J. M. Coetzee

John Maxwell Coetzee (/kʊtˈs/)[lower-alpha 1] (born 9 February 1940) is a South African–born novelist, essayist, linguist, translator and recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Literature. He has also won the Booker Prize twice, the Jerusalem Prize, CNA Prize (thrice), the Prix Femina étranger, The Irish Times International Fiction Prize as well as other awards and honours, holds a number of honorary doctorates and is one of the most acclaimed and decorated authors in the English language.

J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee in Warsaw (2006)
BornJohn Maxwell Coetzee
(1940-02-09) 9 February 1940
Cape Town, South Africa
OccupationNovelist, essayist, literary critic, linguist, translator, professor
LanguageEnglish, Afrikaans, Dutch
NationalitySouth African
Australian (since 2006)
Alma materUniversity of Cape Town
University of Texas at Austin
Notable awards

He relocated to Australia in 2002 and lives in Adelaide. He became an Australian citizen in 2006.

Life and career

Early life (Boyhood)

Coetzee was born in Cape Town, Cape Province, Union of South Africa, on 9 February 1940 to Afrikaner parents.[2][3] His father, Zacharias Coetzee (1912–1988), was an occasional attorney and government employee, and his mother, Vera Coetzee (born Wehmeyer; 1904–1986), was a schoolteacher.[4][5] The family mainly spoke English at home, but John spoke Afrikaans with other relatives.[4]

He is descended from early Dutch immigrants to South Africa in the 17th century[6][7] on his father's side, while his mother was a descendant of Dutch, German and Polish immigrants.[8][9]

Coetzee spent most of his early life in Cape Town and in Worcester, a town in the Cape Province (modern-day Western Cape), as recounted in his fictionalised memoir, Boyhood (1997). The family moved to Worcester when he was eight, after his father had lost his government job.[5] He attended St. Joseph's College, a Catholic school in the Cape Town suburb of Rondebosch,[10] later studying mathematics and English at the University of Cape Town and receiving his Bachelor of Arts with Honours in English in 1960 and his Bachelor of Arts with Honours in Mathematics in 1961.[11][12]

London (Youth)

He then relocated to the United Kingdom, in 1962, worked as a computer programmer for IBM in London, and ICT (International Computers and Tabulators) in Bracknell staying until 1965.[4] In 1963, while still in the UK, Coetzee was awarded a Master of Arts degree from the University of Cape Town for a thesis on the novels of Ford Madox Ford entitled "The Works of Ford Madox Ford with Particular Reference to the Novels" (1963).[4] His experiences in England were later recounted in Youth (2002), his second volume of fictionalised memoirs.



Coetzee went to the University of Texas at Austin, in the United States, on the Fulbright Program in 1965, receiving his doctorate in 1969. His PhD dissertation was a computer-aided stylistic analysis of Samuel Beckett's English prose.[4] In 1968, he began teaching English literature at the State University of New York at Buffalo where he stayed until 1971.[4] It was at Buffalo that he began his first novel, Dusklands.[4]

From as early as 1968 he sought permanent residence in the US, a process that was finally unsuccessful, in part due to his involvement in protests against the war in Vietnam. In March 1970, he had been one of 45 faculty members who occupied the university's Hayes Hall and were subsequently arrested for criminal trespass.[13] The charges against the 45 were dropped in 1971.[4]

University of Cape Town

He returned to South Africa and was appointed as lecturer in the Department of English Language and Literature at the University of Cape Town in 1972, being promoted to senior lecturer and associate professor before becoming Professor of General Literature in 1984. In 1994 he became Arderne Professor in English, and was appointed Distinguished Professor in the Faculty of Humanities in 1999. Upon retirement in 2002, he was awarded Emeritus status.[14]


After relocating to Adelaide, Australia,[8] Coetzee was made an honorary research fellow at the English Department of the University of Adelaide,[15] where his partner, Dorothy Driver,[12] is a fellow academic.[16]

He served on the Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago until 2003.[17]

As of May 2019, Coetzee is listed as Professor of Literature within English and Creative Writing at the University of Adelaide, and Driver as Visiting Research Fellow.[18]


Coetzee's first novel was Dusklands (1974) and he has continued to produce novels at the rate of about one every three years. He has also written autobiographical novels, such as Boyhood, Youth and Summertime, short fiction, translations from Dutch and Afrikaans, and numerous essays and works of criticism.

Awards, recognition, appearances

Coetzee has been the recipient of numerous awards throughout his career, although he has a reputation for avoiding award ceremonies.[19]

1983 and 1999 Booker Prizes

He was the first writer to be awarded the Booker Prize twice: first for Life & Times of Michael K in 1983, and again for Disgrace in 1999.[20][21] Two other authors have since managed this – Peter Carey (in 1988 and 2001) and Hilary Mantel (in 2009 and 2012).

Summertime, named on the 2009 longlist,[22] was an early favourite to win an unprecedented third Booker Prize for Coetzee.[23][24] It subsequently made the shortlist, but lost out to bookmakers' favourite and eventual winner Wolf Hall by Hilary Mantel.[25] Coetzee was also longlisted in 2003 for Elizabeth Costello and in 2005 for Slow Man.

The Schooldays of Jesus, a follow up to his 2013 novel The Childhood of Jesus, was longlisted for the 2016 Booker Prize.[26]

2003 Nobel Prize in Literature

On 2 October 2003, Horace Engdahl, head of the Swedish Academy, announced that Coetzee had been chosen as that year's recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the fourth African writer to be so honoured[27] and the second South African after Nadine Gordimer.[28] When awarding the prize, the Swedish Academy stated that Coetzee "in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider".[29] The press release for the award also cited his "well-crafted composition, pregnant dialogue and analytical brilliance", while focusing on the moral nature of his work.[29] The prize ceremony was held in Stockholm on 10 December 2003.[28]

Other awards and recognition

He is a three-time winner of South Africa's CNA Prize.[30] His Waiting for the Barbarians received both the James Tait Black Memorial Prize and the Geoffrey Faber Memorial Prize,[31] Age of Iron was awarded the Sunday Express Book of the Year award,[32] and The Master of Petersburg was awarded The Irish Times International Fiction Prize in 1995.[33] He has also won the French Prix Femina étranger and two Commonwealth Writers' Prizes for the African region - for Master of St Petersburg in 1995 for Disgrace in 2000 (the latter personally presented by Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace)[34] - and the 1987 Jerusalem Prize for the Freedom of the Individual in Society.[31][32][35]

Coetzee was awarded the Order of Mapungubwe (gold class) by the South African government on 27 September 2005 for his "exceptional contribution in the field of literature and for putting South Africa on the world stage."[36] He holds honorary doctorates from The American University of Paris,[37] the University of Adelaide,[38] La Trobe University,[39] the University of Natal,[40] the University of Oxford,[41] Rhodes University,[42] the State University of New York at Buffalo,[32] the University of Strathclyde,[32] the University of Technology, Sydney,[43] the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań[44] and the Universidad Iberoamericana.[45]

In 2013, Richard Poplak of the Daily Maverick described Coetzee as "inarguably the most celebrated and decorated living English-language author".[46]


In 2004, Coetzee was handed the keys to the city by the Lord Mayor of Adelaide.[47]

In 2010, he was made an international ambassador for Adelaide Writers' Week, along with American novelist Susanna Moore and English poet Michael Hulse.[48]

He is patron of a research centre and cultural hub established in 2011, the J.M. Coetzee Centre for Creative Practice (JMCCCP). The Centre runs workshops with practitioners with the aim of providing "a stimulating environment for emerging and established writers, scholars and musicians". Coetzee's work provides particular inspiration to encourage engagement with social and political issues, as well as music. The Centre was established in 2015.[49]

In November 2014, Coetzee was honoured with a three-day academic conference entitled "JM Coetzee in the World", held in his adopted city of Adelaide. It was described as "the culmination of an enormous collaborative effort and the first event of its kind in Australia" and "a reflection of the deep esteem in which John Coetzee is held by Australian academia".[50]

Writers' Week

Coetzee first visited Adelaide in 1996 when he was invited to appear at Adelaide Writers' Week.[47] He has subsequently made appearances at the literary festival in 2004,[51] 2010[52] (where he introduced Geoff Dyer)[53] and 2019 (where he introduced Marlene van Niekerk).[54]


South Africa

Along with André Brink and Breyten Breytenbach, Coetzee was, according to Fred Pfeil, at "the forefront of the anti-apartheid movement within Afrikaner literature and letters".[55] On accepting the Jerusalem Prize in 1987, Coetzee spoke of the limitations of art in South African society, whose structures had resulted in "deformed and stunted relations between human beings" and "a deformed and stunted inner life". He went on to say that "South African literature is a literature in bondage. It is a less than fully human literature. It is exactly the kind of literature you would expect people to write from prison". He called on the South African government to abandon its apartheid policy.[35] The scholar Isidore Diala states that J. M. Coetzee, Nadine Gordimer, and André Brink are "three of South Africa's most distinguished white writers, all with definite anti-apartheid commitment".[56]

It has been argued that Coetzee's 1999 novel Disgrace allegorises South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission.[57] Asked about his views on the TRC, Coetzee stated, "In a state with no official religion, the TRC was somewhat anomalous: a court of a certain kind based to a large degree on Christian teaching and on a strand of Christian teaching accepted in their hearts by only a tiny proportion of the citizenry. Only the future will tell what the TRC managed to achieve".[58]

Following his Australian citizenship ceremony, Coetzee said that "I did not so much leave South Africa, a country with which I retain strong emotional ties, but come to Australia. I came because from the time of my first visit in 1991, I was attracted by the free and generous spirit of the people, by the beauty of the land itself and – when I first saw Adelaide – by the grace of the city that I now have the honour of calling my home."[15] When he initially moved to Australia, he had cited the South African government's lax attitude to crime in that country as a reason for the move, leading to a spat with Thabo Mbeki, who, speaking of Coetzee's novel Disgrace stated that "South Africa is not only a place of rape".[59] In 1999, the African National Congress submission to an investigation into racism in the media by the South African Human Rights Commission named Disgrace as a novel depicting racist stereotypes.[60] However, when Coetzee won his Nobel Prize, Mbeki congratulated him "on behalf of the South African nation and indeed the continent of Africa".[61]


Coetzee has never specified any political orientation, though has alluded to politics in his work. Writing about his past in the third person, Coetzee states in Doubling the Point that:

Politically, the raznochinets can go either way. But during his student years he, this person, this subject, my subject, steers clear of the right. As a child in Worcester he has seen enough of the Afrikaner right, enough of its rant, to last him a lifetime. In fact, even before Worcester he has perhaps seen more of cruelty and violence than should have been allowed to a child. So as a student he moves on the fringes of the left without being part of the left. Sympathetic to the human concerns of the left, he is alienated, when the crunch comes, by its language – by all political language, in fact.[62]

Asked about the latter part of this quote in an interview, Coetzee answered, "There is no longer a left worth speaking of, and a language of the left. The language of politics, with its new economistic bent, is even more repellent than it was fifteen years ago".[58]

In February 2016, Coetzee was one of 61 signatories to a letter to Australian prime minister Malcolm Turnbull and immigration minister Peter Dutton, condemning their government's policy of offshore detention of asylum seekers.[63]


In 2005, Coetzee criticised contemporary anti-terrorism laws as resembling those employed by the apartheid regime in South Africa: "I used to think that the people who created [South Africa's] laws that effectively suspended the rule of law were moral barbarians. Now I know they were just pioneers ahead of their time".[64] The main character in Coetzee's 2007 Diary of a Bad Year, which has been described as blending "memoir with fiction, academic criticism with novelistic narration" and refusing "to recognize the border that has traditionally separated political theory from fictional narrative",[65] shares similar concerns about the policies of John Howard and George W. Bush.[66]


In recent years, Coetzee has become a vocal critic of animal cruelty and advocate for the animal rights movement.[67] In a speech given on his behalf by Hugo Weaving in Sydney on 22 February 2007, Coetzee railed against the modern animal husbandry industry.[68]

The speech was for Voiceless, the animal protection institute, an Australian non-profit animal protection organization, of which he became a patron in 2004.[69] Coetzee's fiction has similarly engaged with the problems of animal cruelty and animal welfare, in particular his books The Lives of Animals, Disgrace, Elizabeth Costello, and The Old Woman and the Cats. He is a vegetarian.[70]

At the behest of John Banville, who alerted him to the matter, Coetzee wrote to The Irish Times in 2008 of his agreement with Banville opposing Trinity College Dublin's use of vivisection on animals to conduct scientific research. Coetzee wrote: "I support the sentiments expressed by John Banville. There is no good reason — in fact there has never been any good reason, scientific or pedagogical – to require students to cut up living animals. Trinity College brings shame on itself by continuing with the practice."[71] Nearly nine years later, when TCD's continued (and, indeed, increasing) practice of vivisection featured in the news, a listener to the RTÉ Radio 1 weekday afternoon show Liveline pointed out that Banville had previously raised the matter but been ignored. Banville then personally telephoned Liveline to call the practice "absolutely disgraceful" and recalled how his efforts to raise the matter and the intervention of Coetzee had been to no avail: "I was passing by the front gates of Trinity one day and there was a group of mostly young women protesting and I was interested. I went over and I spoke to them and they said that vivisection experiments were being carried out in the college. This was a great surprise to me and a great shock, so I wrote a letter of protest to The Irish Times. Some lady professor from Trinity wrote back essentially saying Mr. Banville should stick to his books and leave us scientists to our valuable work." Asked if he received any other support for his stance in the letter he sent to The Irish Times, Banville replied: "No... I became entirely dispirited and I thought, 'Just shut up, John. Stay out of it because I'm not going to do any good'. If I had done any good I would have kept it on. I mean, I got John Coetzee, you know, the famous novelist, J. M. Coetzee, I got him to write a letter to The Irish Times. I asked a lot of people."[72]

Coetzee wanted to be a candidate in the 2014 European Parliament election for the Dutch Party for the Animals. His candidature was however rejected by the Dutch election board, which argued that candidates had to prove legal residence in the European Union to be allowed.[73]

The South

For the period 2015–2018, Coetzee has been a director of a seminar on the Literatures of the South at the Universidad Nacional de San Martín.[74] This has involved writers and literary figures from Southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand, and South America.[75] The aim of the seminars, one observer has remarked, is "to develop comparative perspectives on the literature," and journalism of the three areas in the southern hemisphere, "to establish new intellectual networks, and to build a corpus of translated works from across the South through collaborative publishing ventures."[76][75] At the same time he has been involved in a research project in Australia, Other Worlds: Forms of World Literature, for which he is leading a theme on "Everyday Pleasures" that also is focused on the literatures of the South.[77]


When asked in 2015 to address unofficial Iranian translations of foreign works — Iran does not recognize international copyright agreements — Coetzee stated his disapproval of the practice on moral grounds and wished to have it sent to journalistic organisations in that country.[78]

Personal life

Public image

Coetzee is known to be reclusive and avoids publicity to such an extent that he did not collect either of his two Booker Prizes in person.[59][79] The South African writer Rian Malan has said that:

Coetzee is a man of almost monkish self-discipline and dedication. He does not drink, smoke, or eat meat. He cycles vast distances to keep fit and spends at least an hour at his writing-desk each morning, seven days a week. A colleague who has worked with him for more than a decade claims to have seen him laugh just once. An acquaintance has attended several dinner parties where Coetzee has uttered not a single word.[80]

Asked about this comment in an interview by email, Coetzee said, "I have met Rian Malan only once in my life. He does not know me and is not qualified to talk about my character." [81]

As a result of his reclusive nature, signed copies of Coetzee's fiction are highly sought after.[82] Recognising this, he was a key figure in the establishment of Oak Tree Press's First Chapter Series, limited edition signed works by literary greats to raise money for the child victims and orphans of the African HIV/AIDS crisis.[83]

Family & personal

He married Philippa Jubber in 1963[84] and divorced in 1980.[5] He has a son, Nicolas (born 1966) and a daughter, Gisela (born 1968) from this marriage.[84] Nicolas died in 1989 at the age of 23 in an accident.[5][84][85][86][87]

On 6 March 2006, Coetzee became an Australian citizen,[15][88] and it has been argued that his "acquired 'Australianness' is deliberately adopted and stressed" (by Australians).[50]

Coetzee's younger brother, the journalist David Coetzee, died in 2010.[89]

His partner, Dorothy Driver, is an academic at the University of Adelaide.[12][16]

See also


  1. While Coetzee is pronounced [kutˈsɪə] in modern Afrikaans, Coetzee himself pronounces it [kutˈseː]. Consequently, the BBC recommends the English approximation /kʊtˈs/ kuut-SEE based on his pronunciation, rather than /kʊtˈsə/ kuut-SEE which is closer to modern Afrikaans.[1]


  1. Sangster, Catherine (1 October 2009). "How to Say: JM Coetzee and other Booker authors". BBC News. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  2. Attridge, Derek (2004). J. M. Coetzee and the Ethics of Reading: Literature in the Event. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-226-03117-0.
  3. Richards Cooper, Rand (2 November 1997). "Portrait of the writer as an Afrikaner". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 October 2009.
  4. Head, Dominic (2009). The Cambridge Introduction to J. M. Coetzee. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 0-521-68709-8.
  5. Price, Jonathan (April 2012). "J. M. Coetzee". Emory University. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  6. "Trying to unwrap the great Coetzee enigma". Irish Examiner. "His Cape ancestry begins as early as the 17th century with the arrival from Holland of one Dirk Couché"
  7. "A Nobel calling: 100 years of controversy". The Independent. 14 October 2005. Retrieved 2 August 2009.
  8. "Coetzee honoured in Poznan". Polskie Radio. 10 July 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2014. "His maternal great-grandfather was born in Czarnylas, Poland"
  9. Barnard, Rita (19 November 2009). "Coetzee in/and Afrikaans". Journal of Literary Studies. 25 (4): 84–105. doi:10.1080/02564710903226692.
  10. Lowry, Elizabeth (22 August 2007). "J. M. Coetzee's ruffled mirrors". Times Literary Supplement. London. Retrieved 2 August 2009.
  11. Easton, John; Friedman, Allan; Harms, William; Koppes, Steve; Sanders, Seth (23 September 2003). "Faculty receive DSPs, named professorships". University of Chicago Chronicle. Retrieved 2 August 2009.
  12. "John Coetzee". Who's Who of Southern Africa. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  13. "A Rare Interview with Literary Giant J. M. Coetzee". Buffalo News. 13 October 2002. p. E1.
  14. "Coetzee's literary prowess becomes immortalised" (PDF). UCT Alumni News. University of Cape Town: 16. 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
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  16. "Professor Dorothy Driver". University of Adelaide. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  17. Richmond, Chris (2007). "John M. Coetzee". In Badge, Peter (ed.). Nobel Faces: A Gallery of Nobel Prize Winners. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. pp. 428–429. ISBN 3-527-40678-6. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
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  33. "J M Coetzee". Booker Prize Foundation. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
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  53. Geoff Dyer, Adelaide Writers' Week. With J.M. Coetzee (p1) on YouTube
  54. "Adelaide Writers' Week 2019" (PDF). Retrieved 1 June 2019. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  55. Pfeil, Fred (21 June 1986). "Sexual Healing". The Nation. Retrieved 21 February 2011.(subscription required)
  56. Diala, Isidore (2002). "Nadine Gordimer, J. M. Coetzee, and André Brink: Guilt, expiation, and the reconciliation process in post-apartheid South Africa". Journal of Modern Literature. 25 (2): 50–68 [51]. doi:10.1353/jml.2003.0004.
  57. Poyner, Jane (2000). "Truth and Reconciliation in JM Coetzee's Disgrace (novel)". Scrutiny2: Issues in English Studies in Southern Africa. 5 (2): 67–77. doi:10.1080/18125440008565972.
  58. Poyner, Jane, ed. (2006). "J. M. Coetzee in Conversation with Jane Poyner". J. M. Coetzee and the Idea of the Public Intellectual. Athens: Ohio University Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-8214-1687-1. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  59. Pienaar, Hans (3 October 2003). "Brilliant yet Aloof, Coetzee at Last Wins Nobel Prize for Literature". The Independent. Retrieved 1 August 2009.
  60. Jolly, Rosemary (2006). "Going to the dogs: Humanity in J. M. Coetzee's Disgrace, The Lives of Animals, and South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission". In Poyner, Jane (ed.). J. M. Coetzee and the Idea of the Public Intellectual. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press. p. 149. ISBN 0-8214-1687-1. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
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  62. Coetzee, J. M. (1992). Attwell, David (ed.). Doubling the Point: Essays and Interviews. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA. p. 394. ISBN 0-674-21518-4. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  63. Doherty, Ben; D'Souza, Ken (6 February 2016). "Asylum Policies 'Brutal and Shameful', Authors Tell Turnbull and Dutton". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
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  66. Hope, Deborah (25 August 2007). "Coetzee 'diary' targets PM". The Australian. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  67. Coetzee, J. M. (22 February 2007). "Animals can't speak for themselves – it's up to us to do it". The Age. Retrieved 2 August 2009.
  68. Coetzee, J. M. (22 February 2007). "Voiceless: I feel therefore I am". Hugo Weaving at Random Scribblings. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
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  71. "Vivisection at Trinity". The Irish Times. 9 October 2008. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019.
  72. Halpin, Hayley (21 August 2017). "'Why don't they volunteer themselves?': Trinity College criticised over animal testing – A total of 3,000 rats and 21,000 mice were used in Trinity College Dublin in 2016 alone". TheJournal.ie. Archived from the original on 21 August 2017. Note that the source's transcript is not exactly verbatim when compared to the actual radio recording.
  73. Kiesraad (17 April 2014). "Validity of the lists of candidates for the European Parliament Elections established – News item – Kiesraad". english.kiesraad.nl. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
  74. "Cátedra Coetzee: Literaturas del Sur". www.unsam.edu.ar.
  75. See the Cátedra Coetzee: Literaturas del Sur website
  76. Halford, James, "Southern Conversations: J.M. Coetzee in Buenos Aires", Sydney Review of Books, February 28, 2017.
  77. See the Other Worlds website
  78. Dehghan, Saeed Kamali (29 July 2015). "The day I met EL Doctorow: from Persian translations to his view of a writer's duty". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 December 2018. When I exchanged emails with Nobel laureate JM Coetzee in 2008, he asked me to pass on a statement to the Iranian news agencies[...]
  79. Smith, Sandra (7 October 2003). "What to Say About ... JM Coetzee". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  80. Cowley, Jason (25 October 1999). "The New Statesman Profile – J M Coetzee". New Statesman. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  81. Quoted in J.C. Kannemeyer (2012), J.M. Coetzee: A Life in Writing, Scribe, p. 583.
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  84. "J. M. Coetzee". The Nobel Foundation. 2003. Retrieved 1 August 2009.
  85. Gallagher, Susan (1991). A Story of South Africa: J. M. Coetzee's Fiction in Context. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 194. ISBN 0-674-83972-2.
  86. Scanlan, Margaret (1997). "Incriminating documents: Nechaev and Dostoevsky in J. M. Coetzee's The Master of St Petersburg". Philological Quarterly. 76 (4): 463–477.
  87. Pearlman, Mickey (18 September 2005). "J.M. Coetzee again sheds light on the 'black gloom' of isolation". Star Tribune. p. 14F.
  88. Donadio, Rachel (16 December 2007). "Out of South Africa". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  89. Whiteman, Kaye (26 March 2010). "David Coetzee obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2014.

Further reading

About Coetzee's work

Nobel Prize (2003)

By Coetzee

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