Index of articles related to Indigenous Canadians

The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to Indigenous peoples in Canada, comprising the First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples.




Battle of Cut Knife
part of the
North-West Rebellion

The North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance or the Saskatchewan Rebellion) of 1885 was a brief and unsuccessful uprising by the Métis people of the District of Saskatchewan under Louis Riel against the Dominion of Canada, which they believed had failed to address their concerns for the survival of their people. Despite some early victories at Duck Lake, Fish Creek and Cut Knife, the rebellion resulted in the destruction of numerous Métis and allied First Nations forces.


Classification of indigenous
peoples of the Americas

In the United States and Canada, ethnographers commonly classify indigenous peoples into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits (called cultural areas).
Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982
Section Twenty-five of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms



French colonization of the Americas
British colonisation of the Americas


First Nations

First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the Aboriginal peoples in Canada, who are neither Inuit nor Métis.
First Nations Bank of Canada
First Nations Composer Initiative
First Nations Government (Canada)
First Nations Health Authority
First Nations Periodicals
First Nations Police (Ontario)
First Nations Summit
First Nations Technical Institute
First Nations Transportation
First Nations University Students' Association
First Nations University of Canada
First Nations in Alberta
First Nations in Atlantic Canada
First Nations in British Columbia
First Nations in Manitoba
First Nations in New Brunswick
First Nations in Ontario
First Nations in Quebec
First Nations in Saskatchewan
First Nations language
First Nations music
First Nations social issues
First Nations studies
French and Indian War

The French and Indian War, also known as the War of the Conquest (French: Guerre de la Conquête) or referred as part of the larger conflict known as the Seven Years' War, was a war fought in North America between 1754 and 1763. The name French and Indian War refers to the two main enemies of the British: the royal French forces and the various Indigenous peoples forces allied with them.
Battle of Fort Beauséjour (June 16, 1755)
Siege of Louisbourg (June 8 – July 26, 1758)
Battle of Fort Frontenac (August 25, 1758)
Battle of the Thousand Islands, August 16–25, 1760
Battle of Beauport (July 31, 1759)
Battle of the Plains of Abraham (September 13, 1759)
Battle of Sainte-Foy (April 28, 1760)
Battle of Restigouche, July 3–8, (1760)
Battle of Signal Hill September 15, 1762


Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas

The haplogroup most commonly associated with Indigenous Amerindian genetics is (Y-DNA) Q1a3a /Q-M3. In human genetics, the haplogroups generally studied are Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. The Q-M3 mutation on the Q lineage is roughly 10,000 to 15,000 years ago, as the migration throwout the Americas was underway by the early Paleo-Indians.



Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast

The Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Pacific Northwest Coast, their descendants, and many ethnic groups who identify with those historical peoples. They are now situated within the Canadian province of British Columbia and the U.S. states of Alaska, Washington and Oregon.

Inuit is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada, Greenland, Russia and the United States.
Inuit art
Museum of Inuit Art
Inuit astronomy
Inuit Boots
Inuit Broadcasting Corporation
Inuit Circumpolar Council
Inuit Circumpolar Conference
Inuit culture
Inuit diet
Inuit Dog
Inuit grammar
Inuit language
Inuit mask
Inuit music
Inuit mythology
Inuit numerals
Inuit phonology
Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit
Inuit snow goggles
Inuit syllabary
Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami
Inuit throat singing
Inuit weapons




Lithic stage (pre 8000 BC)
Archaic stage (c. 8000 – 1000 BC)
Formative stage (c. 1000 BC – AD 500)
Classic stage (c. AD 500–1200)
Post-Classic stage (c. 1200–1900)
Louis Riel

Founder of the province of Manitoba and a leader of the Métis during the Red River Rebellion of 1869 and North-West Rebellion of 1885.
Big Bear (1825–1888) – Cree leader
Brant, Joseph (1742–1807) – Mohawk leader
Brant, Mary (1736–1796) – leader of Six Nations women's federation
Riel, Louis (1844–1885) – leader of two Métis uprisings
Piapot (c. 1816–1908) – Cree Chief
Tecumseh (1768–1813) – Shawnee leader
Nicola 1780/1785 – c. 1865 – Grand chief of the Okanagan people, and jointly chief of the Nlaka'pamux
Nicola Athapaskan alliance in the Nicola Valley and of the Kamloops group of the Secwepemc
Cumshewa – 18th-century Haida chief at the inlet now bearing his name
Maquinna – 18th-century Nuu-chah-nulth chief (Yuquot/Mowachaht).
Wickanninish 19th-century Nuu-chah-nulth chief (Opitsaht/Tla-o-qui-aht)
August Jack KhatsahlanoSquamish
Joe CapilanoSquamish
Harriet NahaneeSquamish and Nuu-chah-nulth (Pacheedaht)
Andy PaullSquamish
Frank CalderNisga'a
Elijah HarperCree and/or Ojibwe
Guujaaw – modern-day Haida leader
Shawn Atleo
William Beynon
Rose Charlie
Arthur Wellington Clah
Heber Clifton
Harley Desjarlais
Alfred Dudoward
Chief Shakes
Dan GeorgeTsleil-Waututh First Nation (Burrard)
Joseph GosnellNisga'a
Simon GunanootGitxsan
Chief Hunter Jack ( –d.1905) – St'at'imc
Mary John, Sr.
KlattasineTsilhqot'in war chief, surrendered on terms of amnesty in times of war, hanged for murder
Koyah – 18th-century chief of the Haida

Shanawdithit, also referred to as "Shawnadithit" and "Nancy April", was the last recorded surviving member of the Beothuk people of Newfoundland, Canada. She died of tuberculosis on 6 June 1829 in St. John's at the age of 28.
George Manuel
Stewart Phillip
Steven Point – modern Sto:lo leader, Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia 2007–12
James SewidKwakwaka'wakw
Alec Thomas
Walter Wright

Louis Riel (A feature class article)

Trial of Louis Riel
Louis Riel: A Comic-Strip Biography


Métis people (Canada)

The Métis are a people descended from marriages between Europeans and First Nations and Inuit. Their history dates to the mid-17th century.
Metis Child and Family Services Society
Métis Flag
Métis French
Metis Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement
Métis National Council
Métis Nation of Alberta
Métis in Alberta
Métis Nation British Columbia
Métis Community Association of Vancouver
Manitoba Métis Federation
Métis Nation - Saskatchewan
Métis Nation of Ontario
Métis Population Betterment Act
Métis-sur-Mer, Quebec
Métis people (United States)
Metis of Maine


Indigenous Canadian personalities

Over the course of centuries, many Indigenous Canadian personalities have played a critical role in shaping the history of Canada. From art and music, to law and government, to sports and war; Aboriginal customs and culture have had a strong influences on defining Canadian culture.
Numbered Treaties

The Numbered Treaties are a series of eleven treaties signed between the aboriginal peoples in Canada and the reigning Monarch of Canada (Victoria, Edward VII or George V) from 1871 to 1921. Treaty 9 was an agreement established in July 1905, between King Edward VII and various First Nations in northern Ontario.
Treaty 1 – August 1871
Treaty 2 – August 1871
Treaty 3 – October 1873
Treaty 4 – September 1874
Treaty 5 – September 1875 (adhesions from 1908–1910)
Treaty 6 – August–September 1876 (adhesions in February 1889)
Treaty 7 – September 1877
Treaty 8 – June 1899 (with further signings and adhesions until 1901)
Treaty 9 – July 1905
Treaty 10 – August 1906
Treaty 11 – June 1921




Paleo-Indians or Paleoamericans are believed the first peoples to enter and inhabit the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period. The few agreements achieved to date are their origin from Asia, with migration and widespread habitation of the Americas during the end of the Last glacial period, or more specifically what is known as the Late Glacial Maximum, around 16,000–13,000 years before present.
Poundmaker Cree Nation



Red River Rebellion

The Red River Rebellion or Red River Resistance are names given to the events surrounding the actions of the Provisional Government of Saskatchewan established by Métis leader Louis Riel in 1869 at the Red River Colony in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba.
Rupert's Land Act 1868


Status of First Nations treaties in British Columbia

The status of the First Nations, aboriginal people of British Columbia, Canada, is a long-standing problem that has become a major issue in recent years. In 1763 the British Crown declared that only it could acquire land from First Nations through treaties. Historically only two treaties were signed with the First Nations of BC. The first of which was the Douglas Treaties of 1850–1854 with the second being Treaty 8, signed in 1899.
A military struggle for control of the Great Lakes region in North America, encompassing several generations
French and Indian War (1754–1763)
Pontiac's Rebellion (1763–1765)
Lord Dunmore's War (1774)
Frontier warfare during the American Revolution (1775–1783)
Northwest Indian War (1786–1794)
War of 1812 (1812–1814)


The Canadian Crown and Aboriginal peoples

The relationship between The Canadian Crown and Aboriginal peoples of Canada stretches back to the first interactions between European colonialists and North American indigenous peoples. Over centuries of interaction, treaties were established concerning the monarch and aboriginal tribes. Canada's First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples have come to generally view these agreements as being not between them and the ever-changing Cabinet, but instead with the continuous Crown of Canada, as embodied in the reigning sovereign.




War of 1812

Sakawarton (John Smoke Johnson), John Tutela, and Young Warner, three Six Nations veterans of the War of 1812. The war was fought between the United States and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies of Upper Canada (Ontario), Lower Canada (Quebec), New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island (at that time a separate colony from Nova Scotia), and Bermuda.
Chronology of the War of 1812
War of 1812 Campaigns
Niagara campaign
Results of the War of 1812
Tecumseh's War



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