International Phonetic Alphabet chart

The following is the chart of the International Phonetic Alphabet, a standardized system of phonetic symbols devised and maintained by the International Phonetic Association.

Official chart

Vowels

Consonants

Pulmonic consonants

Non-pulmonic consonants

Co-articulated consonants

Auxiliary symbols

Diacritics
◌̥ ◌̊ Voiceless ◌̤ Breathy voiced ◌̪ ◌͆ Dental
◌̬ Voiced ◌̰ Creaky voiced ◌̺ Apical
◌ʰ Aspirated ◌̼ Linguolabial ◌̻ Laminal
◌̹ ◌͗ ◌˒ More rounded ◌ʷ Labialized ◌̃ Nasalized
◌̜ ◌͑ ◌˓ Less rounded ◌ʲ Palatalized ◌ⁿ Nasal release
◌̟ ◌˖ Advanced ◌ˠ Velarized ◌ˡ Lateral release
◌̠ ◌˗ Retracted ◌ˤ Pharyngealized ◌̚ No audible release
◌̈ Centralized ◌̴ Velarized or pharyngealized ◌ᵊ Mid central vowel release
◌̽ Mid-centralized ◌̝ ◌˔ Raised ◌ᶿ Voiceless dental fricative release
◌̩ ◌̍ Syllabic ◌̞ ◌˕ Lowered ◌ˣ Voiceless velar fricative release
◌̯ ◌̑ Non-syllabic ◌̘ Advanced tongue root ◌ʼ Ejective
◌˞ Rhoticity ◌̙ Retracted tongue root ◌͡◌
◌͜◌
Affricate or double articulation
Suprasegmentals
ˈ Primary stress
ˌ Secondary stress
ː Long
ˑ Half-long
◌̆ Extra-short
| Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
. Syllable break
Linking (absence of a break)
Level tones
◌̋ ˥ Extra-high (top)
◌́ ˦ High
◌̄ ˧ Mid
◌̀ ˨ Low
◌̏ ˩ Extra-low (bottom)
ꜜ◌ Downstep
ꜛ◌ Upstep
Tone contours
◌̌ ˩˥ Rising
◌̂ ˥˩ Falling
◌᷄ ˧˥ High rising
◌᷅ ˩˧ Low rising
◌᷇ ˥˧ High falling
◌᷆ ˧˩ Low falling
◌᷈ ˧˦˨ Rising–falling
◌᷉ ˧˨˦ Falling–rising
Global rise
Global fall
Transcription
[ ] Phonetic transcription
/ / Phonemic transcription
( ) Indistinguishable utterance
  Sound obscured
{ } Prosodic notation

See also

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