JNR Class D50

The Class D50 is a type of 2-8-2 steam locomotive built by the Japanese Government Railways (JGR), the Japanese National Railways (JNR) and various manufacturers from 1923 to 1931. The class name indicates that the locomotive has four sets of driving wheels (D) and belongs to one of the classes of tender locomotive allocated a number in the series 50 to 99 in the Japan Railways locomotive numbering and classification scheme of 1928.

Japanese National Ry Class D50
Jichang Railway 500 class
Manchukuo National シカナ class
China Railways 解放16 class
D50 319 in 1935
Type and origin
Power typeSteam
DesignerTokichi Ogasawara
Build date1923–1931
Total produced380
  UIC1′D1′ h2
Gauge1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
Driver dia.1,400 mm (4 ft 7 in)
Length17,248 mm (56 ft 7 in)
Height3,955 mm (12 ft 11 34 in)
Axle load14.70 tonnes (14.47 long tons; 16.20 short tons)
Loco weight78.14 tonnes (76.91 long tons; 86.13 short tons)
Tender weight49 tonnes (48 long tons; 54 short tons)
  Firegrate area
3.25 m2 (35.0 sq ft)
  Tube plates5,500 millimetres (18 ft 12 in)
  Small tubes57 mm (2 14 in), 90 off
  Large tubes140 mm (5 12 in), 28 off
Boiler pressure13.0 kg/cm2 (1.27 MPa; 185 psi)
Heating surface:
  Tubes and flues
142.7 m2 (1,536 sq ft)
  Firebox13.5 m2 (145 sq ft)
  Heating area64.4 m2 (693 sq ft)
CylindersTwo, outside
Cylinder size570 mm × 660 mm (22 716 in × 26 in)
Performance figures
Maximum speed70 km/h (43 mph)
Tractive effort165.977 kN (37,313 lbf)
ClassJGR: 9900 → D50
JNR: D50
JJR: 500
MNR: シカナ
CCR: D50
CR: ㄇㄎ16 → 解放16
NumbersJGR/JNR: 9900–9999, 19900–19999, 29900–29975 → D50 1 to D50 380
JJR: 501−516
MNR: 6540−6555 → 501−516
PreservedD50 25, D50 140
DispositionTwo preserved, remainder scrapped

The design of the D50 was based on the JNR Class 9600 which was introduced in 1916. A total of 380 Class D50 locomotives were built.

Service in China

Manchukuo National Railway

In 1923, sixteen D50 class locomotives were exported to the Jichang Jidun Railway in Manchuria, which designated them class 500 and numbered 501 through 516. Ten were built by Kawasaki (works nos. 970−971, 1140−1170) and six by Kisha Seizō (w/n 965−970), and though very similar to the Japanese D50 class, there were some slight differences in dimensions due to the larger loading gauge on Chinese lines. After the establishment of Manchukuo, the Jichang Jidun Railway was nationalised along with other private railways to form the Manchukuo National Railway. The MNR classified these Mikana (シカナ) class, numbered 6540−6555, renumbered 501−516 in 1938.[1]

Central China Railway

In 1939, D50 193 was converted to standard gauge and shipped to the Central China Railway, where it operated primarily between Nanjing and Shanghai. This engine lasted in service on China Railways until 1955.[2]

China Railways

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, all the railways of China were taken over by the China Railway, which classified the D50s as ㄇㄎ16 (MK16) class in 1951, later becoming class 解放16 (JF16).

Preserved examples

Two D50s are preserved in Japan.[3]

See also


  1. 小熊米雄 「満州のD50―吉長、吉敦鉄路の500形について」 交友社『鉄道ファン』 No.22 April 1963, pp.45-47
  2. 中国蒸汽機車世紀集影 (Centennial Collection of Chinese Steam Locomotives), China Railway Publishing House, July 2001, ISBN 7-113-04148-5 (in Chinese)
  3. Sasada, Masahiro (September 2012). 国鉄&JR保存車大全 [JNR & JR Preserved Rolling Stock Complete Guide]. Tokyo, Japan: Ikaros Publications Ltd. p. 133. ISBN 978-4863206175.
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