Independent politicians in Australia

An Independent politician is an individual politician not affiliated to any political party. There are numerous reasons why someone may stand for office as an independent.

  • Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties. Sometimes they hold a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, have an ideology comprising ideas from both sides of the political spectrum, or may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do not feel that any major party addresses.
  • Other independent politicians may be associated with a political party, be former members of it, or have views that align with it, but choose not to stand under its label. Others may belong to or support a political party but believe they should not formally represent it and thus be subject to its policies.

Federal

Independents have rarely been elected to the federal Parliament of Australia, although they are more commonly elected to state parliaments. A large number of independents are former members of one of Australia's main parties, the Australian Labor Party, the Liberal Party of Australia and the National Party of Australia. On 16 July 2013 a political party named the Australian Independents was registered with the Australian Electoral Commission. It was deregistered on 4 February 2016.[1]

House of Representatives

As of 2019, three independents sat in the Australian House of Representatives: Andrew Wilkie from Denison in Tasmania (former Greens candidate), Helen Haines from Indi in Victoria and Zali Steggall from Warringah in New South Wales.

Casual vacancies in the House of Representatives of independent members are filled in the same way as for party members, ie., by a by-election.

Won election as independent

MemberElectorateTermNotes
Alexander PatersonCapricornia, Qld1901–1903Independent Free Trade.
James WilkinsonMoreton, Qld1901–1904Independent Labour. Joined Labour caucus in 1904.
Sir Frederick HolderSouth Australia;
Wakefield, SA
1901–1909Elected as a Free Trader; became an independent on election as inaugural Speaker.
George FairbairnFawkner, Vic1906–1909Part of the independent "Corner group". Joined the Liberal Party at the Fusion in 1909.
Sir John QuickBendigo, Vic1906–1909Part of the independent "Corner group"; formerly a Protectionist from 1901 to 1906. Joined the Liberal Party at the Fusion in 1909.
Sydney SampsonWimmera, Vic1906–1909Part of the independent "Corner group". Joined the Liberal Party at the Fusion in 1909.
Agar WynneBalaclava, Vic1906–1909Part of the independent "Corner group". Joined the Liberal Party at the Fusion in 1909.
Sir William LyneHume, NSW1909–1913A Protectionist who refused to join the Liberal Party at the Fusion of 1909.
George WiseGippsland, Vic1909–1913, 1914–1916A Protectionist who refused to join the Liberal Party at the Fusion of 1909. Joined the Nationalist Party in 1916.
Frederick FrancisHenty, Vic1919–1922Independent Nationalist. Joined the Nationalist Party in 1922.
William WatsonFremantle, WA1922–1928Later held the seat for a term representing the United Australia Party.
Percy StewartWimmera, Vic1925–1926, 1930–1931Defected from the Country Party; later formed the Country Progressive Party (1926–1930).
William McWilliamsFranklin, Tas1928–1929Previously served as a Revenue Tariffist, Liberal, Nationalist, and as the first leader of the Country Party.
Billy HughesNorth Sydney, NSW1929–1930Originally a Labor member and then a Nationalist, resigned to cross the floor to bring down the Bruce Government. Formed the Australian Party in 1930, which merged with the United Australia Party in 1931.
Walter MarksWentworth, NSW1929–1930A Nationalist who crossed the floor to bring down the Bruce Government. Joined the Australian Party in 1930, and then was defeated as a United Australia Party candidate in 1931.
George MaxwellFawkner, Vic1929–1930A Nationalist who crossed the floor to bring down the Bruce Government. Joined the Australian Party in 1930, and then the United Australia Party in 1931.
Sir Littleton GroomDarling Downs, Qld1929, 1931–1933As the Nationalist Speaker of the House, refused to use his casting vote to save the Bruce Government. Defeated as an independent in 1929, but re-elected in 1931. Admitted to the United Australia Party in 1933.
Adair BlainNorthern Territory1934–1949As the member for the Northern Territory, only had the right to vote on matters directly relating to the Territory.
Percy SpenderWarringah, NSW1937–1938Independent United Australia Party. Defeated the endorsed UAP candidate and joined the party soon afterwards.
Alexander WilsonWimmera, Vic1937–1945Independent Country Party. A member of the United Country Party but sat in parliament as an independent.
Arthur ColesHenty, Vic1940–1941, 1941–1945Briefly joined the United Australia Party in 1941.
Doris BlackburnBourke, Vic1946–1949Independent Labor. First female federal independent MP.
Lewis NottAustralian Capital Territory1949–1951As the member for the Australian Capital Territory, could only vote on matters directly affecting the Territory. Previously the Nationalist member for Herbert in Queensland from 1925 to 1928.
Sam BensonBatman, Vic1966–1969Expelled from the Labor Party for supporting continued Australian involvement in the Vietnam War.
Ted MackNorth Sydney, NSW1990–1996
Phil ClearyWills, Vic1992, 1993–1996Disqualified in 1992.
Peter AndrenCalare, NSW1996–2007
Graeme CampbellKalgoorlie, WA1995–1996Expelled from the Labor Party for supporting Australians Against Further Immigration. Formed the Australia First Party in 1996.
Paul FilingMoore, WA1996–1998Lost Liberal preselection and ran as an independent.
Pauline HansonOxley, Qld1996–1997Disendorsed Liberal. Formed One Nation in 1997.
Allan RocherCurtin, WA1996–1998Lost Liberal preselection and ran as an independent.
Bob KatterKennedy, Qld2001–2011Resigned from the National Party in 2001. Formed Katter's Australian Party in 2011.
Tony WindsorNew England, NSW2001–2013
Rob OakeshottLyne, NSW2008–2013
Andrew WilkieDenison, Tas2010–present
Cathy McGowanIndi, Vic2013–2019
Kerryn PhelpsWentworth, NSW2018–2019Lost Election to Dave Sharma in 2019
Zali SteggallWarringah, NSW2019–present
Helen HainesIndi, VIC2019–present

Not elected as independent

MemberElectorateTermNotes
Thomas Macdonald-PatersonBrisbane, Qld1903Lost Protectionist preselection.
Norman CameronWilmot, Tas1906Lost Anti-Socialist preselection.
James RonaldSouthern Melbourne, Vic1906Seat abolished; lost Labor preselection for Melbourne Ports.
David StorrerBass, Tas1909–1910Protectionist who refused to join the Liberal Party at the Fusion of 1909.
Jens JensenBass, Tas1919Lost Nationalist preselection.
Bruce SmithParkes, NSW1919Lost Nationalist preselection.
William HiggsCapricornia, Qld1920Expelled from the Labor Party. Joined the Nationalist Party eight months later.
Alexander HayNew England, NSW1922Expelled from the Country Party.
Edward MannPerth, WA1929Nationalist who crossed the floor to defeat the Bruce government.
Maurice BlackburnBourke, Vic1937, 1941–1943Expelled (twice) from the Labor Party.
Thomas MarwickSwan, WA1943Lost Country Party preselection.
Max FalsteinWatson, NSW1949Expelled from the Labor Party.
Charles RussellMaranoa, Qld1950–1951Resigned from the Country Party.
Cyril ChambersAdelaide, SA1957–1958Expelled from the Labor Party for attacking H. V. Evatt's leadership. Readmitted the following year.
Charles MorganReid, NSW1958Lost Labor preselection.
Edward St JohnWarringah, NSW1969Resigned from the Liberal Party.
Jeff BateMacarthur, NSW1972Lost Liberal preselection.
Alex BuchananMcMillan, Vic1972Lost Liberal preselection.
John GortonHiggins, Vic1975Resigned from the Liberal Party; contested the Senate in the Australian Capital Territory.
Don ChippHotham, Vic1977Resigned from the Liberal Party; about three months later, formed the Australian Democrats. Elected to the Senate in 1977.
Bill WentworthMackellar, NSW1977Resigned from the Liberal Party and contested the Senate.
Keith WrightCapricornia, Qld1993Expelled from the Labor Party.
Tony SmithDickson, Qld1998Lost Liberal preselection.
Paul ZammitLowe, NSW1998Resigned from the Liberal Party.
Andrew TheophanousCalwell, Vic2000–2001Resigned from the Labor Party.
Peter KingWentworth, NSW2004Lost Liberal preselection.
Gavan O'ConnorCorio, Vic2007Lost Labor preselection.
Harry QuickFranklin, Tas2007Expelled from the Labor Party.
Michael JohnsonRyan, Qld2010Expelled from the Liberal National Party.
Peter SlipperFisher, Qld2011–2013Resigned from the Liberal National Party on election as Speaker.
Craig ThomsonDobell, NSW2012–2013Expelled from the Labor Party.
Dennis JensenTangney, WA2016Lost Liberal preselection.
Julia BanksChisholm, Vic2018–2019Resigned from the Liberal Party.

Senate

Independent Senators are quite rare. In modern politics, independent Brian Harradine served from 1975 to 2005 with considerable influence at times. Nick Xenophon was an elected independent Senator from his election to the Senate at the 2007 federal election. Xenophon was re-elected for another six-year term at the 2013 federal election.[2] He was re-elected at the 2016 double dissolution election under the Nick Xenophon Team. DLP Senator John Madigan became an independent Senator in September 2014,[3] but failed to be re-elected at the 2016 election. PUP Senators Jacqui Lambie and Glenn Lazarus became independent Senators in November 2014 and March 2015.[4][5] At the 2016 election, Lazarus lost his seat and Lambie was re-elected under the Jacqui Lambie Network. There are currently no independent senators.

On 21 May 1977, a referendum to amend Section 15 of the Constitution was approved to require future Senate casual vacancies to be filled by a member of the party represented by the former senator at the time of their election, if the state parliament chooses to fill the vacancy. However, this requirement does not apply to independent senators.

Won election or appointed as independent

MemberStateTermNotes
William TrenwithVictoria1904–1909Joined the Liberal Party at the Fusion of 1909.
Reg TurnbullTasmania1962–1969, 1970–1974Briefly leader of the Australia Party (1969–1970).
Syd NegusWestern Australia1971–1974
Michael TownleyTasmania1971–1975, 1987Joined the Liberal Party in 1975; resigned to sit as an independent again in 1987.
Cleaver BuntonNew South Wales1975Appointed by the New South Wales Parliament to replace a Labor senator.
Albert FieldQueensland1975Appointed by the Queensland Parliament to replace a Labor senator.
Brian HarradineTasmania1975–2005
Jo VallentineWestern Australia1985–1990Resigned from the Nuclear Disarmament Party and re-elected under the "Vallentine Peace Group" ticket. Joined the Greens WA in 1990.
Nick XenophonSouth Australia2008–2016Re-elected in 2016 under Nick Xenophon Team.

Not elected as independent

MemberStateTermNotes
Thomas GlasseyQueensland1903Lost Protectionist preselection.
Anderson DawsonQueensland1906Announced retirement but then changed mind too late to overturn Labor preselection; contested as independent.
Sir Josiah SymonSouth Australia1909–1913Free Trader who refused to join the Liberal Party at the Fusion of 1909.
Cyril CameronTasmania1913Lost Liberal preselection.
James OgdenTasmania1925–1926Expelled from the Labor Party. Joined the Nationalist Party in 1926.
Walter DuncanNew South Wales1929–1930A supporter of Billy Hughes who was excluded from the Nationalist Party along with Hughes and his lower-house colleagues who voted to bring down the Bruce Government. Joined the Australian Party in 1930 and the United Australia Party in 1931.
Robert ElliottVictoria1934–1935Lost Country Party preselection.
John DalySouth Australia1934–1935Expelled from the state Labor party for supporting James Scullin's economic policies.
Tom ArthurNew South Wales1943–1944Lost Labor preselection.
Thomas CrawfordQueensland1945–1947United Australia Party senator who was not asked to join the new Liberal Party.
Agnes RobertsonWestern Australia1955Lost Liberal preselection. Joined the Country Party three weeks later and won re-election.
Clive HannafordSouth Australia1967Resigned from the Liberal Party over the government's support for the Vietnam War.
Reg WrightTasmania1978Resigned from the Liberal Party.
Neville BonnerQueensland1983Lost Liberal preselection.
George GeorgesQueensland1986–1987Resigned from the Australian Labor Party.
Don JessopSouth Australia1987Lost Liberal preselection.
Irina DunnNew South Wales1988–1990Appointed by the Nuclear Disarmament Party to fill the vacancy caused by Robert Wood's disqualification, and refused to resign to allow Wood to return to the Senate; subsequently expelled from the NDP. Contested 1990 election under the ticket "Irina Dunn's Environment Independents".
Janet PowellVictoria1992–1993Resigned from the Australian Democrats. Contested 1993 election under the ticket "Janet Powell Independents Network".
John DevereuxTasmania1994–1995Resigned from the Labor Party.
Noel Crichton-BrowneWestern Australia1995–1996Expelled from the Liberal Party.
Mal ColstonQueensland1996–1999Resigned from the Labor Party to accept the Liberal Party's nomination as Deputy President of the Senate. Sponsored the registration of the "Queensland First" political party but retired in 1999.
Meg LeesSouth Australia2002–2003Resigned from the Australian Democrats in 2002. Formed the Australian Progressive Alliance in 2003.
Shayne MurphyTasmania2002–2005Resigned from the Labor Party.
John MadiganVictoria2014–2016Resigned from the Democratic Labour Party.
Jacqui LambieTasmania2014–2016Resigned from the Palmer United Party. Re-elected in 2016 under Jacqui Lambie Network.
Glenn LazarusQueensland2015–2016Resigned from the Palmer United Party.
Rod CulletonQueensland2016–2017Resigned from Pauline Hanson's One Nation.
Lucy GichuhiSouth Australia2017–2018Refused to join merger of the Family First Party with the Australian Conservatives. Joined the Liberal Party in 2018.
Fraser AnningQueensland2018, 2018–2019Resigned from Pauline Hanson's One Nation in January 2018. Joined Katter's Australian Party in June, but was expelled in October and became an independent again.
Steve MartinTasmania2018Expelled from the Jacqui Lambie Network before being sworn in. Joined the National Party several months later.
Tim StorerSouth Australia2018–2019Resigned from the Nick Xenophon Team before being sworn in.
Cory BernardiSouth Australia2019–Disbanded the Australian Conservatives, the party he formed after resigning from the Liberal Party in 2017.

States and territories

New South Wales

New South Wales Legislative Assembly

Won election as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
James GeraghtyNorth Sydney1950–1953Re-elected as an independent in 1950 after being stripped of Labor preselection to recontest his seat.
John SeiffertMonaro1950Re-elected as an independent in 1950 after being stripped of Labor preselection to recontest his seat; readmitted to caucus after the election.
Jim ChalmersHartley1953–1956Resigned from the Labor Party in 1953 and re-elected as an independent.
Tom ArmstrongKahibah1953–1957
Bill WeileyClarence1955Elected as independent Country, then joined the Country Party.
Frank PurdueWaratah1959–1962
1964–1965
Douglas DarbyManly1962–1968Resigned from the Liberal Party in 1962. Rejoined in 1968.
Harold CoatesBlue Mountains1965–1976
Joe LawsonMurray1968–1973Resigned from the Country Party in 1968.
John HattonSouth Coast1973–1995
Ted MackNorth Shore1981–1988
Bruce DuncanLismore1982–1988Resigned from the National Party in 1982.
Frank ArkellWollongong1984–1991
Dawn FraserBalmain1988–1991
George KeeganNewcastle1988–1991
Clover MooreBligh
Sydney
1988–2012
Robyn ReadNorth Shore1988–1991
Ivan WelshSwansea1988–1991
Peter MacdonaldManly1991–1999
Tony WindsorTamworth1991–2001
David BarrManly1999–2007
Tony McGraneDubbo1999–2004
Richard TorbayNorthern Tablelands1999–2013
Rob OakeshottPort Macquarie2002–2008Resigned from the National Party in March 2002. Re-elected as an independent in 2003 and 2007. Resigned from parliament in August 2008 to contest the Lyne federal by-election.
Peter DraperTamworth2003–2011
Dawn FardellDubbo2004–2011
Alex McTaggartPittwater2005–2007
Greg PiperLake Macquarie2007–present
Peter BesselingPort Macquarie2008–2011
Alex GreenwichSydney2012–present
Joe McGirrWagga Wagga2018–present
Not elected as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
Clive EvattHurstville1956–1959Expelled from the Labor Party in July 1956.
Alfred DennisBlacktown1962Resigned from the Liberal Party in 1962 after losing preselection for a safer seat.
Ben DoigBurwood1964–1965Resigned from the Liberal Party in 1964 after losing preselection.
Bill ChaffeyTamworth1972–1973Resigned from the Country Party in 1972.
Laurie McGintyWilloughby1977–1978Resigned from the Liberal Party in September 1977 after losing preselection to recontest his seat.
Max SmithPittwater1984–1986Resigned from the Liberal Party in 1984. Resigned from parliament in 1986.
Terry MetherellDavidson1991–1992Resigned from the Liberal Party in October 1991. Resigned from parliament in April 1992.
Terry GriffithsGeorges River1994–1995Resigned from the Liberal Party in October 1994.
Steven PringleHawkesbury2006–2007Resigned from the Liberal Party in October 2006 after losing preselection for the 2007 election.
Milton OrkopoulosSwansea2006Expelled from the Labor Party on 8 November 2006 after being charged with child sex offences. Resigned from parliament under threat of an expulsion vote on 13 November.
Steven ChaytorMacquarie Fields2007Expelled from the Labor Party in January 2007.
Bryce GaudryNewcastle2007Resigned from the Labor Party in January 2007 after losing preselection for the 2007 election.
Chris HartcherTerrigal2014–2015Resigned from the Liberal parliamentary party due to Independent Commission Against Corruption investigations. Retired in 2015.
Chris SpenceThe Entrance2014–2015Resigned from the Liberal parliamentary party due to Independent Commission Against Corruption investigations. Retired in 2015.
Darren WebberWyong2014–2015Resigned from the Liberal parliamentary party due to Independent Commission Against Corruption investigations. Retired in 2015.
Andrew CornwellCharlestown2014Stood aside from the Liberal parliamentary party on 6 August 2014 due to Independent Commission Against Corruption investigations. Resigned from parliament on 12 August.
Tim OwenNewcastle2014Stood aside from the Liberal parliamentary party on 6 August 2014 due to Independent Commission Against Corruption investigations. Resigned from parliament on 12 August.
Garry EdwardsSwansea2014–2015Stood aside from the Liberal parliamentary party in August 2014 due to Independent Commission Against Corruption investigations. Recontested the 2015 election as an independent and lost.
Bart BassettLondonderry2014–2015Stood aside from the Liberal parliamentary party in August 2014 due to Independent Commission Against Corruption investigations. Retired in 2015.
Craig BaumannPort Stephens2014–2015Stood aside from the Liberal parliamentary party in September 2014 due to Independent Commission Against Corruption investigations. Retired in 2015.

New South Wales Legislative Council

Elected as independent

All of these MPs were indirectly elected by MPs under the former system between 1934 and 1978.

MemberTermNotes
Frank Spicer1934–1949Had been a member of the Federal Labor Party in the 1931 Labor split, did not rejoin the party afterwards, joined the Country Party in 1949.
Joseph Gardiner1934–1937
Theodore Trautwein1934–1940
Stanley Parry1940–1952
Asher Joel1958–1959Joined the Country Party in 1959.
Harry Sullivan1970–1974Joined the Country Party in 1974.
Not elected as independent
MemberTermNotes
Thomas Murray1926–1958Expelled from the Labor Party in 1926.
Hector Clayton1937–1973A United Australia Party member upon election, but subsequently resigned as he believed it should be a non-partisan house.
Toby MacDiarmid1985–1989Resigned from the National Party in April 1985.
Marie Bignold1988–1991Expelled from the Call to Australia Party in November 1988.
Richard Jones1996–2003Resigned from the Australian Democrats in March 1996. Did not face re-election in 1999. Retired in 2003.
Franca Arena1997–1999Expelled from the Labor Party in November 1997 after her unsubstantiated accusations of pedophilia led to the suicide of a Supreme Court judge.
Helen Sham-Ho1998–1999Resigned from the Liberal Party in June 1998.
David Oldfield2000–2001,
2004–2007
Expelled from One Nation in October 2000. Founded One Nation NSW in 2001. Resigned from One Nation NSW in December 2004 and served out his term as an independent.
Gordon Moyes2009Expelled from the Christian Democratic Party in March 2009. Joined the Family First Party in November 2009.
Eric Roozendaal2012–2013Suspended from the Labor Party in November 2012. Resigned from parliament in May 2013.
Marie Ficarra2014–2015Stood aside from the Liberal parliamentary party in April 2014 due to Independent Commission Against Corruption investigations. Retired in 2015.
Mike Gallacher2014–2017Stood aside from the Liberal parliamentary party in May 2014 due to Independent Commission Against Corruption investigations.

Victoria

Victorian Legislative Assembly

Won election as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
Charlie MuttonCoburg1940–1956Expelled from the Labor Party in 1940 after winning the seat as an Independent Labor candidate. Re-elected as an independent until he was readmitted to the Labor Party in 1956.
Bob SuggettMoorabbin1961–1964Lost Liberal preselection for the 1961 election. Re-elected as an Independent Liberal. Readmitted to the Liberal Party in 1964.
Jack MuttonCoburg1967–1979
Russell SavageMildura1996–2006
Susan DaviesGippsland West1997–2002
Craig IngramGippsland East1999–2010
Suzanna SheedShepparton2014–present
Ali CupperMildura2018–present
Russell NortheMorwell2018–presentInitially became independent after resigning from the National Party 2017 for personal reasons. Elected in own right as independent at 2018 election.
Not elected as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
Charles FrancisCaulfield1977–1979Expelled from the Liberal Party after abstaining on an opposition no-confidence motion.
Doug JenningsWesternport1977–1979Expelled from the Liberal Party after abstaining on an opposition no-confidence motion.
Harley DickinsonSouth Barwon1992Resigned from the Liberal Party in May 1992 after losing preselection for the 1992 election.
Peter McLellanFrankston East1998–1999Resigned from the Liberal Party in July 1998. Died on the day of the 1999 election while recontesting as an independent.
Geoff ShawFrankston2013–2014Resigned from the Liberal Party in March 2013.

Victorian Legislative Council

Not elected as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
Percy FelthamNorthern Province1965–1967Resigned from the Country Party in 1965 over a dispute about the Council presidency.
Alexander KnightMelbourne West Province?-1979Lost Labor preselection in 1977 for the 1979 election, and was an independent by that time.
Rod MackenzieGeelong Province1987–1992Resigned from the Labor Party in December 1987. Was not up for re-election in 1988. Formed the Geelong Community Alliance in 1992.
Carolyn HirshSilvan Province2004–2005, 2006Expelled from the Labor Party in 2004 after being charged with drink-driving offences. Readmitted in 2005, but expelled again in 2006 after further charges were laid.
Dianne HaddenBallarat Province2005–2006Resigned from the Labor Party in April 2005.
Andrew OlexanderSilvan Province2005–2006Expelled from the Liberal Party in November 2005 following critical comments made after losing preselection due to a drink-driving scandal.
Rachel Carling-JenkinsWestern Metropolitan Region2018Resigned from the Democratic Labour Party in June 2017 to join the Australian Conservatives. Resigned from the Australian Conservatives in August 2018.
Catherine CummingWestern Metropolitan Region2018–presentResigned from Derryn Hinch's Justice Party prior to being sworn in following the 2018 election.

Queensland

Queensland Legislative Assembly

Won election as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
Frank BarnesBundaberg1941–1950
George MarriottBulimba1941–1950Expelled from the Labor Party in November 1941. Re-elected as an independent.
Lou BarnesCairns1942–1947
John Beals ChandlerHamilton1943Formed the Queensland People's Party soon after election.
Louis LuckinsMaree1944Re-elected as an independent in 1944 after disputes with the new Queensland People's Party. Joined the QPP later that year.
Jim HoughtonRedcliffe1960–1961, 1962Elected as an independent. Joined the Liberal Party in 1961. Resigned to sit as an independent months later. Joined the Country Party in 1962.
Alf MullerFassifern1961–1965Resigned from the Country Party in 1961. Rejoined in 1965.
Arthur CoburnBurdekin1950–1969
Bunny AdairCook1961–1969Refused to support the merger of the Queensland Labor Party into the Democratic Labor Party. Re-elected as an independent in 1963 and 1966.
Ted WalshBundaberg1961–1969Refused to support the merger of the Queensland Labor Party into the Democratic Labor Party. Re-elected as an independent in 1963 and 1966.
Ed CaseyMackay1972–1977Resigned from the Labor Party in 1972 after losing preselection for the 1972 election, re-elected as an independent in 1972 and 1974, readmitted to the Labor Party in 1977.
Lindsay HartwigCallide1981–1986Expelled from the National Party in 1981. Re-elected as an independent in 1983.
Liz CunninghamGladstone1995–2015
Dorothy PrattNanango1999–2012Resigned from One Nation in February 1999, and was re-elected four times as an independent.
Peter WellingtonNicklin1998–2017
John KingstonMaryborough1999–2003Resigned from One Nation in February 1999. Re-elected as an independent in 2001.
Lex BellSurfers Paradise2001–2004Won by-election following resignation of former Premier Borbidge. Defeated at 2004 election.
Elisa RobertsGympie2002–2006Resigned from One Nation in April 2002. Re-elected as an independent in 2004. Defeated in 2006
Chris FoleyMaryborough2003–2012
Sandy BoltonNoosa2017–present
Not elected as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
Frank RobertsNundah1953–1956Resigned from the Labor Party in 1953.
Tom FoleyBelyando1956–1957Expelled from the Labor Party in 1956. Joined the Queensland Labor Party in 1957.
Mick GardnerRockhampton1956–1957Expelled from the Labor Party in 1956. Joined the Queensland Labor Party in 1957.
Alex DewarWavell1968–1969Resigned from the Liberal Party in August 1968.
Col BennettSouth Brisbane1972Lost Labor preselection in 1972 and expelled for running for re-election as an independent.
Merv ThackerayRockhampton North1972Lost Labor preselection in 1972 and expelled for running for re-election as an independent.
Lou JensenBundaberg1977Resigned from the Labor Party after losing preselection for the 1977 election.
Col MillerIthaca1984–1986Resigned from the Liberal Party in August 1984.
Joe KrugerMurrumba1986Resigned from the Labor Party in 1986 after losing preselection for the 1986 election.
Eric ShawManly1988–1989Resigned from the Labor Party in September 1988 after losing preselection for the 1989 election.
Lin PowellIsis1989Resigned from the National Party in June 1989.
Geoff MuntzWhitsunday1989Resigned from the National Party in November 1989.
Shaun NelsonTablelands1999–2001Resigned from One Nation in February 1999.
Ken TurnerThuringowa1999–2001Resigned from One Nation in February 1999.
Jeff KnuthBurdekin1999Resigned from One Nation in February 1999. Founded the Country Party QLD in August 1999.
Jim ElderCapalaba2000–2001Resigned from the Labor Party in November 2000 in the wake of the Shepherdson Inquiry
Grant MusgroveSpringwood2000–2001Resigned from the Labor Party in December 2000 in the wake of the Shepherdson Inquiry.
Mike KaiserWoodridge2001Resigned from the Labor Party in January 2001 in the wake of the Shepherdson Inquiry
Cate MolloyNoosa2006Resigned from the Labor Party in August 2006 after losing preselection for the 2006 election
Aidan McLindonBeaudesert2010Resigned from the Liberal National Party in May 2010 and sat as an independent until his new party, The Queensland Party, was formally registered in August
Rob MessengerBurnett2010–2012Resigned from the Liberal National Party in May 2010. Defeated in 2012.
Alex DouglasGaven2012–2013, 2014–2015Resigned from the Liberal National Party in November 2012 and sat as an independent until joining the Palmer United Party in April 2013. Resigned from the Palmer United Party in August 2014 and again sat as an independent until his defeat in 2015
Carl JudgeYeerongpilly2012–2013, 2014–2015Resigned from the Liberal National Party in November 2012 and sat as an independent until joining the Palmer United Party in April 2013. Resigned from the Palmer United Party in October 2014 and again sat as an independent until his defeat in 2015
Scott DriscollRedcliffe2013Suspended from the Liberal National Party in March 2013. Resigned from parliament in November 2013.
Billy GordonCook2015–2017Expelled from the Labor Party in March 2015. Retired in 2017.
Rob PyneCairns2016–2017Resigned from the Labor Party in March 2016. Defeated in 2017.
Rick WilliamsPumicestone2017Resigned from the Labor Party in October 2017 after being disendorsed for the 2017 election, at which he was then defeated as an independent.

Western Australia

Western Australian Legislative Assembly

Won election as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
Jack SmithNelson1921–1922Joined the Country Party in September 1922.
John BoylandKalgoorlie1921–1922Independent Nationalist.
Frederick WarnerMount Marshall1933–1936Independent Country. Joined the Country Party in 1936.
Clarence DoustNelson1936–1939
Thomas HughesEast Perth1936–1943Independent Labor 1936–1939.
Harry ShearnMaylands1936–1951Independent Nationalist 1936–1945, Independent Liberal 1945–1950.
Claude BarkerIrwin-Moore1939
Horace BerryIrwin-Moore1939–1947
Lionel KellyYilgarn-Coolgardie1941–1946Independent Country 1941–1943. Joined the Labor Party in July 1946.
Ray OwenSwan1944–1947Independent Country until 1947.
William ReadVictoria Park1945–1953
David GraydenNedlands1950–1953
Noel ButcherGascoyne1951–1953Independent Liberal.
Bill GraydenSouth Perth1956–1959Independent Liberal. Joined the Liberal Party in 1959.
Edward OldfieldMount Lawley1956–1962Independent Liberal.
Phillip PendalSouth Perth1995–2005Resigned from the Liberal Party in March 1995. Re-elected as an independent in 1997 and 2001.
Ernie BridgeKimberley1996–2001Resigned from the Labor Party in July 1996. Re-elected as an independent in 1997.
Larry GrahamPilbara2000–2005Resigned from the Labor Party in February 2000. Re-elected as an independent in 2001.
Liz ConstableFloreat
Churchlands
1991–2013
Janet WoollardAlfred Cove2001–2013Member of Liberals for Forests in 2001, but stood as an independent due to party being unregistered.
John BowlerMurchison-Eyre
Kalgoorlie
2006–2013Expelled from the Labor Party in February 2006. Re-elected as an independent in 2008.
Not elected as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
Albert WilsonForrest1906–1908Resigned from the Labor Party in 1906 after being censured by the Labor caucus.
James MannBeverley1949Resigned from the Country Party in March 1949 and sat as an independent until joining the Liberal Party in May 1949.
Jack SkidmoreSwan1981–1982Resigned from the Labor Party in September 1981 after Brian Burke became leader.
Tom DadourSubiaco1984–1986Resigned from the Liberal Party in 1984 over policy differences.
Ian ThompsonDarling Range1989–1993Resigned from the Liberal Party in September 1989.
Pam BuchananAshburton1991–1992Resigned from the Labor Party in February 1991 after being left out of the ministry. First female independent.
Ian AlexanderPerth1991–1993Resigned from the Labor Party in March 1991 over policy differences, joined the Greens after leaving parliament.
Frank DonovanMorley1991–1993Resigned from the Labor Party in October 1991 over policy differences.
Bernie MastersVasse2004–2005Resigned from the Liberal Party in February 2004 after losing preselection for the 2005 election.
John D'OrazioBallajura2006–2008, 2008Expelled from the Labor Party in August 2006. Readmitted in April 2008. Resigned from the party in June 2008.
Sue WalkerNedlands2008Resigned from the Liberal Party in February 2008.
Dan SullivanLeschenault2008Resigned from the Liberal Party in February 2008. Joined the Family First Party in June.
Bob KuceraYokine2008Resigned from the Labor Party in May 2008 after losing preselection for the 2008 election.
Paul OmodeiWarren-Blackwood2008Resigned from the Liberal Party in May 2008.
Adele CarlesFremantle2010–2013Resigned from the Greens in May 2010.
Rob JohnsonHillarys2016–2017Resigned from the Liberal Party in April 2016.

Western Australian Legislative Council

Won election as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
Joseph HolmesNorth Province1914–1942
Cyril CornishNorth Province1942–1946
Reg DaviesNorth Metropolitan Region1991–1997Resigned from the Liberal Party in 1991. Re-elected in 1993. Defeated in 1996. Term expired 1997.
Not elected as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
Ron ThompsonSouth Metropolitan Region1977–1980Expelled from the Labor Party in 1977 after publicly opposing its policy on homosexuality.
Sam PiantadosiNorth Metropolitan Region1996Resigned from the Labor Party in April 1996. Resigned from the Legislative Council in November to contest a Legislative Assembly seat at the 1996 election.
Mark NevillMining and Pastoral1999–2001Resigned from the Labor Party in August 1999.
Tom HelmMining and Pastoral2000–2001Resigned from the Labor Party in July 2000 after losing preselection for the 2001 election.
Paddy EmbrySouth West2003–2004Resigned from One Nation in May 2003. Joined the New Country Party in 2004.
Alan CadbyNorth Metropolitan2004–2005Resigned from the Liberal Party in June 2004 after losing preselection for the 2005 election.
John FischerMining and Pastoral2004–2005Resigned from One Nation in June 2004.
Frank HoughAgricultural2004Resigned from One Nation in June 2004. Sat as an independent until joining the New Country Party the same year.
Shelley ArcherMining and Pastoral2007–2008Resigned from the Labor Party in November 2007.
Anthony FelsAgricultural2008Resigned from the Liberal Party in July 2008. He sat as an independent for a period before recontesting that year's election as a Family First Party candidate.
Max TrenordenAgricultural2012–2013Resigned from the National Party in late 2012 after losing preselection for the 2013 election.
Philip GardinerAgricultural2012–2013Resigned from the National Party in late 2012 in protest at Trenorden's preselection loss.

South Australia

South Australian House of Assembly

Won election as independent
MemberDistrictTermNotes
Herbert BasedowBarossa1927–1930, 1933
Thomas ThompsonPort Adelaide1927, 1927–1930Known as "Independent Protestant Labour".
Daniel DaviesYorke Peninsula1933–1941
Tom StottRidley1933–1970
George ConnorAlexandra1934–1941
Albert RobinsonWooroora
Gouger
1934–1943
Doug BardolphAdelaide1935–1944First elected as a Lang Labor Party MP in 1933, rejoined the Labor Party in the 1934 reconciliation, resigned to sit as an independent in 1935.
Herbert DunnStirling1938–1940Joined the Liberal and Country League in 1940.
William FiskGlenelg1938–1940
John FletcherMount Gambier1938–1958
George IllingworthGoodwood1938–1941
Jules LangdonThebarton1938–1942
William MacgillivrayChaffey1938–1956
John McLeay, seniorUnley1938–1941
Richard McKenzieMurray1938–1943Joined the Labor Party in 1943.
Clement SmithVictoria1938–1941
Percy QuirkeBurra1948–1963Resigned from the Labor Party in 1948. Joined the Liberal Party in 1963.
Ted ConnellyPirie1975–1977
Norm PetersonSemaphore1979–1993
Martyn EvansElizabeth1984–1993Joined the Labor Party in 1993.
Stan EvansDavenport1985–1986Had won re-election as an independent in 1985 after losing Liberal preselection, but rejoined the Liberal Party in 1986.
Rory McEwenMount Gamber1997–2010
Mitch WilliamsMacKillop1997–1999Joined the Liberal Party in 1999.
Peter LewisHammond2000–2006Expelled from the Liberal Party in July 2000.
Bob SuchFisher2000–2014Resigned from the Liberal Party in October 2000.
Kris HannaMitchell2006–2010Had been re-elected as a Labor MP in 2002, joined the Greens in 2003, and resigned to sit as an independent before the 2006 election.
Don PeglerMount Gambier2010–2014
Geoff BrockFrome2009–present
Not elected as independent
MemberDistrictTermNotes
E. H. CoombeBarossa1910–1912Refused to sign the Liberal Union pledge when his party merged into it in 1910
Clarence GoodeVictoria1918Resigned from the National Party in 1918 after losing preselection to recontest his seat
Maurice ParishMurray1918Resigned from the National Party in 1918 after losing preselection to recontest his seat
Crawford VaughanEast Torrens1918Resigned from the National Party in 1918
John Albert SouthwoodEast Torrens1920–1921Resigned from the National Party in 1920
Terry GroomHartley1991–1993Resigned from the Labor Party in 1991 after losing preselection to recontest his seat
Murray De LainePrice2001–2002Resigned from the Labor Party in August 2001 after losing preselection to recontest his seat
Ralph ClarkeRoss Smith2001–2002Resigned from the Labor Party in November 2001 after losing preselection to recontest his seat
Martin Hamilton-SmithWaite2014–presentResigned from the Liberal Party in May 2014.
Frances BedfordFlorey2017–presentResigned from the Labor Party in March 2017.
Duncan McFetridgeMorphett2017–2018Resigned from the Liberal Party in May 2017.
Troy BellMount Gambier2017–presentResigned from the Liberal Party in August 2017.

South Australian Legislative Council

Won election as independent
MemberDistrictTermNotes
Joseph AndersonCentral No. 11931–1944
Alec BagotSouthern1938–1941
Frank HalledaySouthern1938–1943
Nick XenophonSouth Australia1997–2007
Ann BressingtonSouth Australia2006–2014Elected on an Independent No Pokies ticket.
John DarleySouth Australia2007–presentAppointed to a casual vacancy following the resignation of Independent No Pokies MLC Nick Xenophon. Re-elected on an Independent Nick Xenophon Team ticket in 2014. Became purely independent in 2017.
Not elected as independent
MemberDistrictTermNotes
James WilsonCentral No. 11915–1918Expelled from the United Labor Party in 1915, sat as an independent until joining National Labor in 1917.
Frederick WallisCentral No. 21918–1921Expelled from Australian Labor Party in 1918.
Alfred von DoussaSouthern1921The Liberal Union refused to accept his preselection nomination for the 1921 election.
Stanley WhitfordCentral No. 11934–1941Resigned from the Parliamentary Labor Party in March 1934.
Norm FosterSouth Australia1982Resigned from the Labor Party in June 1982 to support the construction of the Olympic Dam.
Terry CameronSouth Australia1998–1999, 2002–2006Resigned from the Labor Party to support the sale of ETSA in August 1998. Founded the SA First party in March 1999. Disbanded party and returned to sitting as an independent in 2002. Defeated in 2006.
Trevor CrothersSouth Australia1999–2002Resigned from the Labor Party to support the sale of ETSA in June 1999. Defeated in 2002.
David WinderlichSouth Australia2009–2010Resigned from the Australian Democrats in October 2009. Defeated in 2010.
Bernard FinniganSouth Australia2011–2015Expelled from the Labor Party in May 2011 following his being charged with child pornography offences. Resigned from parliament in 2015.

Tasmania

Upper house

Australian Capital Territory

Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly

Won election as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
Michael MooreMolonglo1989–2001Resigned from Residents Rally in October 1989. Re-elected on the "Moore Independents Group" ticket in 1992, 1995 and 1998.
Helen SzutyNone1992–1995Elected on the "Moore Independents Group" ticket in 1992 and sat as an independent. Defeated in 1995.
Paul OsborneBrindabella1995–2001Elected on the "Osborne Independents Group" ticket in 1995 and re-elected in 1998. Defeated in 2001.
Dave RugendykeGinninderra1998–2001Elected on the "Osborne Independents Group" ticket in 1998. Defeated in 2001.
Not elected as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
Robyn NolanNone1991Resigned from the Liberal Party in October 1991. Formed the New Conservative Group in November.
Trevor KaineBrindabella1998Resigned from the Liberal Party in May 1998. Formed the United Canberra Party in July.
Helen CrossMolonglo2002–2004Expelled from the Liberal Party in September 2002. Defeated as "Helen Cross Independents" in 2004.
Richard MulcahyMolonglo2007–2008Expelled from the Liberal Party in December 2007. Formed the Richard Mulcahy Canberra Party in August 2008.

Northern Territory

Northern Territory Legislative Assembly

Won election as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
Dawn LawrieNightcliff1974–1983
Ron WithnallPort Darwin1974–1977
Denis CollinsSadadeen
Greatorex
1986–1994Lost CLP preselection in 1986 and re-elected as an independent in 1987 and 1990. Defeated in 1994.
Noel Padgham-PurichKoolpinyah
Nelson
1987–1997Lost CLP preselection for the 1987 election and re-elected as an independent in 1987, 1990 and 1994
Loraine BrahamBraitling2001–2008Resigned from the CLP in 2001 after losing preselection, and re-elected as an independent in 2001 and 2005
Gerry WoodNelson2001–present
Robyn LambleyAraluen2015–presentResigned from the CLP in June 2015. Re-elected as an independent in 2016
Kezia PurickGoyder2015–presentResigned from the CLP in July 2015. Re-elected as an independent in 2016
Yingiya Mark GuyulaNhulunbuy2016–present
Terry MillsBlain2016–present
Not elected as independent
MemberElectorateTermNotes
Rod OliverAlice Springs1979–1980Resigned from the CLP in August 1979
Ian TuxworthBarkly1986Expelled from the CLP in December 1986. Founded the Northern Territory Nationals two weeks later
Col FirminLudmilla1990Lost CLP preselection for the 1990 election
Max OrtmannBrennan1994Lost CLP preselection for the 1994 election
Peter MaleyGoyder2005Expelled from the CLP in May 2005
Marion ScrymgourArafura2009Resigned from the ALP in June 2009. Rejoined the party in August.
Alison AndersonMacDonnell
Namatjira
2009–2011, 2014, 2014–2016Resigned from the ALP in August 2009 and sat as an independent before joining the CLP in September 2011. Re-elected as a CLP member in 2012. Resigned from the CLP in April 2014 and sat as an independent for two weeks before joining the Palmer United Party. Resigned from the PUP in November 2014 and again sat as an independent.
Ross BohlinDrysdale2012Lost CLP preselection for the 2012 election
Francis Xavier KurrupuwuArafura2014Resigned from the CLP in April 2014. Rejoined the party in September.
Larisa LeeArnhem2014–2016Resigned from the CLP in April 2014 and sat as an independent before joining the Palmer United Party two weeks later. Resigned from the PUP in November 2014 and again sat as an independent.
Delia LawrieKarama2014–2016Resigned from the ALP in October 2015 after losing preselection for the 2016 election.
Nathan BarrettBlain2016Resigned from the CLP

References

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