# Impulse invariance

**Impulse invariance** is a technique for designing discrete-time infinite-impulse-response (IIR) filters from continuous-time filters in which the impulse response of the continuous-time system is sampled to produce the impulse response of the discrete-time system. The frequency response of the discrete-time system will be a sum of shifted copies of the frequency response of the continuous-time system; if the continuous-time system is approximately band-limited to a frequency less than the Nyquist frequency of the sampling, then the frequency response of the discrete-time system will be approximately equal to it for frequencies below the Nyquist frequency.

## Discussion

The continuous-time system's impulse response, , is sampled with sampling period to produce the discrete-time system's impulse response, .

Thus, the frequency responses of the two systems are related by

If the continuous time filter is approximately band-limited (i.e. when ), then the frequency response of the discrete-time system will be approximately the continuous-time system's frequency response for frequencies below π radians per sample (below the Nyquist frequency 1/(2*T*) Hz):

- for

### Comparison to the bilinear transform

Note that aliasing will occur, including aliasing below the Nyquist frequency to the extent that the continuous-time filter's response is nonzero above that frequency. The bilinear transform is an alternative to impulse invariance that uses a different mapping that maps the continuous-time system's frequency response, out to infinite frequency, into the range of frequencies up to the Nyquist frequency in the discrete-time case, as opposed to mapping frequencies linearly with circular overlap as impulse invariance does.

### Effect on poles in system function

If the continuous poles at , the system function can be written in partial fraction expansion as

Thus, using the inverse Laplace transform, the impulse response is

The corresponding discrete-time system's impulse response is then defined as the following

Performing a z-transform on the discrete-time impulse response produces the following discrete-time system function

Thus the poles from the continuous-time system function are translated to poles at z = e^{skT}. The zeros, if any, are not so simply mapped.

### Poles and zeros

If the system function has zeros as well as poles, they can be mapped the same way, but the result is no longer an impulse invariance result: the discrete-time impulse response is not equal simply to samples of the continuous-time impulse response. This method is known as the matched Z-transform method, or pole–zero mapping.

### Stability and causality

Since poles in the continuous-time system at *s* = *s _{k}* transform to poles in the discrete-time system at z = exp(

*s*), poles in the left half of the

_{k}T*s*-plane map to inside the unit circle in the

*z*-plane; so if the continuous-time filter is causal and stable, then the discrete-time filter will be causal and stable as well.

### Corrected formula

When a causal continuous-time impulse response has a discontinuity at , the expressions above are not consistent.[1] This is because should really only contribute half its value to .

Making this correction gives

Performing a z-transform on the discrete-time impulse response produces the following discrete-time system function

## See also

- Infinite impulse response
- Bilinear transform
- Matched Z-transform method
- Continuous-time filters:

## References

- Jackson, L.B. (1 October 2000). "A correction to impulse invariance".
*IEEE Signal Processing Letters*.**7**(10): 273–275. doi:10.1109/97.870677. ISSN 1070-9908.

### Other sources

- Oppenheim, Alan V. and Schafer, Ronald W. with Buck, John R.
*Discrete-Time Signal Processing.*Second Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1999. - Sahai, Anant. Course Lecture. Electrical Engineering 123: Digital Signal Processing. University of California, Berkeley. 5 April 2007.
- Eitelberg, Ed. "Convolution Invariance and Corrected Impulse Invariance." Signal Processing, Vol. 86, Issue 5, pp. 1116–1120. 2006

## External links

- Impulse Invariant Transform at CircuitDesign.info Brief explanation, an example, and application to Continuous Time Sigma Delta ADC's.