In English church history, Independents advocated local congregational control of religious and church matters, without any wider geographical hierarchy, either ecclesiastical or political. Independents reached particular prominence between 1642 and 1660, in the period of the English Civil War and of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, wherein the Parliamentary Army became the champion of Independent religious views against the Anglicanism or the Catholicism of Royalists and the Presbyterianism favoured by Parliament itself. The Independents advocated freedom of religion for non-Catholics.
During the First Civil War, the Parliamentary cause was supported by an alliance of Anglicans who supported Parliamentary traditions, Presbyterians and Independents. During the period leading up to the war and during its early years, the Presbyterian party under the leadership of John Pym was in the ascendant. However, as was shown in the outcome of negotiations for an alliance with the Presbyterian Scots over the Solemn League and Covenant in 1643, the Independents party were strong enough to prevent Presbyterianism being imposed on them.
After the formation of the New Model Army the strength of the Independents grew along with the fortunes of the Army because Independents held many of the senior positions within the Army (Oliver Cromwell being the most famous of them). In 1648, at end of the Second Civil War the Independents in the Army were strong enough to remove from Parliament all those who opposed them in what has become known as Pride's Purge.
After Pride's Purge, the so-called Rump Parliament of around fifty Independent MPs sanctioned the trial and execution of King Charles I in January 1649 and the creation of the republican English Commonwealth.
The Independents dominated English politics for the next decade, until shortly before the Restoration.
After the Restoration, the English Parliament was dominated by Anglicans, supporters of both the Parliamentary and Royalist causes, who imposed the Clarendon Code. Combined with the Test Act, this excluded all nonconformists from holding civil or military office, and prevented them from being awarded degrees by the universities of Cambridge and Oxford.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 373. .
- Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 928–937. .
Loughlin, James Francis (1908). . Catholic Encyclopedia. 4.