The Itneg (exonym "Tinguian" or "Tingguian" ) are an Austronesian ethnic group from the upland province of Abra in northwestern Luzon, in the Philippines. The native Itneg language is a South-Central Cordilleran dialect.
Indigenous Itneg religion
Among the deities of the Itneg pantheon are:
- Bagatulayan – The Supreme Being and Creator of the world. He lives and rules the celestial realm, directing its activities.
- Apadel/Kalagang - A deity who is known to be the guardian and dweller of the spirit-stones called pinaing which play an important role in the spiritual world of the Tinguian. Of various sizes and shapes, the pinaing are usually found in spots marked out as hallowed ground, often under old trees, and are deemed to be the protectors of such places and of the creatures who live in the forests.
- Kadaklan - Is a deity subordinate to Bagatulayan. He is a friendly spirit who teaches the Tinguian how to pray, harvest their crops, ward off evil spirits, and overcome bad omens and cure sicknesses.
- Makaboteng (one who frightens) – A benevolent spirit who dwells in the natural surroundings, believed to be the guardian of the deer and the wild pigs.
- The Tinguian: Social, Religious, and Economic Life of a Philippine Tribe by Fay-Cooper Cole at Project Gutenberg
- Traditions of the Tinguian: a Study in Philippine Folk-Lore by Fay-Cooper Cole at Project Gutenberg