- G is a Dedekind group, or
- G contains an abelian normal subgroup N such that the quotient group G/N is a cyclic group and if q denotes a generator of G/N, then for all n ∈ N, q−1nq = n1+ps where s ≥ 1 in general, but s ≥ 2 for p=2.
In Berkovich & Janko (2008, p. 257), Iwasawa's proof was deemed to have some essential gaps, which were filled by Franco Napolitani and Zvonimir Janko. Roland Schmidt (1994) has provided an alternative proof along different lines in his textbook. As part of Schmidt's proof, he proves that a finite p-group is a modular group if and only if every subgroup is permutable, by (Schmidt 1994, Lemma 2.3.2, p. 55).
Every subgroup of a finite p-group is subnormal, and those finite groups in which subnormality and permutability coincide are called PT-groups. In other words, a finite p-group is an Iwasawa group if and only if it is a PT-group.
- Iwasawa, Kenkichi (1941), "Über die endlichen Gruppen und die Verbände ihrer Untergruppen", J. Fac. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo. Sect. I., 4: 171–199, MR 0005721
- Iwasawa, Kenkichi (1943), "On the structure of infinite M-groups", Japanese Journal of Mathematics, 18: 709–728, MR 0015118
- Schmidt, Roland (1994), Subgroup Lattices of Groups, Expositions in Math, 14, Walter de Gruyter, doi:10.1515/9783110868647, ISBN 978-3-11-011213-9, MR 1292462
- Zimmermann, Irene (1989), "Submodular subgroups in finite groups", Mathematische Zeitschrift, 202 (4): 545–557, doi:10.1007/BF01221589, MR 1022820
- Ballester-Bolinches, Adolfo; Esteban-Romero, Ramon; Asaad, Mohamed (2010), Products of Finite Groups, Walter de Gruyter, pp. 24–25, ISBN 978-3-11-022061-2
- Berkovich, Yakov; Janko, Zvonimir (2008), Groups of Prime Power Order, 2, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-020823-8