Immigration to France

According to the French national institute of statistics INSEE, the 2014 census counted nearly 6 million immigrants (foreign-born people) in France, representing 9.1% of the total population.[2][3] Eurostat estimated the foreign-born population to be 7.9 million, corresponding to 11.8% of the French population as of January 2016.[4]

In 2008, a previous INSEE census estimated that 5.3 million foreign-born immigrants and 6.5 million direct descendants of immigrants (born in France with at least one immigrant parent) lived in France, representing a total of 11.8 million people, or 19% of the total population in metropolitan France (62.1 million in 2008). Among them, about 5.5 million are of European origin (Portuguese, Spaniards, Italians, Britons and Several people from Eastern European countries.), 4 million of North African (either Arab-Berber) origin, 1 million of Sub-Saharan African origin and 400,000 of Turkish origin.[5][6]

The area with the largest proportion of immigrants is the Parisian urban area (Greater Paris), where almost 40% of immigrants lived in 2012[7]. Other regions with important immigrant populations are Rhône-Alpes (Lyon) and Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (Marseille).

Among the 802,000 newborns in metropolitan France in 2010, 27.3% had one or both parents foreign-born, and about one quarter (23.9%) had one parent or both born outside of Europe.[8][9] Including grandparents, about 40% of newborns in France between 2006 and 2008 had at least one foreign-born grandparent (11% born in another European country, 16% born in Maghreb but some have European ancestry and 12% born in another region of the world).[10]

History

France's population dynamics began to change in the middle of the 19th century, as France joined the Industrial Revolution. The pace of industrial growth attracted millions of European immigrants over the next century, with especially large numbers arriving from Poland, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain.[11] In the wake of the First World War, in which France suffered six million casualties, significant numbers of workers from French colonies came. By 1930, the Paris region alone had a North African Muslim population of 70,000.[12]

1945–1974

Right after the Second World War, immigration to France significantly increased. During the period of reconstruction, France lacked labor, and as a result, the French government was eager to recruit immigrants coming from all over Europe, the Americas, Africa and Asia.

Although there was a presence of, Vietnamese in France since the late 19th century (mostly students and workers), a wave of Vietnamese migrated to the country after the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and the Geneva Accords, which granted Vietnam its independence from France in 1954. These migrants consisted of those who were loyal to the colonial government and those married to French colonists. Following the partition of Vietnam, students and professionals from South Vietnam continued to arrive in France. Although many initially returned to the country after a few years, as the Vietnam War situation worsened, a majority decided to remain in France and brought their families over as well.[13]

This period also saw a significant wave of immigrants from Algeria. As the Algerian War started in 1954, there were already 200,000 Algerian immigrants in France.[14] However, because of the tension between the Algerians and the French, these immigrants were no longer welcome. This conflict between the two sides led to the Paris Massacre of 17 October 1961, when the police used force against an Algerian demonstration on the streets of Paris. After the war, after Algeria gained its independence, the free circulation between France and Algeria was once again allowed, and the number of Algerian immigrants started to increase drastically. From 1962 to 1975, the Algerian immigrant population increased from 350,000 to 700,000.[15] Many of these immigrants were known as the "harkis," and the others were known as the "pieds-noirs." The "harkis" were Algerians who supported the French during the Algerian War; once the war was over, they were deeply resented by other Algerians, and thus had to flee to France. The "pieds-noirs" were Europeans settlers who moved to Algeria, but migrated back to France since 1962 when Algeria declared independence.

Additionally, the number of Pakistani and Japanese immigrants also increased during this period. There was also a great number of students and workers from former French colonies in Africa.

With this massive influx of immigrants, France became an asylum for refugees. According to the convention in Geneva, refugee status was granted to four out of five immigrant applicants. Many of these refugees came from countries in Eastern Europe (i.e. Hungary) and Latin America, because they feared the dictatorship in their home countries.

Although the majority of immigrants at this time came from rural regions, only 6% of them were willing to work in agriculture. About two-third of the immigrants worked in mining, steel, construction, and automotive industries. Approximately 12% of male immigrants and the majority of female immigrants worked in domestic services, restoration, and commerce (as for French women, a woman working was subject to her husband's authorisation until 1965[16].) Minor and aged immigrants usually worked in craftsmanship and small scale trades.[14]

1974–present

During the 1970s, France simultaneously faced economic crisis and allowed immigrants (mostly from the Muslim world) to permanently settle in France with their families and to acquire French citizenship. It resulted in hundreds of thousands of Muslims, especially to the larger cities, living in subsidized public housing and suffering from very high unemployment rates.[17]

Alongside this, France renounced its policy of assimilation, instead pursuing a policy of integration.[18]

According to an Ipsos poll in September 2019, 65% responded that accepting migrants did not improve the situation in France and 45% responded that accepting migrants deprived the French of social services.[19]

Immigration flows

By region

Immigration to France exceeded 200,000 in recent years, as shown in table below.[20]

Region 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 % 2012
Europe80 50078 66080 12079 29080 33075 04088 82094 580105 83046 % (including from Eastern Europe)[21]
Africa70 20066 11062 34062 14063 47066 48065 61066 28068 64030 % (including from Maghreb)[21]
Asia30 96030 12030 52032 07030 18032 96029 81032 43032 06014 % (including from China)[21]
America and Oceania19 81019 99020 46018 77021 44020 45026 27023 36023 07010%[21]
All countries201 470194 880193 440192 270195 420194 930210 510216 650229 600100%[21]

By country

Recent immigrants arriving to France as per 2014:[22]

Country[23]% of all
immigrants in France
2012
 Portugal 8%[23]
 United Kingdom 5%[23]
 Spain 5%[23]
 Italy 4%[23]
 Germany 4%[23]
 Romania 3%[23]
 Belgium 3%[23]
 Russia 2%[23]
  Switzerland 2%[23]
 Poland 2%[23]
 Algeria 7%[23]
 Morocco 7%[23]
 Tunisia 3%[23]
 China 3%[23]
 Turkey 2%[23]
 United States 2%[23]
 Brazil 2%[23]

The immigrant population

In 2014 The National Institute of Statistics (INSEE, for its acronym in French) published a study reporting that the number of Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian immigrants in France between 2009 and 2012 has doubled.[24] As determined by the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans settled in France.[24] Statistics on Spanish immigrants in France show a growth of 107 percent between 2009 and 2012, i.e. in this period went from 5300 to 11,000 people.[24][25] Of the total of 229,000 new foreigners coming to France in 2012, nearly 8% were Portuguese, British 5%, Spanish 5%, Italians 4%, Germans 4%, Romanians 3%, and Belgians 3%.[24][26]

With the increase of Spanish, Portuguese and Italians in France, the weight of European immigrants arrived in 2012 to 46 percent, while this percentage for African reached 30%, with a presence in Morocco (7%), Algeria (7%) and Tunisia (3%). Meanwhile, 14 percent of all immigrants who settled in France that year were from Asian countries - 3% of China and 2% in Turkey, while in America and Oceania constitute 10% of Americans and Brazilians accounted for higher percentage, 2 percent each.[24][26]

In 2008, according to The National Institute of Statistics (INSEE, for its acronym in French), there were 12 million immigrants and their direct descendants (2nd generation) making up about 20% of the population.[27] with an immigrant defined as a foreign born person without French citizenship at birth. Without considering citizenship at birth, people not born in metropolitan France and their direct descendants made up 30% of the population aged 18–50 in metropolitan France in 2008.[28]

In 2008, there were 5.3 million immigrants corresponding to 8.5% of the total population in France (63.9 million in 2008). 42% were from Africa (30% from Maghreb and 12% from Sub-Saharan Africa), 38% from Europe (mainly from Portugal, Italy and Spain), 14% from Asia and 5% from the Americas and Oceania.[8] Of this total, 40% have assumed French citizenship. In addition, 1.8 million people born in foreign countries (including 1 million in Maghreb) with French citizenship at birth were not included in this total.

There were also 6.7 million direct descendants of immigrants (born in France with at least one immigrant parent) living in France in 2008, corresponding to 11% of the total population in France. Immigrants aged 18–50 count for 2.7 million (10% of population aged 18–50) and 5.3 million for all ages (8% of population). 2nd Generation aged 18–50 make up 3.1 million (12% of 18-50) and 6.5 million for all ages (11% of population).[5] The regions with the largest proportion of immigrants and direct descendants of immigrants are the Île-de-France and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur/Languedoc-Roussillon, where more than one third and one quarter of the inhabitants respectively were either immigrants or direct descendants of immigrants.[27]

The table shows immigrants and 2nd generation immigrants by origin in 2008. 3rd generation immigrants, illegal immigrants, as well as ethnic minorities like Black people from the French overseas territories residing in metropolitan France (800,000), Roms (500,000) or people born in Maghreb with French citizenship at birth (about 4 million Maghrebi Jews, Harkis and Pied-Noir including their descendants live in France[29]) were not taken into account.[30]

Immigrants by origin (2008) in thousands Immigrants 2nd generation Total %
Italy3179201 23710.4%
Portugal5816601 24110.4%
Spain2576208777.3%
Other countries from UE276539201 57313.2%
Other European countries2242104343.6%
Europe Total2 0323 3305 36244.9%
Algeria7131 0001 71314.3%
Morocco6546601 31411.0%
Tunisia2352905254.4%
Maghreb Total1 6021 9503 55229.7%
Subsaharan Africa6695701 23910.4%
Turkey2392204593.8%
SouthEast Asia1631603232.7%
Other Asian countries3552105654.7%
America/Oceania2821704523.8%
Other Regions Total1 7081 3303 03825.4%
Total5 3426 61011 952100.00%

In 2005, 18.1% of young people under 18 were of foreign origin (at least one immigrant parent) in France including 13.5% of non-European origin. Ile-de-France has the highest proportion at about 37%.[31][32]

People under 18 of Maghrebi, Sub-saharian and Turkish origin became a majority in several cities of Ile-de-France (Clichy-sous-Bois, Mantes-la-Jolie, Grigny, Saint-Denis, Les Mureaux, Saint-Ouen, Sarcelles, Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, Garges-lès-Gonesse, Aubervilliers, Stains, Gennevilliers et Épinay-sur-Seine) and in several arrondissements of Marseilles. In Grigny, 31% of young people are of Sub-saharian origin.[33]

Children of immigrants under 18 by origin (2005) %
Maghreb 38
Europe 27
Sub-saharan Africa 16
Others 19
Total100

Between 2006 and 2008 about 40% of newborns in France had at least one foreign-born grandparent (11% born in another European country, 16% born in Maghreb and 12% born in another region of the world).[10] In 2010, 27.3% of the 802,000 newborns in metropolitan France had at least one foreign-born parent. About one quarter (24%) of all the newborns had at least one parent born outside of Europe including about 17% from Africa (11% from Maghreb and 6% from Subsaharan Africa).[8][9]

Posted Workers of Europe

Regarding the country of origin of "posted workers", the same document states the origin of the posted workers: Poles represent the largest contingent of employees posted to France (18% of the total), followed by the Portuguese (15%) and Romania (13%). The majority of these employees, about 60% comes from the historical countries of the European Union, but the share from the new Member States "EU" is growing very rapidly, and the nationals of countries outside "EU "also increases.[34]

Immigration per region

In France, the three largest cities (Paris, Lyon and Marseille)[35] also attract the largest share of immigrants to the country. According to a study of the INSEE, in France, Immigrants are more concentrated in urban areas than the native population. 90.1% of the immigrant population is located in urban areas which is significantly more than the proportion for the native population, 81.9% of them living in urban areas. In 2012, 38.2% of the total immigrant population lived in the Parisian urban area compared to 4.1% and 3.1% respectively for Lyon and Marseille[36].

Île-de-France

The region with the largest proportion of immigrants is the Île-de-France (Greater Paris), where 40% of immigrants live. According to INSEE, French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies, responsible for the production and analysis of official statistics in France, about 35% of people (4 million) living in Île-de-France, are either immigrant (17%) or born to at least one immigrant parent (18%) in 2006.[37]

In the city of Paris, 20% of people living are immigrants and 41.3% of people under 20 have at least one immigrant parent.[38] Among the young people under 18, 12.1% are of Maghrebi origin, 9.9% of Subsaharan African origin (not including Blacks from French West Indies) and 4.0% of South European origin.[39]

In département of Seine-Saint-Denis (population of 1.5 million), 56.7% of young under 18 are or foreign origin including 38% of African origin. Islam is the main religion.

Département Immigrants Children under 20 with at least one immigrant parent
Number % département % Ile-de-France Number % département % Ile-de-France
Paris (75)436'5762022.4162'63541.315.4
Seine-Saint-Denis (93)394'83126.520.2234'83757.122.2
Hauts-de-Seine (92)250'19016.312.8124'5013411.8
Val-de-Marne (94)234'63318.112127'7014012.1
Val-d’Oise (95)185'89016.19.5124'64438.511.8
Yvelines (78)161'86911.68.398'75526.49.3
Essonne (91)150'98012.67.794'00329.68.9
Seine-et-Marne (77)135'65410.7790'319268.5
Île-de-France1'950'62316.91001'057'39437.1100

Reading: 436 576 immigrants live in Paris, representing 20% of Parisians and 22.4% of immigrants in Ile-de-France. 162 635 children under 20 with at least one immigrant parent live in Paris, representing 41.3% of the total of children under 20 in Paris and 15.4% of the total of children under 20 with at least one immigrant parent in Ile-de-France.

Children under 18 with at least one immigrant parent (2005) Seine-Saint-Denis Paris Val-de-Marne Val-d'Oise France
All origins 56.7 % 41.30 % 39.90 % 37.90 % 18.10 %
Maghreb 22.0 % 12.1 % 13.2 % 13.0 % 6.9 %
Sub-saharan Africa 16.0 % 9.9 % 10.8 % 9.1 % 3.0 %
Turkey 2.7 % 0.6 % 1.2 % 3.1 % 1.4 %
South Europe 4.0 % 4.0 % 5.5 % 4.8 % 2.6 %

Ethnic groups

Americans

Citizens of the United States of America total more than 100,000[40] permanent residents in France, Canadians 11,931,[41] followed by Latin Americans are a growing sub-group the most numerous are the Brazilians 44,622,[42] followed by Venezuelans 30,000,[43] Peruvians 22,002,[44] Chileans (esp. arrived in the 1970s) 15,782[45], and Argentineans 11,899 (or up to 15,000).[46] Latinos or Latin Americans are increasingly emigrating to France for economic reasons, study, work, family, and sometimes political asylum.[24]

Europeans

In 2014 The National Institute of Statistics (INSEE, for its acronym in French) published a study on Thursday, according to which has doubled the number of Italian, Portuguese and Spanish immigrants in France between 2009 and 2012.[24] According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans installed in France.[24] Statistics on Spanish immigrants in France show a growth of 107 percent between 2009 and 2012, i.e. in this period went from 5300 to 11,000 people.[24][25] Of the total of 229,000 foreigners arriving to France in 2012, nearly 8% were Portuguese, British 5%, Spanish 5%, Italians 4%, Germans 4%, Romanians 3%, and Belgians 3%.[24][26]

With the increase of Italian, Portuguese and Spanish immigrants to France, the weight of European immigrants arrived in 2012 to 46 percent, while this percentage for African reached 30%, with a presence in Morocco (7%), Algeria (7%) and Tunisia (3%). Meanwhile, 14 percent of all immigrants who settled in France that year were from Asian countries—3% of China and 2% in Turkey, while in America and Oceania constitute 10% of Americans and Brazilians accounted for higher percentage, 2 percent each.[24][26]

Maghrebis

French of Maghrebi (either Arabs or Berbers) origin in France form the largest ethnic group after French of European origin.

According to Michel Tribalat, a researcher at INED, there were 3.5 million people of Maghrebi origin (with at least one grandparent from Algeria, Morocco or Tunisia) living in France in 2005 corresponding to 5.8% of the total French metropolitan population (60.7 million in 2005).[47] Maghrebis have settled mainly in the industrial regions in France, especially in the Paris region. Many famous French people like Edith Piaf,[48] Isabelle Adjani, Arnaud Montebourg, Alain Bashung, Dany Boon, Zinedine Zidane and Karim Benzema have Maghrebi ancestry.

Below is a table of population of Maghrebi origin in France, numbers are in thousands:

Country 1999 2005 % 1999/2005 % French population (60.7 million in 2005)
Algeria1,5771,865+18.3%3.1%
Immigrants574679
Born in France1,0031,186
Morocco1,0051,201+19.5%2.0%
Immigrants523625
Born in France482576
Tunisia417458+9.8%0.8%
Immigrants202222
Born in France215236
Total Maghreb2,9993,524+17.5%5.8%
Immigrants1 2991 5262.5%
Born in France1 7001 9983.3%

In 2005, the percentage of young people under 18 of Maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent) were about 7% in Metropolitan France, 12% in Greater Paris, 13% in Lyon, 21% in Perpignan, 22% in French département of Seine-Saint-Denis, 37% in 18th arrondissement of Paris and 40% in several arrondissements of Marseilles.[49][50]

16% of newborns in France between 2006 and 2008 have at least one Maghrebi grandparent.[10]

According to other sources between 5 and 6 million people of Maghrebi origin live in France corresponding to about 7-9% of the total French metropolitan population.[51]

Illegal immigration

Illegal immigration to France has developed as the country's immigration policy has become more rigid. In 2006, The French Ministry of the Interior estimated clandestine immigrants ("sans-papiers ") in France numbered anywhere between 200,000 and 400,000, also expecting between 80,000 and 100,000 people to enter the country illegally each year.[52]

In 2011, 28,000 illegal immigrants were expelled from France. The French government set a goal of 35,000 for 2012.[53][54]

The French government has threatened to withdraw from the Schengen accord in 2009,[55] 2011[56][57] and 2012.[58][59][60]

As of 2016, many undocumented immigrants tried to jump the fences at Calais and board a train or truck heading for Britain. The Home Office has agents working alongside French police and immigration agents to prevent unauthorized people from entering the British border zone.[61]

Citizenship

Children born in France to foreign parents are automatically granted French citizenship upon reaching the age of 18. People born abroad and living in France can acquire French citizenship if they satisfy certain conditions. In 2009 the number of naturalised persons was 135,000, mainly from Maghreb (41.2%).

Naturalisations by origin 2000 2005 2009 % Total 2009
Africa84 18298 45385 14462.7
Maghreb68 18575 22456 02441.2
Sub-Saharan Africa10 62215 62422 21416.4
Other Africa5 3757 6056 9065.1
Asia27 94126 28619 49414.4
South-East Asia7 2654 0692 4751.8
East Asia1 1391 2801 6221.2
South Asia4 2464 4363 6602.7
Middle East15 29116 50111 7378.6
Europe (not including CIS )22 08518 07214 75310.9
CIS1 1812 1084 7043.5
CIS (Europe)1 0001 5354 4543.3
CIS (Asia)1815732500.2
America5 6686 3526 6774.9
North America1 0488547470.5
South and Central America4 6205 4985 9304.4
Oceania871271080.1
Others8 8823 2454 9623.7
Total150 026154 643135 842100

Comparison with other European Union countries 2010

According to Eurostat 47.3 million people lived in the European Union in 2010 who were born outside their resident country. This corresponds to 9.4% of the total EU population. Of these, 31.4 million (6.3%) were born outside the EU and 16.0 million (3.2%) were born in another EU member state.

Country Total population (1000) Total Foreign-born (1000) % Born in other EU state (1000) % Born in a non EU state (1000) %
EU 27501,09847,3489.415,9803.231,3686.3
Germany81,8029,81212.03,3964.26,4157.8
France64,7167,19611.12,1183.35,0787.8
United Kingdom62,0087,01211.32,2453.64,7677.7
Spain45,9896,42214.02,3285.14,0948.9
Italy60,3404,7988.01,5922.63,2055.3
Netherlands16,5751,83211.14282.61,4048.5
Greece11,3051,25611.13152.89408.3
Sweden9,3401,33714.34775.18599.2
Austria8,3671,27615.25126.17649.1
Belgium (2007)10,6661,38012.96956.56856.4
Portugal10,6377937.51911.86025.7
Denmark5,5345009.01522.83486.3

See also

References

  1. "Immigrés, étrangers | Insee | Évolution de la population immigrée en France de 1921 à 2015 | en %". www.insee.fr. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  2. "Étrangers - Immigrés − Tableaux de l'économie française | Insee". www.insee.fr (in French). Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  3. "IMG1A - Population par sexe, âge et situation quant à l'immigration en 2014 − France entière −Étrangers - Immigrés en 2014 | Insee". www.insee.fr (in French). Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  4. "File:Foreign-born population by country of birth, 1 January 2016 (¹).png - Statistics Explained". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  5. Être né en France d’un parent immigré, Insee Première, n°1287, mars 2010, Catherine Borrel et Bertrand Lhommeau, Insee
  6. Répartition des immigrés par pays de naissance 2008, Insee, October 2011
  7. "La localisation géographique des immigrés - Insee Première - 1591". www.insee.fr (in French). Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  8. Naissances selon le pays de naissance des parents 2010, Insee, septembre 2011
  9. Parents born in overseas territories are considered as born in France.
  10. Les immigrés, les descendants d'immigrés et leurs enfants, Pascale Breuil-Genier, Catherine Borrel, Bertrand Lhommeau, Insee 2011
  11. "Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. III. French Government and the Refugees". American Philosophical Society, James E. Hassell (1991). p.22. ISBN 0-87169-817-X
  12. Goebel, Anti-Imperial Metropolis, p. 21.
  13. La Diaspora Vietnamienne en France un cas particulier (in French)
  14. "Le film : deux siècles d'histoire de l'immigration en France." http://www.histoire-immigration.fr/histoire-de-l-immigration/le-film
  15. "En 1962, lors de l’Indépendance, ils sont 350 000. En 1975 les émigrants algériens sont 710 000 et constituent le deuxième groupe d’étrangers après les Portugais." "De 1945 à 1975." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 September 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. http://www.elle.fr/Societe/Le-travail/Faire-bouger-les-choses/Il-y-a-50-ans-les-femmes-pouvaient-enfin-travailler-sans-l-accord-de-leur-mari-2968708
  17. Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Michael J. Balz, "The October Riots in France: A Failed Immigration Policy or the Empire Strikes Back?" International Migration (2006) 44#2 pp 23–34.
  18. Sylvia Zappi, "French Government Revives Assimilation Policy", in Migration Policy Institute Archived 30 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine October 1, 2003
  19. "La France en tête des pays en attente d'un leader « fort » pour « casser les règles »". Ipsos (in French). Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  20. Qui sont les nouveaux immigrés qui vivent en France, Ined, 2011
  21. Chantal Brutel (28 November 2014). "Les immigrés récemment arrivés en France" (in French). Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques.
  22. "Insee - Population - Les immigrés récemment arrivés en France - Une immigration de plus en plus européenne". insee.fr. 28 November 2014.
  23. "Les immigrés récemment arrivés en France - Insee Première - 1524". Insee.fr. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  24. "Qui sont les nouveaux immigrés qui vivent en France ?". sudouest.fr (in French). Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  25. "El número de inmigrantes españoles en Francia se ha duplicado con la crisis" (in Spanish). 20minutos.es. 28 November 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  26. http://hispantv.com/detail.aspx?id=298807 Archived 5 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  27. Les descendants d'immigrés plus nombreux que les immigrés : une position française originale en Europe, The National Institute of Statistics (INSEE) 2012
  28. Enquête sur la diversité des populations en France Archived 26 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, The National Institute of Statistics (INSEE) 2011
  29. Les harkis montrent les dents, Le Point, 24 January 2012
  30. Fiches thématiques - Population immigrée - Immigrés - Insee Références - Édition 2012, Insee 2012
  31. Michèle Tribalat, Revue Commentaire, juin 2009, n°127
  32. Michèle Tribalat, Les yeux grands fermés, Denoël, 2010
  33. Michèle Tribalat, Immigration et démographie des pays d’accueil, in Christophe Jaffrelot et Christian Lequesne L'Enjeu mondial, Presses de Sciences Po | Annuels 2009, pages 29 à 35
  34. <author id="23292" type="name">Gabriel Vedrenne</author>. "Travailleurs détachés : que disent (vraiment) les chiffres ?". europe1.fr.
  35. http://www.immigration-residency.eu statistics Immigration to France 2013
  36. "La localisation géographique des immigrés - Insee Première - 1591". www.insee.fr (in French). Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  37. Les descendants d'immigrés vivant en Île-de-France Archived 28 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine, IAU Idf, Note rapide Société, n° 531
  38. Les immigrés et leur famille en Île-de-France Archived 28 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Note rapide Société, n° 552, Juin 2011
  39. Michèle Tribalat, Les jeunes d'origine étrangère in Revue Commentaire, juin 2009, n°126, p.434
  40. Embassy of the United States, Paris
  41. "Canadians abroad" (PDF). asiapacific.ca. Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  42. "NÚMERO E DISTRIBUIÇÃO DE BRASILEIROS NO MUNDO" (PDF). brasileirosnomundo.itamaraty.gov.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  43. "Venezolanos en el exterior". Últimas Noticias. Archived from the original on 5 December 2014.
  44. "PERÚ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática". inei.gob.pe.
  45. "CHILENOS EN EL EXTERIOR" (PDF). aerchipro.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  46. "Perfil Migratorio de Argentina 2012" (PDF). iom.int (in Spanish). Organización Internacional para las Migraciones (OIM). Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  47. Michèle Tribalat, « Mariages « mixtes » et immigration en France », Espace populations sociétés [En ligne], 2009/2 | 2009, mis en ligne le 01 avril 2011
  48. Carolyn Burke. No Regrets: The Life of Edith Piaf, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011, p.5
  49. Michèle Tribalat, Revue Commentaire, juin 2009, n°126, p.436
  50. Michèle Tribalat, Les yeux grands fermés, Denoël, 2010
  51. Robert Castel, La discrimination négative, Paris, La République des idées/Seuil, 2007
  52. "RFI - Immigration - Combien d'immigrés clandestins en France?". rfi.fr.
  53. Seales, Rebecca (10 January 2012). "We kicked out more illegal immigrants than ever before in 2011: France reveals it deported 33,000 people in just 12 months". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
  54. "France to increase expulsions of illegal immigrants". Le Figaro. 02/08/2011. Retrieved 1 April 2012. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  55. "In Calais, Illegal Migrants Driven Underground". Time. 15 December 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
  56. "The 'French dream' of Tunisia's illegal immigrants". France 24. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
  57. Whitehead, Tom (8 December 2011). "Illegals immigrants can exploit 'Lille loophole' to get in to UK on Eurostar". Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
  58. "France: Record Number Of Illegal Immigrants Expelled". Huffington Post. 10 January 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
  59. "Nicolas Sarkozy threatens French pullout of visa-free zone". The Economic Times. 11 March 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
  60. "Sarkozy intensifies anti-immigration rhetoric". DW. 12 March 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
  61. Calais migrants: How is the UK-France border policed? BBC, 3 March 2016

Bibliography

  • Antonio Bechelloni, Michel Dreyfus, Pierre Milza (eds), L'intégration italienne en France. Un siècle de présence italienne dans trois régions françaises (1880-1980), Bruxelles, Complexe, 1995.
  • Rogers Brubaker, Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1992.
  • Marie-Claude Blanc-Chaléard, Les Italiens dans l'Est parisien: Une histoire d'intégration (1880-1960), Rome, École Française de Rome, 2000.
  • Emmanuel Blanchard, La police parisienne et les Algériens, 1944-1962, Paris, Nouveau Monde Éditions, 2011.
  • Stéphane Dufoix, Politiques d'exil: Hongrois, Polonais et Tchécoslovaques en France après 1945, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2002.
  • Jean-Philippe Dedieu, La parole immigrée. Les migrants africains dans l'espace public en France (1960 - 1995), Paris, Klincksieck, 2012.
  • Freundschuh, Aaron. The Courtesan and the Gigolo: The Murders in the Rue Montaigne and the Dark Side of Empire in Nineteenth-Century Paris. Stanford University Press, 2017.
  • Yvan Gastaut, L’immigration et l’opinion en France sous la Ve République, Paris, Seuil, 2000.
  • Abdellali Hajjat, Les frontières de l'« identité nationale ». L'injonction à l'assimilation en France métropolitaine et coloniale, Paris, La Découverte, 2012.
  • Goebel, Michael. Anti-Imperial Metropolis: Interwar Paris and the Seeds of Third World Nationalism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015. excerpts
  • Nancy L. Green, Les Travailleurs immigrés juifs à la Belle époque. Le ‘‘Pletzl’’de Paris, Paris, Fayard, 1985.
  • Donald L. Horowitz, Gérard Noiriel(eds), Immigrants in Two Democracies: French and American Experience, New York, New York University press, 1992.
  • Gregory Mann, Native Sons. West African Veterans and France in the Twentieth Century, Durham, Duke University Press, 2006.
  • Gérard Noiriel, Le Creuset français. Histoire de l'immigration XIXe-XXe, Paris, Le Seuil, 1988.
  • Gérard Noiriel, Réfugiés et sans-papiers. La République face au droit d’asile. XIXe-XXe, Paris, Hachette littératures, 1998.
  • Janine Ponty, Polonais méconnus. Histoire des travailleurs immigrés en France dans l’entre-deux-guerres, Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1988.
  • Judith Rainhorn, Paris, New York. Des migrants italiens (années 1880 – années 1930), Paris, CNRS Éditions, 2005.
  • Philippe Rygiel, Destins immigrés: Cher 1920-1980, trajectoires d'immigrés d'Europe, Besançon, Presses universitaires franc-comtoises, 2001.
  • Ralph Schor, Histoire de l’immigration en France de la fin du XIXe à nos jours, Paris, Armand Colin, 1996.
  • Alexis Spire, Étrangers à la carte. L'administration de l'immigration en France, 1945-1975, Paris, Grasset, 2005.
  • Benjamin Stora, Ils venaient d'Algérie: L'immigration algérienne en France (1912-1992), Paris, Fayard, 1992.
  • Vincent Viet, La France immigrée. Construction d’une politique (1914-1997), Paris, Fayard, 1998.
  • Patrick Weil, La France et ses étrangers : L'aventure d'une politique de l'immigration de 1938 à nos jours, Paris, Gallimard, 2005.
  • Patrick Weil, Qu’est-ce qu’un Français ? Histoire de la nationalité française depuis la Révolution, Paris, Grasset, 2002.
  • Patrick Weil, Immigration, Intégration, discrimination, Paris, Le Seuil, 2005.
  • Claire Zalc, Melting Shops. Une histoire des commerçants étrangers en France, Paris, Perrin, 2010.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.