Islamic State's Central Africa Province
The Central Africa Province (abbreviated IS-CAP, also known as Central Africa Wilayah) is an administrative division of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), a Salafi jihadist militant group and unrecognised proto-state. As result of a lack of information, the foundation date and territorial extent of the Central Africa Province are difficult to gauge, while the military strength, and activities of the province's affiliates are disputed. According to pro-ISIL media and some other sources, the Central Africa Province has a presence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo as well as Mozambique.
|Islamic State's Central Africa Province|
|Participant in the War on Terror|
Logo of the Islamic State's Central Africa Province
|Active||2018(?) – present|
|Ideology||Salafist Jihadist, Islamism|
|Battles and war(s)||Kivu conflict|
Islamist insurgency in Mozambique
Background and foundation
Following its seizure of much territory in Syria as well as Iraq, and its proclamation of a restored caliphate, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) became internationally well known and an attractive ally to extremist Jihadist Islamist groups around the world. Several rebel groups in West Africa, Somalia and the Sahara swore allegiance to ISIL; these factions grew in importance as ISIL's core faction in the Middle East declined. Despite the growing importance of pro-ISIL groups in western, northern, and eastern Africa, no major ISIL faction sprang up in central and southern Africa for years. A faction known as the "Islamic State in Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda" was set up in April 2016, but was only active in Somalia as well as Kenya for a short time.
In October 2017, a video emerged on pro-ISIL channels that showed a small number of militants in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo) who claimed to be part of the "City of Monotheism and Monotheists" (MTM) group. The leader of the militants went on to say that "that this is Dar al-Islam of the Islamic State in Central Africa" and called upon other like-minded individuals to travel to MTM territory in order to join the war against the government. The Long War Journal noted that though this pro-ISIL group in Congo appeared to be very small, its emergence had gained a notable amount of attention from ISIL sympathizers. There were subsequently disputes about the nature of MTM. The Congo Research Group (CRG) argued in 2018 that MTM was in fact part of the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), an Islamist group that has waged an insurgency in the eastern DR Congo as well as neighboring Uganda for decades. Some experts believed that the ADF had begun to cooperate with ISIL, and that MTM was its attempt to publicly garner support from Islamic State loyalists. ISIL's self-proclaimed caliph Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi first mentioned a "Central Africa Province" in a speech in August 2018, suggesting that this branch already existed beforehand.
By mid-2018, the African Union claimed that Islamic State militants had infiltrated northern Mozambique, where the Islamist rebels of Ansar al-Sunna had already waged an insurgency since 2017. In May 2018, some Mozambican rebels posted a photo of themselves posing with a black flag which was used by ISIL, but also other Jihadist groups. Overall, the presence of ISIL in Mozambique remained disputed at the time, and the country's police strongly denied that Islamic State loyalists were active in the area.
Several Jihadist news outlets such as the Amaq News Agency, Nashir News Agency, and Al-Naba newsletter declared in April 2019 that the Islamic State's "Central Africa Province" had carried out attacks in the eastern DR Congo. This marked the first time that IS-CAP had actually emerged as tangible entity. The first purported raids by ISIL's Central Africa Province targeted the Congolese Armed Forces (FARDC) at the village of Kamango and a military base at Bovata on 18 April; both localities are near Beni, close to the border with Uganda. It remained unclear how many militants in the Congo had actually joined ISIL; journalist Sunguta West regarded the declaration of the Central Africa Province as an attempt by a weakened ISIL "to boost its ego and project strength" after its defeats in Syria and Iraq. A photo released by the Al-Naba newsletter showed about 15 purported IS-CAP members. The Defense Post argued that one splinter faction of the ADF had possibly joined IS-CAP, while the ADF's official leadership had made no bay'ah ("oath of allegiance") to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi or ISIL in general. Researcher Marcel Heritier Kapiteni generally doubted whether Islamic State followers had been involved in the attacks at all, arguing that IS-CAP might be no more than a propaganda tool in a "media war". According to him, "DRC's terrain is not socially favorable to radical Islam".
On 4 June 2019, ISIL claimed that its Central African Province had carried out a successful attack on the Mozambique Defence Armed Forces (FADM) at Mitopy in the Mocímboa da Praia District, Mozambique. At least 16 people were killed and about 12 wounded during the attack. By this point, ISIL considered Ansar al-Sunna as one its affiliates, though how many Islamist rebels in Mozambique were actually loyal to ISIL remained unclear. The Defense Post argued that it was impossible to judge whether the attack had been carried out by IS-CAP or another armed group due the lack of information on the rebels in Mozambique. In any case, the Mozambique police once again denied that any ISIL elements were active in the country. In October 2019, IS-CAP carried out two ambushes against Mozambican security forces and allied Russian Wagner Group mercenaries in Cabo Delgado Province, reportedly killing 27 soldiers.
- West (2019), p. 7.
- Warner & Hulme (2018), p. 25.
- Caleb Weiss (15 October 2017). "Islamic State-loyal group calls for people to join the jihad in the Congo". Long War Journal. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- West (2019), pp. 7–8.
- Robert Postings (30 April 2019). "Islamic State recognizes new Central Africa Province, deepening ties with DR Congo militants". Defense Post. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- Robert Postings (13 June 2019). "Islamic State arrival in Mozambique further complicates Cabo Delgado violence". Defense Post. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- "AU confirms ISIS infiltration in East Africa". The Independent (Uganda). 24 May 2018. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- Bridget Johnson (18 April 2018). "Mozambique: Police Deny Alleged Terrorist Infiltration". AllAfrica. Archived from the original on 24 August 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- "Monitor: IS claims to have set up its own Africa province". AP. 18 April 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- West (2019), p. 9.
- "IS Down But Still a Threat in Many Countries". Voice of America. 24 April 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- Caleb Weiss (4 June 2019). "Islamic State claims first attack in Mozambique". Long War Journal. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- Sirwan Kajjo; Salem Solomon (7 June 2019). "Is IS Gaining Foothold in Mozambique?". Voice of America. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
- Sauer, Pjotr (31 October 2019). "7 Kremlin-Linked Mercenaries Killed in Mozambique in October — Sources". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
- Warner, Jason; Hulme, Charlotte (2018). "The Islamic State in Africa: Estimating Fighter Numbers in Cells Across the Continent" (PDF). CTC Sentinel. West Point, New York: Combating Terrorism Center. 11 (7): 21–28.
- West, Sunguta (31 May 2019). "Has Islamic State Really Entered the Congo and is an IS Province There a Gamble?" (PDF). Terrorism Monitor. Jamestown Foundation. 17 (11): 7–9.