokyo and Nagoya in 1968, JNR faced increasing competition for freight transport from road hauliers. JNR therefore developed the "10000 series" freight wagons (KoKi 10000 and KoKiFu 10000 container flat wagons, ReSa 10000 and ReMuFu 10000 refrigerated wagons, and WaKi 10000 bogie vans) capable of operating at 100 km/h (60 mph). Express freight services formed of these wagons were introduced on the Tokaido Main Line and Sanyo Main Line from October 1966 using Class EF65-500 electric locomotives built in 1965. These locomotives were designed to be used in pairs hauling 1,000-tonne freight trains, but as pairs of locomotives drew excessive current from the overhead wires, 1,000-tonne freight trains had to be split into 600-tonne and 400-tonne sections when operating on the Sanyo Main Line. This led to the need for a new locomotive design that would be capable of hauling 1,000-tonne trains singly.[5]

Prototype

A prototype locomotive, initially classified EF90 and numbered EF90 1, was built by Kawasaki Sharyo in 1966. It had a total power output of 3.9 MW (5,230 hp), making it the world's most powerful narrow-gauge locomotive at the time.[5]

EF66 901 was retired from service in 1996, and has been stored at Hiroshima Depot since 2001.

Full-production series

The production series of locomotives were delivered from 1968, with 55 built in two batches between 1968 and 1975.[5]

The second batch of locomotives, EF66 21 to EF66 55, delivered between 1973 and 1975, incorporated a number of minor changes and improvements. Most noticeable was the extension of the cab roofs over the windscreens to reduce the deposition of abrasion dust from the pantographs on the windscreens.[5] Some of the first-batch locomotives (EF66 1 to 20) were also subsequently modified with the "sun visor" style cab end roofs.[5]

Post-privatization

Following the privatisation of JNR on 1 April 1987, JR Freight received the prototype (EF66 901) and 39 of the original series (EF66 1 to EF66 39) as well as the Class EF66-100 machines. JR West obtained the remainder of the machines (EF66 40 to EF66 55) - a total of 16.

Shortly after privatization, JR Freight tried out a number of new experimental liveries on its various locomotives, and one Class EF66, locomotive number EF66 20, received an experimental cream and blue livery with large "JR" logos in August 1987. No other members of the class were reliveried, however, and EF66 20 received the new JR Freight two-tone blue livery when it underwent refurbishment in October 1993.[5]

From 1988, JR Freight retrofitted a number of its EF66s (numbers 22 - 24, 26 - 27, 30 - 33, 37) with roof-mounted cab air-conditioning units.[5]

From 1993, JR Freight started refurbishing its fleet of EF66s (numbers 1 - 5, 7 - 10, 11 - 12, 16 - 39, 41, 44, 53, 55). Refurbishment included rewinding of the traction motor coils, removal of the former JNR decorations on the front-end number plates, and repainting into a two-tone blue livery similar to that carried by the EF66-100s.[5] Locomotives refurbished from 2004 onward, however, received a simplified blue livery, similar to the original JNR-style livery.[5]

EF66-100

Due to increased demand, JR Freight began building more EF66s in 1989. This batch of locomotives was classified EF66-100, with locomotive numbered EF66 101 to EF66 133. The Class EF66-100 locomotives were fundamentally the same design as the EF66-0, but with slightly more modern external styling. The driver's cabs are air-conditioned. The Class EF66 100 locomotives were also built in two batches, EF66 101 to 108 and EF66 109 to EF133. The second batch differed in having rectangular headlamps and tail lamps, while the first batch had round lamps.[5]

Build histories

The individual locomotive build histories are as follows.[5]

No.ManufacturerDate delivered
EF66-900
EF66 901[Note 1]Kawasaki Sharyo/Kawasaki ElectricSeptember 1966
EF66-0
EF66 1Kisha Seizo/Toyo ElectricJuly 1968
EF66 2Kisha Seizo/Toyo ElectricAugust 1968
EF66 3Kisha Seizo/Toyo ElectricAugust 1968
EF66 4Kisha Seizo/Toyo ElectricSeptember 1968
EF66 5Kisha Seizo/Toyo ElectricSeptember 1968
EF66 6Kisha Seizo/Toyo ElectricSeptember 1968
EF66 7Kawasaki Sharyo/Kawasaki ElectricJuly 1968
EF66 8Kawasaki Sharyo/Kawasaki ElectricJuly 1968
EF66 9Kawasaki Sharyo/Kawasaki ElectricJuly 1968
EF66 10Kawasaki Sharyo/Kawasaki ElectricAugust 1968
EF66 11Kawasaki Sharyo/Kawasaki ElectricAugust 1968
EF66 12Kawasaki Sharyo/Kawasaki ElectricAugust 1968
EF66 13Kawasaki Sharyo/Kawasaki ElectricAugust 1968
EF66 14Kisha Seizo/Toyo ElectricOctober 1968
EF66 15Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricSeptember 1968
EF66 16Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricApril 1969
EF66 17Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricMay 1969
EF66 18Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricSeptember 1969
EF66 19Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricSeptember 1969
EF66 20Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricSeptember 1969
EF66 21Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricAugust 1973
EF66 22Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricAugust 1973
EF66 23Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricSeptember 1973
EF66 24Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricSeptember 1973
EF66 25Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricOctober 1973
EF66 26Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricAugust 1973
EF66 27Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricAugust 1973
EF66 28Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricAugust 1973
EF66 29Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricSeptember 1973
EF66 30Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricSeptember 1973
EF66 31Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricSeptember 1973
EF66 32Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricMarch 1974
EF66 33Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricMarch 1974
EF66 34Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricSeptember 1974
EF66 35Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricSeptember 1974
EF66 36Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricSeptember 1974
EF66 37Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricOctober 1974
EF66 38Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricOctober 1974
EF66 39Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricNovember 1974
EF66 40Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricJanuary 1975
EF66 41Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricJanuary 1975
EF66 42Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricFebruary 1975
EF66 43Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricFebruary 1975
EF66 44Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo ElectricFebruary 1975
EF66 45Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricAugust 1974
EF66 46Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricAugust 1974
EF66 47Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricAugust 1974
EF66 48Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricSeptember 1974
EF66 49Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricSeptember 1974
EF66 50Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricOctober 1974
EF66 51Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricJanuary 1975
EF66 52Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricJanuary 1975
EF66 53Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricJanuary 1975
EF66 54Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricFebruary 1975
EF66 55Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji ElectricFebruary 1975
EF66-100
EF66 101Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric16 February 1989
EF66 102Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric25 February 1989
EF66 103Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric5 March 1989
EF66 104Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric9 March 1989
EF66 105Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric13 March 1989
EF66 106Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric20 March 1989
EF66 107Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric28 March 1989
EF66 108Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric31 March 1989
EF66 109Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric30 January 1990
EF66 110Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric6 February 1990
EF66 111Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric12 February 1990
EF66 112Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric16 February 1990
EF66 113Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric22 February 1990
EF66 114Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric2 March 1990
EF66 115Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric9 March 1990
EF66 116Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric16 March 1990
EF66 117Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric29 August 1990
EF66 118Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric12 September 1990
EF66 119Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric20 September 1990
EF66 120Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric28 September 1990
EF66 121Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric18 October 1990
EF66 122Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric30 October 1990
EF66 123Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric13 November 1990
EF66 124Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric25 February 1991
EF66 125Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric28 February 1991
EF66 126Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric8 March 1991
EF66 127Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric15 March 1991
EF66 128Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric25 March 1991
EF66 129Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric13 September 1991
EF66 130Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric28 September 1991
EF66 131Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric22 September 1991
EF66 132Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Toyo Electric24 October 1991
EF66 133Kawasaki Heavy Industries/Fuji Electric26 September 1991
Notes
  1. Originally built as EF90 1. Renumbered EF66 901 in August 1968.

Preserved examples

In fiction

Kay, a character from Robot Trains, is based on JNR Class EF66.

See also

References

  1. Fujii, Katsuhisa (November 1991), 国鉄最大最強力電機EF66形のすべて [All about Class EF66, the largest and the most powerful electric locomotive of JNR], Japan Railfan Magazine, Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd., vol. 31 no. 367, p. 8 et seq
  2. Miyahara, Masakazu, ed. (December 2016). 国鉄最終章LAST (鉄道ジャーナル2017年2月号別冊) [JNR - The Final Chapter (Railway Journal February 2017 Extra issue)] (in Japanese). Japan: Railway Journal. p. 23–27. ASIN B01N59AJPB. ISSN 0288-2337.
  3. "EF66-100".
  4. Jēāru zensharyō handobukku: Rail Magazine 2009 JR全車輌ハンドブック2009 [JR Rolling Stock Handbook 2009]. Japan: Neko Publishing. 2009. ISBN 978-4-7770-0836-0.
  5. Matsuo, Yoshitaka (February 2017). 国鉄最強の電気機関車 EF66 [EF66 - JNR's most powerful electric locomotive]. Rail Magazine (in Japanese). Vol. 34 no. 401. Japan: Neko Publishing Co., Ltd. p. 28–64.
  6. Sasada, Masahiro (25 November 2014). 国鉄&jr 保存車大全 2015-2016 国鉄&JR保存車大全2015-2016 [JNR & JR Preserved Rolling Stock Complete Guide 2015-2016] (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: Ikaros Publications Ltd. p. 122. ISBN 978-4863209282.
  7. 京都鉄道博物館 [Kyoto Railway Museum]. Japan Railfan Magazine (in Japanese). Vol. 56 no. 662. Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. June 2016. p. 47.
  8. Shimizu, Kaoru (January 2011). 栄光のブルトレ牽引機EF66 45・49 新たなる任務を負って(前編)~嵯峨野への旅~ [Famous Blue Train locomotives EF66 45&49 start new duties (Part 1) The journey to Sagano]. Japan Railfan Magazine. Vol. 51 no. 597. Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. pp. 104–107.
  9. Shimizu, Kaoru (September 2014). 栄光のブルトレ牽引機EF66 45・49 新たなる任務を負って [Famous Blue Train locomotives EF66 45&49 start new duties]. Japan Railfan Magazine. Vol. 54 no. 641. Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. pp. 138–139.
  10. パン屋さんの店頭に49号機! [Loco No. 49 in a Baker's!]. Japan Railfan Magazine. Vol. 51 no. 607. Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. November 2011. pp. 104–5.
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