# Identity function

In mathematics, an **identity function**, also called an **identity relation** or **identity map** or **identity transformation**, is a function that always returns the same value that was used as its argument. That is, for f being identity, the equality *f*(*x*) = *x* holds for all x.

## Definition

Formally, if *M* is a set, the identity function *f* on *M* is defined to be that function with domain and codomain *M* which satisfies

*f*(*x*) =*x*for all elements*x*in*M*.[1]

In other words, the function value *f*(*x*) in *M* (that is, the codomain) is always the same input element *x* of *M* (now considered as the domain). The identity function on M is clearly an injective function as well as a surjective function, so it is also bijective.[2]

The identity function *f* on *M* is often denoted by id_{M}.

In set theory, where a function is defined as a particular kind of binary relation, the identity function is given by the identity relation, or *diagonal* of *M*.

## Algebraic property

If *f* : *M* → *N* is any function, then we have *f* ∘ id_{M} = *f* = id_{N} ∘ *f* (where "∘" denotes function composition). In particular, id_{M} is the identity element of the monoid of all functions from *M* to *M*.

Since the identity element of a monoid is unique, one can alternately define the identity function on *M* to be this identity element. Such a definition generalizes to the concept of an identity morphism in category theory, where the endomorphisms of *M* need not be functions.

## Properties

- The identity function is a linear operator, when applied to vector spaces.[3]
- The identity function on the positive integers is a completely multiplicative function (essentially multiplication by 1), considered in number theory.[4]
- In an
*n*-dimensional vector space the identity function is represented by the identity matrix I_{n}, regardless of the basis.[5] - In a metric space the identity is trivially an isometry. An object without any symmetry has as symmetry group the trivial group only containing this isometry (symmetry type
*C*_{1}).[6] - In a topological space, the identity function is always continuous.

## See also

## References

- Knapp, Anthony W. (2006),
*Basic algebra*, Springer, ISBN 978-0-8176-3248-9 - Mapa, Sadhan Kumar.
*Higher Algebra Abstract and Linear*(11th ed.). Sarat Book House. p. 36. ISBN 978-93-80663-24-1. - Anton, Howard (2005),
*Elementary Linear Algebra (Applications Version)*(9th ed.), Wiley International - D. Marshall; E. Odell; M. Starbird (2007).
*Number Theory through Inquiry*. Mathematical Association of America Textbooks. Mathematical Assn of Amer. ISBN 978-0883857519. - T. S. Shores (2007).
*Applied Linear Algebra and Matrix Analysis*. Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics. Springer. ISBN 038-733-195-6. - James W. Anderson,
*Hyperbolic Geometry*, Springer 2005, ISBN 1-85233-934-9