Indonesian Navy

The Indonesian Navy (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL), literally "Indonesian National Military-Naval Force") is the naval branch of the Indonesian National Armed Forces. It was founded on 10 September 1945 and has a role to patrol Indonesia's lengthy coastline, to enforce and patrol the territorial waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Indonesia, to protect Indonesia's maritime strategic interests, to protect the islands surrounding Indonesia, and to defend against seaborne threats.

Indonesian Navy
Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Laut
TNI-AL insignia
Founded10 September 1945
Country Indonesia
Allegiance President of Indonesia
Size74,000 active duty personnel
Part of Indonesian National Armed Forces
Motto(s)Jalesveva Jayamahe
(Sanskrit, lit: "Victorious on the Sea")
Anniversaries10 September 1945 (founded)
EngagementsBattle of Arafura Sea
Operation Trikora
Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation
Incorporation of West Papua into Indonesia
Indonesian Invasion of East Timor
Insurgency in Aceh
Commander-in-ChiefPresident Joko Widodo
Chief of StaffAdmiral Siwi Sukma Adji
Vice Chief of StaffVice Admiral Achmad Taufiqoerrochman(id)
Raden Eddy Martadinata
Josaphat Soedarso
Naval Ensign
Naval Jack
Naval Aviation Roundel & Fin Flash

The Indonesian Navy is headed by a Chief of Staff of the Navy (Kepala Staf Angkatan Laut – Kasal). The Indonesian Navy is strengthen by three major fleets known as "Armada" which are Komando Armada I (1st Fleet Command) located in Jakarta, Komando Armada II (2nd Fleet Command) located in Surabaya, Komando Armada III (3rd Fleet Command) located in Sorong, and one Military Sealift Command (Komando Lintas Laut Militer). The Navy also heads the Marine Corps.

All commissioned ships of the TNI-AL have the prefix KRI, standing for Kapal Republik Indonesia (Republic of Indonesia Ship).


According to Law No.34/2004 on the Indonesian National Armed Forces, Article 9, the Navy has the following tasks:

  1. perform military duties in national defence;
  2. enforce the law and secure the order in the sea area of national jurisdiction in accordance with national laws and ratified international laws;
  3. perform diplomatic duties in support of foreign policy set by the government;
  4. engage other duties relevant for the maintenance and development of naval power;
  5. support civilian empowerment in sea defence areas.


Creation and actions during the revolution

The official Indonesian Navy's history began on 10 September 1945, at the outset of the Indonesian National Revolution. The administration of the early Indonesian government established the People's Marine Security Agency (Badan Keamanan Rakyat Laut/ BKR Laut) on 22 August 1945, the predecessor to the modern Indonesian Navy. BKR Laut with only wooden ships, a few landing craft and weapons left by Japan, was initially composed of Indonesian sailors who had served in the ranks of the Royal Netherlands Navy during the Dutch colonial period, and who had fought the Japanese during the years of military occupation, plus active militias who served with the Japanese and ex-Indonesian officers and ratings of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The formation of the Indonesian military organisation known as the People's Security Army (Tentara Keamanan Rakyat / TKR) on 5 October 1945, at the height of the National Revolution, helped spur the further existence of the TKR Naval Branch – the Peoples' Security Navy (TLKR), which later became the Republic of Indonesia Navy (Angkatan Laut Republik Indonesia/ ALRI). The name ALRI was used until 1970, when it was changed to Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL).

As the revolution grew and the Navy began its work, naval bases were established throughout the archipelago. Former ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy handed down to the new republic were acquired. Simple strength did not discourage the Navy to deploy Sea Traffic Operations in order to spread the news of the proclamation and helping to form and train Republican military forces and militias nationwide. Besides, they also attempted to breach the Dutch naval blockade in order to obtain aid from abroad.

The newly formed navy confronted the more superior Royal Netherlands Navy in Bali, Sibolga and Cirebon. Cross-sea operations are also able to prepare the armed forces in South Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. Limitations in strength and ability to lead the Navy had to divert the struggle in the countryside, after most boats were sunk and nearly all bases battered by the Dutch and Allied military forces. But the determination to participate again in the sea never subsided. In the hard times during the National Revolution the Navy succeeded in forming the Fleet Forces (CA), Marine Corps (Corps Mariniers/ CM), and educational institutions in various places. The formation of these elements mark the presence of aspects for the formation of a modern national navy.

After the revolution

The end of the War of Independence marked the development of the Navy as a modern naval power. In accordance with the results of the Round Table Conference, since 1949, the Navy received a variety of war equipment such as battleships and its various supporting facilities such as naval bases. This step in the consolidation of the body along with the Navy, revamping the organization and recruitment of personnel through educational institutions before manning naval equipment. During 1949–1959, the Indonesian Navy managed to enhance its strength and improve its capabilities. In the field of organization the navy reorganized its Fleet Forces, the Marine Corps – then Korps Komando Operasi Angkatan Laut (KKO-AL – Naval Commando Operations Corps Command), naval aviation and a number of regions as territorial defense command aspects of the sea. Navy combat equipment grew, both from the Dutch and from other various countries.

With the increased strength and the capability, the Navy began refining the strategy, tactics, and techniques of marine operations are directly applied in a variety of military operations in order to deal with separatist movements that have sprung up in the year from 1950 to 1959. In assignment operations PRRI in Sumatra, Permesta , Darul Islam in West Java, and RMS in the Moluccas, the Navy gained lessons in applying the concept of marine operations, amphibious operations, and joint operations with other forces.

At the height of the Cold War

At the time of the country started to recover from the threat of disintegration, in 1959, the Navy launched a program known as Menuju Angkatan Laut yang Jaya (rough translation - "Toward Distinguished Navy"). The Navy experienced a significant progress until 1965 which was motivated by the politics of confrontation in order to seize West Irian, which Indonesia claimed as part of its territory, a claim refuted by the Dutch government. As part of the increasing military ties between Indonesia and the Warsaw Pact, various naval combat equipment from Eastern European countries strengthened the Navy and become the dominant force at the time. Some military equipment of Soviet production served in the ranks of the Navy, among others Sverdlov-class cruiser, Skoryy-class destroyer, Riga-class frigate, Whiskey-class submarine (the first such vessels to be used in Southeast Asia), Komar-class missile boat, Ilyushin Il-28 long-range bomber aircraft of Naval Aviation and the PT-76 Amphibious light tanks, BTR-50 APCs and BM-13 MRLs (Southeast Asia's first ever MRL system in service) of the Commando Corps, the first of their kind in the region. With such power in the era of the 1960s the Navy was called the largest Navy in Southeast Asia and one of the strongest within the Asia-Pacific, outranking those of its neighbors in armament and prestige.

By January 1962 the Indonesian Navy started preparing a couple of naval operations for the liberation of West Irian known as Operation Trikora, which began on 15 December the year before as part of the military component of that operation under the Mandala Command for the Liberation of West Irian (Komando Mandala Pembebasan Irian Barat) . Beginning 1 January, fast-ship torpedo vessels of the Navy were forward deployed to deal with destroyers, frigates and aircraft of the Royal Netherlands Navy. On January 15, 1962 Commodore Yos Sudarso along with RI Macan Tutul sank in the sea battle in the Arafura Sea. This battle is known as the Vlakke Hoek incident.By mid-year the Navy was preparing to organize its role in the planned Operation Jayawijaya which would be the largest amphibious operation in the history of Indonesian military operations if commenced. The naval component was made up of 100 warships and 16,000 sailors and Marines. The deployment of forces preparatory to the planned landings in West Papua forced the Dutch to return to negotiations and reached an agreement to hand over West Irian to Indonesia.

After seizing West Irian, Sukarno by 1963 moved his sights on Malaysia. Indonesia political confrontation against Neocolonialism and Imperialism (Nekolim) continued in Operation Dwikora to oppose the formation of Malaysia. Although elements of the National Armed Forces were prepared for operational deployments to the new state, the operations were limited to the infiltration operation along the Borneo frontier. Soldiers from the marine corps were involved in the operations which targeted both the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak. The Marine Corps, though, would figure in the 1964 MacDonald House bombing in Singapore.

1965 onwards

Operation Dwikora was discontinued in 1965 along with a succession of governments in Indonesia after an abortive coup d'état [1] took place in Jakarta, which were organized by the self-proclaimed organization of Indonesian National Armed Forces members who, in the early hours of 1 October 1965, assassinated six Indonesian Army generals and killed 3 more. Since 1966, the Navy experienced a new chapter in its history as the military integration efforts. With the integration of the armed forces organizationally and operationally been able to keep up on the implementation of tasks in the field of defense and security so doctrinally, the direction of development of the power and capabilities of each branch to be concentrated. The operations were prominent during the period of the 1970s was Operation Seroja in the framework of the integration of East Timor to Indonesia. The Navy played an active role in the operation of landings, a joint ground operation, and transporting troops by sea.

Starting the 1980s the Navy began to modernize combat equipment. Ships made in Eastern Europe that has been the core strength of the Navy in the era of the 1960s and 1970s were not suited to meet the growing and changing needs for the navy and its branches (saving for its submarines and several corvettes and frigates, the submarines were retired in 1990). The worsening relations between Indonesia and the Soviet Union after the government of President Sukarno resulted a cessation of military cooperation between the two countries and the Warsaw Pact. Therefore, the Navy switched once more to using Western technology to modernize the power and ability to buy warships, logistics vessels and other major combat equipment from various countries. Included among those commissioned during the Suharto presidency were Fatahillah-class corvette and Van Speijk-class frigate from the Netherlands, Type 209 submarine from West Germany, fast patrol boat from South Korea, and the GAF Nomad patrol aircraft from Australia. In 1993 the Navy also received 39 ships from the former Volksmarine (East German Navy), including 16 Parchim-class corvettes, 14 Frosch-class landing ship tanks (LSTs), and 9 Kondor II-class minessweepers. Aside from these the Navy reorganized its forces. In 1984, as part of an-Armed Forces wide unit reorganization, the former Naval Regions, which in turn governed Naval Bases and Naval Districts and subordinate Naval Stations and Naval Air Stations, were turned into Main Naval Bases of the Navy Fleet Commands, divided from the formerly unified National Fleet Command.

At the same time the Navy began to develop a non-combat military operations in the form of humanitarian service program Surya Bhaskara Jaya in various remote areas in Indonesia that can only be reached by sea. The core of the operating activities are health services, construction and rehabilitation of public facilities and various counseling in health, law, and civil defense. This event is held regularly every year until now. A number of countries also participated in these activities, among others, Singapore, Australia and the United States. The navy also seeks promoting the development of the maritime sector, especially those related to aspects of defense and security at sea, activities that had been present since independence before the formation of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries. The actual activities undertaken today by the Navy are establishing marine development assessment bodies together with the government and private sectors in some areas, coastal village pilot program are summarized in Coastal Rural Development (Bindesir), and the National Potential Development Program for Maritime Defense (Binpotnaskuatmar). In order to inflame the marine life of the nation, the Navy held an international scale maritime event Arung Samudera 1995. The navy was responsible for the programs for National Maritime Year 1996 and the Bunaken Declaration of 1998, which is a manifestation of marine development in Indonesia.

Expansion in the 21st century

During the presidencies of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Joko Widodo, the Navy has begun a program of expansion of its combat commands and has begun a program of national warship construction in naval arsenals, while acquiring nationally produced transport aircraft for the needs of the Navy.


According to presidential decree No. 62/ 2016,[2] the organizational structure of the navy comprises the following components:

Leadership Elements

Assistant for Leadership Element

  • Inspector General of the Navy, position held by two-star admiral.
  • Naval Expert Advisor, position held by two-star or one-star admiral.
  • Naval Planning and Budgeting Advisor
  • Naval Security Advisor
  • Naval Operation Advisor
  • Naval Human Resource Advisor
  • Naval Supply Advisor
  • Marine Potential Advisor

Other Service Element as may be organized by the Chief of Staff of the Navy

Central Executive Agencies

  1. Naval Security Service (Dinas Keamanan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  2. Naval Public Relations and Media Directorate (Dinas Penerangan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  3. Naval Communication and Electronics Service (Dinas Komunikasi dan Elektronika TNI Angkatan Laut)
  4. Naval Legal Counsel Service (Dinas Pembinaan Hukum TNI Angkatan Laut)
  5. Naval Marine Potential Development Service (Dinas Potensi Maritim TNI Angkatan Laut)
  6. Naval Personnel Administration Service (Dinas Administrasi Personal TNI Angkatan Laut)
  7. Naval Education Service (Dinas Pendidikan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  8. Naval Personnel Maintenance Service (Dinas Perawatan Personel TNI Angkatan Laut)
  9. Naval Medical Department (Dinas Kesehatan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  10. Naval Ordnance Department (Dinas Materiil TNI Angkatan Laut)
  11. Naval Weapons and Electronics Equipment Service (Dinas Materiil Senjata dan Elektronika TNI Angkatan Laut)
  12. Naval Seaworthiness Equipment Service (Dinas Kelaikan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  13. Naval Base Facility Service (Dinas Fasilitas Pangkalan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  14. Naval Procurement Service (Dinas Pengadaan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  15. Naval Supply Corps(Dinas Pembekalan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  16. Naval Finance Corps (Dinas Keuangan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  17. Naval Research and Development Department (Dinas Penelitian dan Pengembangan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  18. Naval Information and Data Processing Service (Dinas Informasi dan Pengolahan Data TNI Angkatan Laut)
  19. Naval Psychology Service (Dinas Psikologi TNI Angkatan Laut)
  20. Naval Operations and Training Command (Dinas Operasi dan Latihan TNI Angkatan Laut)
  21. Naval Aviation Command (Pusat Penerbangan Angkatan Laut / Puspenerbal)
  22. Naval Military Police Command (Pusat Polisi Militer TNI Angkatan Laut)
  23. Indonesian Naval Academy Surabaya (Akademi TNI Angkatan Laut/ AAL)
  24. Naval Staff College (Sekolah Staf dan Komando TNI Angkatan Laut/ Seskoal)
  25. Naval Technological College (Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi TNI Angkatan Laut)

The Naval Aviation Command is one part of the Navy's Central Executive Agencies led by a Rear Admiral (upper half). Puspenerbal as the center of guidance to the Navy's aviation aviation units in the field of personnel as well as the readiness of air elements. Puspenerbal is not just a combat unit, but also participates in various Marine Corps operational tasks as well as providing logistics and personnel tactical transport facilities for marine and airbase systems. In carrying out these tasks, Puspenerbal carries out flight functions which include: Air surveillance, waterproof anti-submarine, anti-submarine, lander landing landing, fast logistics support, maritime patrol, marine combat operations, and the provision of material coaching functions. This unit is in charge of supporting naval operations, both for combat operations, SAR operations and humanitarian relief operations. Marine security to monitor the movement of foreign ships, especially in the archipelagic sea lanes of Indonesia, environmental protection from the pollution of dangerous materials, the prevention of smuggling and theft of marine wealth is also an important mission carried by Dispenerbal, in cooperation with other air force elements such as TNI-AU and Police. One of the most famous acts of Navy aircraft recently was when they were involved in evacuating victims of the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake.


Aircraft Origin Role Versions In service Note
Trainer Aircraft
Socata TB  France Basic Prop Trainer TB-9 Tampico GT

TB-10 Tobago GT



Transport Aircraft
Beech Bonanza  United States Light Transport/Trainer G-36 Bonanza 8 Used as trainer aircraft.
GAF Nomad  Australia Light Transport N.22/24 Nomad 32 Not all operational
CASA C-212 Aviocar  Spain
Tactical Transport NC-212i 100/200 8 Licensed production by PT Dirgantara Indonesia
CASA CN-235  Spain
Maritime Patrol CN-235 MPA 5 TNI AL ordered 5 CN 235 to PT DI[4][5][6]
MBB BO 105  Germany
Utility NBO-105 6 Licensed production by PT Dirgantara Indonesia
Eurocopter EC-120 Colibri  France Utility EC-120B Colibri 3
Mil Mi-2 Hoplite  Poland Utility Mi-2A 2
Eurocopter Super Puma  France Utility AS 332

NAS 332



Licensed production by PT Dirgantara Indonesia.


Bell 412  Canada
Utility NBell 412EP 4 Licensed production by PT Dirgantara Indonesia

Principal Commands under the Chief of Staff of the Navy

  • Fleet Commands :
    The navy strength are spread across several Navy Main Naval Base (Pangkalan Utama TNI Angkatan Laut/ Lantamal) and Naval Base (Pangkalan TNI Angkatan Laut/ Lanal) throughout Indonesia under three main fleet command. Navy HQ assign numbering of Main Naval Base I to XI according to the location from west to east on August 1, 2006 in line with the inauguration of the Naval Base (Pangkalan TNI Angkatan Laut/ Lanal) Teluk Bayur in Padang, West Sumatra into Main Naval Base II. In 2015, three Naval Base (Lanal) were upgraded to Main Naval Base (Lantamal) with the numbering of XII, XIII and XIV. Plans exist to have a single HQ at Surabaya, with commands at Riau (West), Papua (East), and Makassar (Central).[7] JDW reported on 12 November 2003 that Admiral Bernard Kent Sondakh, the Chief of Naval Staff, was advocating a plan to merge the two fleets to form a single Main Operations and Administration Defence Command, to be headed by a three-star officer and headquartered at Surabaya.[8] Plans exist for the establishment of a central fleet command in Makassar – Celebes (Sulawesi) and also to move its eastern fleet to Sorong – Papua, these were officially accomplished as of 2018 when the 3rd Fleet Command was established.[9]
    • 1st Fleet Command (Komando Armada I /Koarmada I), in Jakarta, conterminous with Army's KODAM Jayakarta, KODAM Iskandar Muda and KODAMs I through III and XII and 1st Air Force Operational Command West.
      • Main Naval Base I (Lantamal I) in Belawan, oversees naval bases covering Sabang, Dumai, Lhokseumawe, Tanjung Balai and Simeulue. The main naval base also oversee one Naval Air Station (Lanudal) Sabang and two facilities maintenance and repair (Fasharkan) in Sabang and Belawan. The main naval base is scheduled to be moved to Lhokseumawe in Aceh.
      • Main Naval Base II (Lantamal II) in Padang, oversees naval bases covering Sibolga, Nias, Mentawai (planned), and Bengkulu.
      • Main Naval Base III (Lantamal III) in Jakarta, oversees six naval bases covering Palembang, Cirebon, Lampung, Banten, Bandung, and Bangka-Belitung. Moreover, it has a maintenance and repair facility in Pondok Rowing, Jakarta. These maintenance and repair facility now has the ability to make small patrol boat with a size of 28–35 meters. Furthermore, the main naval base also oversees Naval Air Station (Lanudal) Pondok Cabe.
      • Main Naval Base IV (Lantamal IV) in Tanjung Pinang oversees naval bases covering Batam, Tarempa, Ranai, Tanjung Balai Karimun, and Dabo Singkep. Main Naval Base Tanjung Pinang has a maintenance and repair facility or Fasharkan in Mentigi (Fasharkan Mentigi) that has the ability to make the patrol boat (KAL) 12, 28 and 35 meters. In addition, it has 2 Naval Air Station (Lanudal) in Matak, Natuna Islands, and in Tanjungpinang / Kijang.
      • Main Naval Base XII (Lantamal XII) in Pontianak oversees naval bases covering Pangkalan Bun, Ketapang and Sambas.
    • 2nd Fleet Command (Komando Armada II /Koarmada II), in Surabaya, conterminous with Army's KODAM IV through KODAM VI and KODAM IX, KODAM XIII and KODAM XIV and the 2nd Air Force Operation Command Central.
    • 3rd Fleet Command (Komando Armada III /Koarmada III),[10] in Sorong, conterminous with 3rd Air Force Operational Command East and KODAMs XVI through XVIII.
      • Main Naval Base IX (Lantamal IX) in Ambon oversees naval bases in Ternate, Saumlaki, Morotai Island, Tual and Ambon.
      • Main Naval Base X (Lantamal X) in Jayapura, oversees Biak Naval Base and Biak Naval Air Station .
      • Main Naval Base XI (Lantamal XI) in Merauke, Papua oversees naval bases in Timika and Aru Islands. In addition, it has 1 Naval Air Station (Lanudal) in Aru Islands.
      • Main Naval Base XIV (Lantamal XIV) in Sorong, West Papua in charge of the maintenance and repair facility in Manokwari which is capable of producing small patrol boats of length 12 and 28 meters.

Each Main Naval Base is organized into a number of naval bases and naval stations plus a number of naval air stations.

  • Military Sealift Command – coordinates the navy's logistical assets in support of its personnel
    • Military Sealift Force Jakarta
    • Military Sealift Force Surabaya
    • Military Sealift Force Sorong
  • Marine Corps, with three Marine Forces and an independent Marine Brigade plus support units
  • Naval Doctrine, Education, and Training Development Command (Kodiklatal)
    • Naval Operation Education Command (Komando Pendidikan Operasi Laut (Kodikopsla))
    • Marine Corps Education Command (Komando Pendidikan Marinir (Kodikmar))
    • Naval Support Training Command (Komando Pendidikan Dukungan Umum (Kodikdukum))
    • Basic Military Training and Education Centre (Pusat Latihan dan Pendidikan Dasar Kemiliteran (Puslatdiksarmil))
    • Electronics and Naval Weapon Guidance System Training Centre (Pusat Latihan Elektronika dan Sistem Kendali Senjata (Puslatlekdalsen))
    • Naval Operation Training Centre (Pusat Latihan Operasi Laut (Puslaopsla))
    • Marine Corps Training Centre (Pusat Latihan Marinir (Puslatmar))
  • Naval Hydrography and Oceanography Center (Pushidrosal)

Specialty Corps

In general, specialty corps in the navy can be divided into 3 levels according to detail of specialization and rank, which are officer's corps (general level, usually has special title of "Laut"), NCOs corps (specialized corps, including warrant officers) and enlisted's corps (most specialized corps). All officers regardless of specialty corps wear either peaked caps or specialty coloured berets with their uniforms.

  1. Fleet Forces Corps (Korps Pelaut, abbrv: (Laut "P")) – Enlisted ratings wear navy blue berets or sailor caps in their dress uniforms, senior ranked NCOs wear peaked caps.
    1. NCOs' Corps
      • Nautical Corps (Bahari), abbrv: BAH
      • Navigation Corps (Navigasi), abbrv: NAV
      • Communication Corps (Komunikasi), abbrv: KOM
      • Surface Weapon Systems (Senjata Atas Air), abbrv: SAA
      • Underwater Weapon Systems (Senjata Bawah Air), abbrv: SBA
    2. Enlisted's Corps
      • Telegraphic Corps (Telegrafis), abbrv: TLG
      • Signal Corps (Isyarat), abbrv: ISY
      • Naval Ammunition Corps (Amunisi), abbrv: AMO
      • Naval Artillery (Meriam), abbrv: MER
      • Naval Missile Artillery (Rudal), abbrv: RJD
      • Naval Mines and Demolition (Ranjau Laut dan Demolisi), abbrv: RJD
      • Torpedo and Depth Charges (Torpedo dan Bom Laut), abbrv: TRB
  2. Naval Engineering Corps(Korps Teknik), abbrv: (Laut "T") - Enlisted ratings and senior NCOs wear construction helmets when performing engineering or transport work, the same case with officers.
    1. NCOs' Corps
      • Mechanical Engineers (Teknik Mesin), abbrv: MES
      • Civil Engineering (Teknik Bangunan)
      • Motorized Transportation (Angkutan Bermotor), abbrv: ANG
    2. Enlisted's Corps
      • Diesel Mechanical Engineers (Teknik Mesin Diesel), abbrv: MDL
      • General Construction Engineering (Teknik Konstruksi Umum), abbrv: TKU
  3. Electronics Corps (Korps Elektronika, abbrv): (Laut "E")
    1. NCOs' Corps
      • Detection Electronics, (Elektronika Deteksi), abbrv: EDE
      • Communication Electronics, (Elektronika Komunikasi), abbrv: EKO
      • Control Electronics, (Elektronika Kendali), abbrv: EKL
      • Armaments and Munitions Electronics, (Elektronika Senjata dan Amunisi), abbrv: ESA
      • Computer Electronics, (Elektronika Teknik Komputer), abbrv: ETK
      • Electronics and Electricity Corps (Korps Elektronika Kelistrikan), abbrv: LIS
    2. Enlisted's Corps
      • Armaments Electronics, (Elektronika Teknik Senjata), abbrv: ETA
  4. Supply and Administration Corps (Korps Suplai atau Administrasi, abbrv: (Laut "S"))
    1. NCOs' Corps
      • Finance (Keuangan, abbrv): KEU
      • Administration (Tata Usaha), abbrv: TTU
      • Housekeeping (Tata Graha), abbrv: TTG
      • Supply (Perbekalan), abbrv: BEK
  5. Marine Corps (Korps Marinir, abbrv: (Mar)) – Personnel wear purple berets
    1. NCO and Enlisted's Corps
      • Infantry (Infanteri), abbrv: INF
      • Amphibious Reconnaissance (Intai Amfibi), abbrv: IAM
      • Artillery (Artileri), abbrv: ART
      • Cavalry (Kavaleri), abbrv: KAV
      • Communications (Komunikasi), abbrv: KOM
      • Combat Engineers (Zeni), abbrv: ZNI
      • Transport, Supplies and Ordnance (Angkutan dan Peralatan), abbrv: ABP
  6. Medical Service Corps (Korps Kesehatan, abbrv): (Laut "K")
    1. NCOs' Corps
      • General Nurse (Rawat Umum), abbrv: RUM
      • Dental Nurse (Rawat Umum), abbrv: RKG
      • Pharmacy Corps (Farmasi), abbrv: FAR
      • Hospital Corpsman (Asisten Paramedic), abbrv: APM
    2. Enlisted's Corps
      • Hospital Corpsman (Asisten Paramedic), abbrv: APM
  7. Special Corps (Korps Khusus), abbrv: (Laut "KH")
    1. NCOs' Corps
      • Physical Fitness and Sports (Jasmani), abbrv: JAS
      • Band Service (Musik), abbrv: MUS
      • Computer Data Processor (Pengelola Data Komputer), abbrv: PDK
  8. Naval Military Police Corps (Korps Polisi Militer, abbrv: (Laut "PM") – Personnel wear light blue berets pushed to the left or blue MP helmets
    1. NCO and Enlisted's Corps
      • Military Police (Polisi Militer), abbrv: PM
  9. Women's Naval Service Corps (Korps Wanita Angkatan Laut / KOWAL), abbrv: (Laut ".../W"), whereas "..." refer to other specialty corps. - Personnel wear variant crusher caps with their uniforms.


Ground forces

Marine Corps

The Indonesian Marine Corps (Indonesian: Korps Marinir) officially known as KORMAR or simply "Marinir", Tentara Nasional Indonesia – Angkatan Laut, ("KORMAR", TNI-AL); officially translated as: Marine Corps, Indonesian Navy[11] is the currently integral part of the Indonesian Navy (TNI-AL) and sized at the military corps level unit as the Naval Infantry and main amphibious warfare force of Indonesia. There are future plans to expand the Indonesian Marine Corps to become an independent, uniformed service branch of its own. It is commanded by a two star marine general. It has three divisions, which are:

  • Pasukan Marinir I / "PASMAR I" (Marine Force I) based in Jakarta.
  • Pasukan Marinir II / "PASMAR II" (Marine Force II) based in Surabaya.
  • Pasukan Marinir III / "PASMAR III" (Marine Force III) based in Sorong.[12]

The three marine divisions are each led by a one star marine general.

Special Forces


Formed in 31 March 1962, Frogman Commando (Komando Pasukan Katak) or KOPASKA is a Frogman unit of the Indonesian Navy which is considered as one of Indonesia's most elite special forces after the Kopassus from the army. The unit gained notoriety after managed to free the MV Sinar Kudus who was hijacked by Somali pirates on 16 March 2011 without resulting any casualties.[13] The Unit's main duties are underwater demolition (raiding enemy ships and bases), destroying main underwater installations, reconnaissance, prisoner snatches, preparing beaches for larger naval amphibious operations, and counter-terrorism. In peacetime the unit deploys a seven-person team to serve as security personnel for VIPs. Primary among these duties are the escort and personal security of the Indonesian president and vice-president. KOPASKA is organized as a brigade formation of 3 commands, each corresponding to a fleet command of the Navy, each divided into an HQ unit and 6 detachments.


Amphibious reconnaissance battalion (Battalion Intai Amfibi) or Taifib is an elite recon unit within the Indonesian Marine Corps which is tasked for conducting Amphibious reconnaissance and Special reconnaissance. It is operationally similar to the Combat Reconnaissance Platoon (Peleton Intai Tempur, abbreviated "Tontaipur") from the Army's Kostrad corps. Taifib was previously known as "Kipam" (abbreviation from: "Komando Intai Para Amfibi") which literally means in English: the Para-Amphibious reconnaissance Commandos.

They were officially formed on 13 March 1961 as marine commandos.[14] Set at a regimental strength of two battalions, "Taifib" was formed as the elite amphibious reconnaissance unit of the Indonesian Marine Corps. It was first used for conflict management in Irian Jaya (Papua) in April 1962. Starting from November 1971 it was called "Batalyon Intai Amphibi" ("Yon Taifib") or Amphibious Recon Battalion. Today, two force recon battalions are deployed as part of the 1st (Surabaya) and 2nd (Jakarta) Marine Forces, while a 3rd is under formation, assigned to the 3rd Marine Forces in Sorong.


Jala Mangkara Detachment (Detasemen Jala Mangkara) or Denjaka is the special operations and counter-terrorism forces of the Indonesian Navy. This is a combined detachment formed from selected personnel of the Navy's Underwater Special Unit (Kopaska) and the Marine Corps' Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion (Taifib). The unit was formed in 1984 by the Chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces to counter maritime strategic threats including terrorism and sabotage. Despite the specific reason for its formation, as in the case of any other special operations forces around the world, the detachment is also fully trained in conducting reconnaissance, unconventional warfare, and clandestine behind-enemy-lines operations. Denjaka's primary task is to develop anti-terrorism, anti-sabotage and other clandestine operations capabilities in support of maritime counter-terrorism, counter-sabotage and other special operations as directed by the commander of the armed forces.

Ongoing projects

The Indonesian Navy plans to have 151 vessels (minimum), 220 vessels (standard), or 274 vessels (ideal), for which it has a blueprint up to 2024.[15]

In April 2011, PT PAL, in co-operation with Dutch Naval Shipbuilding, started designing a new light frigate for ASW purposes. It will be the largest warship built by PT PAL.[16] The first steel cutting ceremony was held on January 2014 and order for two PKR ships is confirmed. Equipped with VL Mica missiles and Oerlikon Millennium CIWS, these ships are also usable for air defence purposes.

As of June 2011 Indonesia was in the process of choosing submarines from one of three countries: France's Scorpène class, Germany's Type 209 and the South Korean Chang Bogo class Type 209.[17] In December 2011, a contract to build three submarines was signed by Indonesia and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME). Two submarines will be built in South Korea in co-operation with Indonesian state-owned shipbuilder PT PAL, while the third will be built at PT Pal's facilities. The contract was worth $1.07 billion and construction was planned to start in January 2012, with delivery expected in 2015 and 2016. The submarines will weigh 1,400 tons and be 61.3 metres (201 ft 1 in) long, with a crew of up to 40 and with 8 weapons tubes for torpedoes and other weapons. The procurement is an effort to keep pace with other countries in the region.[18][19] The submarines will be based at Palu naval base in Central Sulawesi.[20] Another contract for three more Nagapasa Class submarines has been signed with South Korean DSME in April 12, 2019 with the first steel cutting to be expected next year and completion of the final boat in 2026.[21]

In January 2012, the Navy confirmed an order for the 24 guided-missile fast boats to be deployed in the shallow waters in the western part of Indonesia and in North Sulawesi which are geographically dotted by small islands and divided by straits. Indonesia now has 8 KCR-40s (Kapal Cepat Rudal 40-meter, literally meaning 40-meters Fast Missile Boat), all in full commission by 20 December 2013.[22] These vessels will be 45 percent locally sourced and are to be designed and built locally. They will cost Rp 73 billion ($7.98 million) each and have a top speed of 30 knots. They will carry Chinese C-705 anti-ship missiles with a range up to 120 kilometres (75 mi), a 6-barreled 30-millimeter close-in weapons system and two 20-millimeters guns.[23][24][25] Indonesia has also decided to restart procurement of the Trimaran, Klewang class FMPV(Fast missile patrol vessel), with an initial order of four boats.[26]

The Indonesian Navy is also preparing to acquire three new British built corvettes,[27] classified as Bung Tomo-class corvette, after its leading ship, KRI Bung Tomo (357). They were built for Brunei but rejected for not meeting their requirements, allowing Indonesia to buy them cheaply.

Integrated Maritime Surveillance Systems

With various coastal radars, Indonesia has one of the world's longest Integrated Maritime Surveillance Systems (IMSS). The network covers more than 1,205 kilometres (749 mi) of coastline in the Straits of Malacca and about 1,285 kilometres (798 mi) of coastline in the Sulawesi Sea.[28]

Chief of Staff of the Navy

Rank Structure

In the navy, as well as in other armed forces branches in Indonesia, the rank consists of officer known as in Indonesian "Perwira", NCO "Bintara" and enlisted "Tamtama".

The Indonesian Navy is one of few navies in the world which use rank titles similar to its Army, except for flag officers and lower-ranking enlisted men. However the Indonesian Marine Corps, which is a branch of the Navy, uses exactly the same rank titles as those of the Army, but still uses Navy-style insignia (for lower-ranking enlisted men, blue are replacing the red colour). Starting 2006, navy personnel assigned abroad are authorized to use foreign service uniform (similar to service dress blues in United States Navy) during their service overseas (e.g. during training exercises), which includes sleeve and cuff insignia.[29]

The proper title to address of rank on official document are as follows, all high-ranking officers (Admiral or Marine General) use their rank followed by "(TNI)", while other officers use their rank followed by respective branch/corps abbreviation. For example, an Navy colonel from fleet forces corps (equivalent to a captain) use the title "Kolonel (Laut P)", while an Navy Vice Admiral from fleet forces corps use the title "Laksamana Madya (TNI)". Warrant officers, NCOs and enlisted seamen may put their respective branch/corps specialty, for example: "Pembantu Letnan Dua SAA" (warrant officer from surface weaponry corps) and "Kelasi Dua TRB" (seaman recruit from torpedo corps). All marine corps personnel, general officers inclusive, use their rank followed by "(Mar)".

Note: Indonesia is not a member of NATO, so there is not an official equivalence between the Indonesian military ranks and those defined by NATO. The displayed parallel is approximate and for illustration purposes only.


NATO code
OF-10OF-9OF-8OF-7OF-6OF-5OF-4OF-3OF-2OF-1OF(D) and student officer
Indonesian Navy
Laksamana Besar Laksamana Laksamana Madya Laksamana Muda Laksamana Pertama Kolonel Letnan Kolonel Mayor Kapten Letnan Satu Letnan Dua
Admiral of the Fleet Admiral Vice Admiral Rear Admiral Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Lieutenant Junior Grade Ensign
No sleeve insignia

Enlisted ratings

NATO code
Indonesian Navy
Pembantu Letnan Satu Pembantu Letnan Dua Sersan Mayor Sersan Kepala Sersan Satu Sersan Dua Kopral Kepala Kopral Satu Kopral Dua Kelasi Kepala Kelasi Satu Kelasi Dua
Chief Warrant Officer Warrant Officer Master Chief Petty Officer First Class Master Chief Petty Officer Second Class Senior Chief Petty Officer Chief Petty Officer Petty Officer First Class Petty Officer Second Class Petty Officer Third Class Seaman Seaman Apprentice Seaman recruit

See also


  1. "The assassination of generals on the morning of 1 October was not really a coup attempt against the government, but the event has been almost universally described as an 'abortive coup attempt,' so I have continued to use the term." Crouch 1978, p. 101.
  2. "Law" (PDF). 14 July 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  3. "Alutsista Puspenerbal"
  4. "TNI AL Akan Menambah Pesanan 2 CN-235"
  5. "Indonesian Navy To Order Three CN-235"
  6. "TNI AL Akan Memiliki Lima CN-235"
  7. IISS Military Balance 2007, p.353
  8. JDW 19 November 2003, p.16-17
  9. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 May 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 May 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. Archived 29 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  12. "Satgas Koarmada III dan Pasmar 3 siap diberangkatkan ke sorong papua". Archived from the original on 13 May 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  13. Kisah Operasi Pasukan Katak di MV Sinar Kudus
  14. "Yontaifib Marinir: Pasukan Elit Marinir TNI AL -". 16 December 2016. Archived from the original on 1 August 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  15. "Indonesia Targetkan Miliki 154 Kapal Perang Hingga 2024". JakartaGreater. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  16. "Indonesia looks to build its own warships". The Jakarta Post. 23 March 2011. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  17. "Navy shopping for new submarines". The Jakarta Post. 6 June 2011. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  18. "December 22, 2011 – RI orders 3 submarines worth $1b in regional 'catch-up'". Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
  19. "Navy Opens New Base Prepared for Submarines". 7 April 2013. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  20. Rahmat, Ridzwan (30 July 2015). "Indonesian government calls for urgent completion of submarine basing facilities". IHS Jane's Navy International. Archived from the original on 3 August 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
  21. "Indonesia order 3 more Type 209/1400 diesel electric submarines from South Korea".
  22. "Menhan Resmikan 1 KRI dan 2 KAL Buatan Batam". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  23. "Navy to procure 24 fast boats to patrol shallow waters". Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  24. "Indonesia: Defense Minister Launches "KRI Clurit" >>". Naval Today. 26 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  25. "Bank Mandiri finances missile boats". The Jakarta Post. 25 April 2011. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  26. Ridzwan Rahmat, Jakarta – IHS Jane's Defence Weekly (14 August 2014). "Indonesia confirms acquisition of four Klewang-class stealth patrol ships – IHS Jane's 360". Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  27. "Purchase Confirmed, Navy Waits for Three New Ships". Archived from the original on 29 December 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  28. "News". 1 July 2010. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
  29. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 April 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

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