Irish House of Commons

The Irish House of Commons was the lower house of the Parliament of Ireland that existed from 1297 until 1800. The upper house was the House of Lords. The membership of the House of Commons was directly elected, but on a highly restrictive franchise, similar to the Unreformed House of Commons in contemporary England and Great Britain. In counties, forty-shilling freeholders were enfranchised whilst in most boroughs it was either only the members of self-electing corporations or a highly-restricted body of freemen that were able to vote for the borough's representatives. Most notably, Catholics were disqualified from sitting in the Irish parliament from 1691, even though they comprised the vast majority of the Irish population. From 1728 until 1793 they were also disfranchised. Most of the population of all religions had no vote. The vast majority of parliamentary boroughs were pocket boroughs, the private property of an aristocratic patron. When these boroughs were disfranchised under the Act of Union, the patron was awarded £15,000 compensation for each.[1]

Irish House of Commons
Disbanded31 December 1800
Succeeded byHouse of Commons of the United Kingdom
John Foster (1785–1801)
First past the post with limited suffrage
Meeting place
The House of Commons in session (by Francis Wheatley, 1780)
1 In 1800
See also: House of Commons of Great Britain

The British-appointed Irish executive, under the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, was not answerable to the House of Commons but to the British government. However, the Chief Secretary for Ireland was usually a member of the Irish parliament. In the Commons, business was presided over by the Speaker. The House of Commons was abolished when the Irish parliament merged with its British counterpart in 1801 under the Act of Union, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The House sat for the last time in Parliament House, Dublin on 2 August 1800.

Speaker of the Commons

The Speaker of the Irish House of Commons was the presiding officer of the House and its most senior official. The position was one of considerable power and prestige, and in the absence of a government chosen from and answerable to the Commons, he was the dominant political figure in the Parliament. The last Speaker was John Foster.


The House was elected in the same way as the British House of Commons. By the time of the Union, the shape of the House had been fixed with two members elected for each of the 32 Counties of Ireland, two members for each of 117 Boroughs, and two members for Dublin University, a total of 300 members. The number of Boroughs invited to return members had originally been small (only 55 Boroughs existed in 1603) but was doubled by the Stuart monarchs.

ConstituencyTypeCountyCreation[n 1]EnfranchisedFate after the union
Antrim BoroughBoroughAntrim1666PotwalloperDisfranchised
Antrim CountyCountyAntrim1570[2]FreeholdersTwo seats
ArdsCountyDownBy 1560[3]Already disfranchised[n 2]
Armagh BoroughBoroughArmagh1613 (26 March) [4]CorporationOne seat
Armagh CountyCountyArmagh1585 (September)[5]FreeholdersTwo seats
AskeatonBoroughLimerick1613 (30 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
AthboyBoroughMeathBy 1560[3]ManorDisfranchised
AthloneBoroughWestmeath1606 (10 December)[4]CorporationOne seat
AthyBoroughKildareBy 1560[3]CorporationDisfranchised
AugherBoroughTyrone1613 (15 April)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
BallynakillBoroughQueen's County1612 (10 December)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
BallyshannonBoroughDonegal1613 (23 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
BaltimoreBoroughCork1613 (25 March)[4]PotwalloperDisfranchised
BanagherBoroughKing's County1629CorporationDisfranchised
BandonbridgeBoroughCork1613 (30 March)[4]CorporationOne seat
BangorBoroughDown1613 (18 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
BannowBoroughWexfordBetween 1614 and 1692CorporationDisfranchised
BelfastBoroughAntrim1613 (27 April)[4]CorporationOne seat
BelturbetBoroughCavan1613 (30 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
BoyleBoroughRoscommon1613 (25 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
Carlow BoroughBoroughCarlow1613 (19 April)[4]CorporationOne seat
Carlow CountyCountyCarlow1297FreeholdersTwo seats
CarrickBoroughLeitrim1613 (30 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
CarrickfergusCounty boroughAntrim[n 3]1326Freeholder and householderOne seat
CashelBoroughTipperaryBy 1585[3]CorporationOne seat
CastlebarBoroughMayo1613 (26 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
Cavan BoroughBoroughCavan1610 (15 November)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
Cavan CountyCountyCavan1579[6] or 1584[7] or 1585[5]FreeholdersTwo seats
CharlemontBoroughArmagh1613 (29 April)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
ClareCountyClareBy 1560FreeholdersTwo seats
ClogherBoroughTyroneBetween 1614 and 1692EcclesiasticalDisfranchised
ClonakiltyBoroughCork1613 (5 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
ClonmelBoroughTipperaryBy 1560[3]CorporationOne seat
ClonminesBoroughWexfordBetween 1614 and 1692CorporationDisfranchised
ColeraineBoroughLondonderry1613 (25 March)[4]CorporationOne seat
ConnachtCountyMultiple[n 4]1297Already disfranchised[n 4]
Cork CityCounty boroughCork[n 3]1299Freeholder and FreemenTwo seats
Cork CountyCountyCork1297FreeholdersTwo seats
Coleraine CountyCountyLondonderry1585 (September)[5]FreeholdersAlready disfranchised
DingleBoroughKerryBy 1585[3][8]CorporationDisfranchised
Donegal BoroughBoroughDonegal1613 (27 February)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
Donegal CountyCountyDonegal1585 (September)[5]FreeholdersTwo seats
DownCountyDown1570[2]FreeholdersTwo seats
DownpatrickBoroughDown1586PotwalloperOne seat
DroghedaCounty boroughLouth[n 3]1299Freeholders and freemenOne seat
Dublin CityCounty boroughDublin[n 3]1299Freeholders and freemenTwo seats
Dublin CountyCountyDublin1297FreeholdersTwo seats
Dublin UniversityUniversityDublin[n 5]1603GraduatesOne seat
DuleekBoroughMeathBetween 1614 and 1692CorporationDisfranchised
DundalkBoroughLouthBy 1560[3]CorporationOne seat
DungannonBoroughTyrone1612 (27 November)[4]CorporationOne seat
DungarvanBoroughWaterfordBy 1560[3]PotwalloperOne seat
EnnisBoroughClare1613 (27 February)[4]CorporationOne seat
EnniscorthyBoroughWexford1613 (25 May)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
EnniskillenBoroughFermanagh1613 (27 February)[4]CorporationOne seat
FermanaghCountyFermanagh1585 (September)[5]FreeholdersTwo seats
FernsCountyWexfordBy 1579[9]FreeholdersAlready disfranchised[n 6]
FethardBoroughTipperary1613 (15 April)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
FethardBoroughWexford1613 (15 April)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
ForeBoroughWestmeathBetween 1614 and 1692CorporationDisfranchised
Galway BoroughCounty boroughGalway[n 3]By 1560[3]FreemenOne seat
Galway CountyCountyGalwayBy 1579 [10]FreeholdersTwo seats
Gorey (also Newburgh)BoroughWexford1620CorporationDisfranchised
GowranBoroughKilkenny1608 (15 September)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
InistiogeBoroughKilkennyBy 1585[3]CorporationDisfranchised
KellsBoroughMeathBy 1560[3]CorporationDisfranchised
KerryCountyKerry1297FreeholdersTwo seats
KilbegganBoroughWestmeath1613 (27 February)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
Kildare BoroughBoroughKildareBy 1560[3]CorporationDisfranchised
Kildare CountyCountyKildare1297FreeholdersTwo seats
Kilkenny CityCounty boroughKilkenny[n 3]1299?Freeholders and FreemenOne seat
Kilkenny CountyCountyKilkenny1297FreeholdersTwo seats
KillyleaghBoroughDown1613 (10 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
KilmallockBoroughLimerickBy 1560[3]CorporationDisfranchised
King's CountyCountyKing's County1556 [11][12]FreeholdersTwo seats
KinsaleBoroughCork1334?Corporation and FreemenOne seat
LeitrimCountyLeitrim1583FreeholdersTwo seats
LiffordBoroughDonegal1613 (27 February)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
Limerick CityCounty boroughLimerick[n 3]1299Freeholders and FreemenOne seat
Limerick CountyCountyLimerick1297FreeholdersTwo seats
LisburnBoroughAntrim1661PotwalloperOne seat
LismoreBoroughWaterford1613 (6 May)[4]ManorDisfranchised
Londonderry CityBoroughLondonderry1613 (29 March)[4][13]CorporationOne seat
Londonderry CountyCountyLondonderry1613FreeholdersTwo seats
Longford BoroughBoroughLongford1669CorporationDisfranchised
Longford CountyCountyLongford1571[14][15]FreeholdersTwo seats
LouthCountyLouth1297FreeholdersTwo seats
MallowBoroughCork1613 (27 February)[4]ManorOne seat
MaryboroughBoroughQueen's County1571CorporationDisfranchised
MayoCountyMayoBy 1579[10]FreeholdersTwo seats
MeathCountyMeath1297FreeholdersTwo seats
Monaghan BoroughBoroughMonaghan1613 (26 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
Monaghan CountyCountyMonaghan1585 (September)[5]FreeholdersTwo seats
MullingarBoroughWestmeathBy 1560[3]ManorDisfranchised
NaasBoroughKildareBy 1560[3]CorporationDisfranchised
New RossBoroughWexfordBy 1560[3]CorporationOne seat
NewcastleBoroughDublin1613 (30 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
NewryBoroughDown1613 (27 February)[4]PotwalloperOne seat
Newtown LimavadyBoroughLondonderry1613 (30 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
NewtownardsBoroughDown1613 (25 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
Old LeighlinBoroughCarlowBetween 1614 and 1692Ecclesiastical corporationDisfranchised
PhilipstownBoroughKing's County1571CorporationDisfranchised
PortarlingtonBoroughQueen's County1668CorporationOne seat
Queen's CountyCountyQueen's County1556 [11][12]FreeholdersTwo seats
RandalstownBoroughAntrim1683Freeman / PotwalloperDisfranchised
RathcormackBoroughCorkBetween 1614 and 1692Potwalloper / ManorDisfranchised
RatoathBoroughMeathBetween 1614 and 1692ManorDisfranchised
Roscommon BoroughBoroughRoscommon1613 (27 February)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
Roscommon CountyCountyRoscommon1297FreeholdersTwo seats
St CaniceBoroughKilkenny[n 7]Between 1614 and 1692CorporationDisfranchised
St JohnstownBoroughDonegal1618CorporationDisfranchised
St JohnstownBoroughLongford1628CorporationDisfranchised
Sligo BoroughBoroughSligo1613 (30 March)[4]CorporationOne seat
Sligo CountyCountySligoBy 1579[10]FreeholdersTwo seats
StrabaneBoroughTyrone1613 (18 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
SwordsBoroughDublinBy 1585[3]PotwalloperDisfranchised
TaghmonBoroughWexfordbef. 1642CorporationDisfranchised
TallowBoroughWaterford1613 (1 May)[4]Manor / PotwalloperDisfranchised
TipperaryCountyTipperary1297FreeholdersTwo seats
Cross TipperaryCountyTipperaryby 1585FreeholdersAlready disfranchised[n 8]
TraleeBoroughKerry1613 (31 March)[4]CorporationOne seat
TrimBoroughMeathBy 1560[3]CorporationDisfranchised
TuamBoroughGalway1613 (30 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
TyroneCountyTyrone1585 (September)[5]FreeholdersTwo seats
Liberty of UlsterCountyMultiple[n 9]1297Already disfranchised[n 9]
Waterford CityCounty boroughWaterford[n 3]1299Freemen and freeholdersOne seat
Waterford CountyCountyWaterford1297FreeholdersTwo seats
WestmeathCountyWestmeath1543[16]FreeholdersTwo seats
Wexford BoroughBoroughWexfordBy 1560[3]FreemenOne seat
Wexford CountyCountyWexford1297FreeholdersTwo seats
Wicklow BoroughBoroughWicklow1613 (30 March)[4]CorporationDisfranchised
Wicklow CountyCountyWicklow1577[17][18] 1606[19]FreeholdersTwo seats
YoughalBoroughCork1374Corporation and FreemenOne seat
  1. The date of either: the earliest Parliament at which it is known to have received a writ of election or sent representatives; or else: the earliest charter or statute granting representation. Outside the Pale, places enfranchised after the Norman conquest often had long periods unrepresented prior to the Tudor reconquest.
  2. The territory of Ards, one of the medieval sheriffdoms of the Earldom of Ulster, was included in the reconstituted County Down in 1570
  3. Actually a separate county corporate.
  4. The medieval county of Connacht was subdivided in 1570 into the modern counties of Galway and Mayo.
  5. The University was in the county of the city of Dublin. The electorate was its Fellows and Scholars.
  6. The area of Ferns, corresponding to the northern part of County Wexford, was briefly made a separate shire between the 1570s before merging back into Wexford in the 1600s.
  7. Actually in the county of the city of Kilkenny rather than county Kilkenny
  8. Cross Tipperary last returned MPs in 1634, and was definitively merged with Tipperary in 1716.
  9. The medieval liberty of Ulster was subdivided in 1570 into the modern counties of Antrim and Down.


Parliaments of Edward III

Parliament of 1374

Parliament of 1375[20]

Parliaments of Richard II


Parliament of 1380

Parliaments of Henry VI


Parliament of 1429

Parliament of 1450

Parliaments of Henry VIII

Parliament 1516

Parliament 1521–22

Parliament 1531

Parliament 1533

Parliament 1536–37


Parliament 1541–43

  • First session held at Dublin 13 June to 20 or 23 July 1541, 7 November 1541, 22 December 1541[23]
  • Second session held at Limerick 15 February to 7 or 10 March 1542[23]
  • Third session held at Trim June 1542
  • Dissolved 19 November 1543[23]

Speaker: Sir Thomas Cusack[24]

Parliament of Mary I

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
1 1 June 1557 1 March 1558 James Stanyhurst 3

Parliaments of Elizabeth I

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
1 12 January 1560 1 February 1560 James Stanyhurst 1
2 17 January 1569 25 April 1571 James Stanyhurst 10


Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
3 26 April 1585 14 May 1586 Nicholas Walsh 7

Members: List of Irish MPs 1585–86

Parliaments of James I

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
1 18 May 1613 24 October 1615 Sir John Davies ?


Parliaments of Charles I

Parliament of 1634–35

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
1 14 July 1634 18 April 1635 Sir Nathaniel Catelyn

Parliament of 1639–49

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
2 16 March 1639 (prorogued 1641) 30 January 1649 Sir Maurice Eustace ?

Members: List of Irish MPs 1639–49

Parliament of Charles II

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
1 8 May 1661 7 August 1666 Sir Audley Mervyn ?

Members: List of Irish MPs 1661–66


Parliaments of James II

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
1 7 May 1689 20 July 1689 Sir Richard Nagle[28] ?


Parliaments of William III and Mary II

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
1 5 October 1692 26 June 1693 Sir Richard Levinge 1

Members: List of Irish MPs 1692–93

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
2 27 August 1695 14 June 1699 Robert Rochfort 2

Members: List of Irish MPs 1695–99

Parliaments of Anne

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
1 21 September 1703 6 May 1713 Alan Brodrick; John Forster (from 19 May 1710) 6

Members: List of Irish MPs 1703–13

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
2 25 November 1713 1 August 1714 on death of Queen Anne Alan Brodrick 1

Members: List of Irish MPs 1713–14

Parliament of George I

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
1 12 November 1715 11 June 1727 William Conolly 6

Members: List of Irish MPs 1715–27

Parliament of George II

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
1 28 November 1727 25 October 1760 on death of King George II William Conolly; Sir Ralph Gore, Chancellor of the Exchequer (from 13 October 1729); Henry Boyle (from 4 October 1733); John Ponsonby (from 26 April 1756) 17

Members: List of Irish MPs 1727–60

Members: (elected 1727)

Members: (elected 1728/29)

Members: (elected 1739)

Members: (in 1747)

Members: (elected 1751/1752)

Members: (elected 1753/1754)


Parliaments of George III

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
1 22 October 1761 28 May 1768 Octennial Act John Ponsonby 4

Members: List of Irish MPs 1761–68

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
2 17 October 1769 5 April 1776 John Ponsonby to 4 March 1771, Edmond Pery Sexton 5

Members: List of Irish MPs 1769–76

Grattan's Parliament

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
3 18 June 1776 25 July 1783 Edmund Sexton Pery 4

Members: List of Irish MPs 1776–83

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
4 14 October 1783 8 April 1790 Edmund Sexton Pery, then John Foster from 5 September 1785 7

Members:List of Irish MPs 1783–90

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
5 2 July 1790 11 July 1797 John Foster 8

Members: List of Irish MPs 1790–97

Number Opened Dismissed Speaker Sessions
6 9 January 1798 31 December 1800 John Foster 3

Members:List of Irish MPs 1798–1800

Means of resignation

Until 1793 members could not resign their seats. They could cease to be a member of the House only by one of four ways:

In 1793 a methodology for resignation was created, equivalent to the Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Chiltern Hundreds or the Manor of Northstead as a means of resignation from the British House of Commons. From that date, Irish members could be appointed to the Escheatorship of Munster, the Escheatorship of Leinster, the Escheatorship of Connaught or the Escheatorship of Ulster. Possession of one of these Crown offices, "office of profit under the Crown" with a 30-shilling salary, terminated one's membership of the House of Commons.

Famous members

See also


  1. Porritt, Edward (1963). The Unreformed House of Commons. Parliamentary Representation Before 1832. CUP Archive. pp. 185–7. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  2. Fiants Ire. Eliz. No 1530
  3. Hardiman, James (1842). "Appendix III: The lordes spirituall and temporall, counties, cytties, and borough-townes, as are answerable to the Parlyament in this realme of Ireland ; and souche as weare sommoned unto the Parlyament holden before the right honorable Sir John Perrot, knyght, Lord Deputie Generall of the realme of Ireland, xxvi. die Aprilis, anno regni Regine nostre Elizabeth, vicesimo septimo. A. D. 1585.". A Statute of the fortieth Year of Edward III., enacted in a Parliament held in Kilkenny, A. D. 1367, before Lionel Duke of Clarence, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Now first printed from a the Library of his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lambeth. With a Translation and Notes. Tracts relating to Ireland. Vol.II. Dublin: Irish Archaeological Society.
  4. Moody, T.W.; The Irish Parliament under Elizabeth and James I, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol 45 (1939) No 6, PP 72-76
  5. Moody, T.W.; Martin, F.X.; Byrne, F.J. (1991). Early Modern Ireland, 1534-1691. Oxford University Press. p. 166.Inquisitionum in Officio Rotulorum Cancellariae Hiberniae Asservatarum Repertorium (Repertory of the Inquisitions of the Chancery of Ireland) Volume II, page xix 'An Order for the division, setting out and appoyntinge of the boundes, lymytts and circuits of sixe severall sheires or countyes within the pvince of Ulster within this realme of Ireland, viz. the countye of Tyron, the countye of Donnyngall, the countye of Fermanaghe, the countye of Colrane, the countye of Armaghe and the countye of Monohon ... the firste of September anno dei 1585, annoque d[omi]n[a]e Regin[a]e Elizabeth', 27mo'
  6. "Turlough Lynagh (O'Neill)'s pretence to harm ... the new made county of Cavan" Proceedings and orders of the Chancellor, Council and Gentlemen of Meath and Dublin, August 21 1579, Calendar of the State Papers relating to Ireland, of the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1574-1585 page 184
  7. "O'Reilly's country erected into the County of Cavan" Lord Deputy Perrot to Walsyngham, 16 November 1584, Calendar of the State Papers relating to Ireland, of the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1574-1585 page 537
  8. Then called Dengenechoyshe
  9. Moody, T.W.; Martin, F.X.; Byrne, F.J. (1984). A New History of Ireland, Vol IX, Maps, Genealogies, Lists. Oxford University Press. p. 108.
  10. "Orders to be observed by Sir Nicholas Malby, Knight, for the better government of the Province of Connaght" Printed in O'Flaherty's Chorographical Description of West Or H-Iar Connaught: Written A.D. 1684 ed. Hardiman, P. 304
  11. An Act "whereby the King and Queen's Majesties, and the Heires and Successors of the Queen, be entituled to the Counties of Leix, Slewmarge, Irry, Glinmaliry, and Offaily, and for making the same Countries Shire Grounds." 3 & 4 Phil & Mar, c.2 (1556). The Act was repealed in 1962 Archived 2012-10-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. Falkiner, Caesar Litton (1904). Illustrations of Irish history and topography, mainly of the seventeenth century. London: Longmans, Green, & Co. pp. 118–9. ISBN 1-144-76601-X.
  13. Previously incorporated as Derry, 11 July 1604
  14. Maginn, Christopher (2012). William Cecil, Ireland, and the Tudor State. Oxford. p. 194.
  15. "The Annaley, formerly governed by O’Farrale Bane and O’Farrale Boy, is erected into a shire called Longford." Lord Chancellor and Council to the Queen, March 23, 1571,Calendar of the State Papers relating to Ireland, of the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, Volume 1, 1509-1573, page 440
  16. Counties of Meath and Westmeath Act 1543 34 Henry VIII cap 1 (Ire) An Act for the division of Methe into two shires.”Falkiner, Caesar Litton (1904). Illustrations of Irish history and topography, mainly of the seventeenth century. London: Longmans, Green, & Co. p. 117. ISBN 1-144-76601-X.
  17. Fiants Ire. Eliz. No 3003, 22 March 1577
  18. The county of Wicklow created in 1577 seems not to have functioned and ceased to exist some time after 1586 - Moody, T.W.; Martin, F.X.; Byrne, F.J. (1984). A New History of Ireland, Vol IX, Maps, Genealogies, Lists. Oxford University Press. p. 108.
  19. Moody, T.W.; Martin, F.X.; Byrne, F.J. (1991). Early Modern Ireland, 1534-1691. Oxford University Press. p. 166.
  20. Hart, A.R. The History of the King's Serjeants at law in Ireland Four Courts Press 2000 pp.19-20
  21. Hart p.20
  22. Ball, F. Elrington The Judges in Ireland 1221-1921 John Murray London 1926 Vol.1 p.102
  23. Alan Bryson, ‘St Leger, Sir Anthony (1496?–1559)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 14 June 2014
  24. O'Flanagan "[could not] say for what place he sat in Parliament, although [he had] carefully examined the List as given in the ‘Liber Munerum Publicorum Hiberniæ.’" O'Flanagan, J.Roderick Lives of the Lord Chancellors of Ireland 2 Volumes London 1870, page 219
  25. Moody, T.W.; The Irish Parliament under Elizabeth and James I, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol 45 (1939) No 6, P65
  26. Ceased to sit after the first session, as his borough was declared not to have the franchise
  27. Moody, T.W.; The Irish Parliament under Elizabeth and James I, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol 45 (1939) No 6, P64
  28. Seaward, Paul: Parliamentary History: Speakers and the Speakership. Blackwell Publishing. 2010. p 62.


  • Charles Ivar McGrath, The making of the 18th century Irish Constitution; Government, Parliament and the Revenue, 1692-1714, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2000, ISBN 1-85182-554-1
  • Eoin Magennis, The Irish Political System 1740-1765, Doublin: Four Courts Press, 2000, ISBN 1-85182-484-7
  • Moody/Vaughan, A new history of Ireland, Oxford, 1986, ISBN 0-19-821742-0 and ISBN 0-19-821739-0
  • Mary Frances Cusack, Illustrated History of Ireland, Project Gutenberg
  • Return of the name of every member of the lower house of parliament of England, Scotland, and Ireland, with name of constituency represented, and date of return, from 1213 to 1874. C. 69-I. HMSO. 1878.
  • Edith Mary Johnston-Liik, ed. (2002). History of the Irish parliament, 1692–1800. Belfast: Ulster Historical Foundation.
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