Hydrogen station

A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen, usually located along a road or hydrogen highway, or at home as part of the distributed generation resources concept.[1] The stations are usually intended to power hydrogen vehicles, but can also be used to power small devices.[2] Vehicles use hydrogen as fuel in one of several ways, including fuel cells and mixed fuels like HCNG. The hydrogen fuel dispensers[3] dispense hydrogen gas by the kilogram.[4]

Hydrogen filling stations

Hydrogen Filling Stations global map is available.[5]


Japan had a number of hydrogen filling stations under the JHFC project from 2002 to 2010 to test various technologies of hydrogen generation.[6] At the end of 2012 there were 17 hydrogen stations, 19 new stations are expected to be installed by 2015.,[7] the Government expects to add up to 100 hydrogen stations under a budget of 460 million dollars covering 50% of the installation costs with the last ones operational in 2015.[8][9] JX Energy expects to install 40 stations by 2015.[10] and another 60 in the period 2016-2018[11] Toho Gas and Iwatani Corp[12] expect to install an additional 20 stations.[13] Toyota Tsusho and Air Liquide made a joint venture to build 2 hydrogen stations to be ready by 2015.[14] Osaka Gas planned 2 stations for 2014-2015.[15] A "task force" led by Yuriko Koike, Japan's former environment minister, and supported by the country's Liberal Democratic Party was set up to guide the process.[16]
As of 2018, approximately 18,000 FCEV were produced in Korea (domestic demand: 9,000 vehicles), which means that more hydrogen recharging stations are required across the country. In response to the rising demand for FCEV, the Korean government has established plans to increase the number of hydrogen recharging stations to 310 by 2022.[17] According to the Ministry of Environment, there are 14 stations at the moment with 10 more coming by the end of 2018.


As of 2016, there are more than 25 stations in Europe capable of filling 4-5 cars per day.[18]

There were 2 public stations in the hydrogen link network in 2014. Four more are expected to open in 2015. H2 Logic, a part of Nel ASA, is building a factory in Herning to manufacture 300 stations per year, each capable of dispensing 200 kg of hydrogen per day, and 100 kg in 3 hours.[18]
There were 2+1 (Voikoski, Vuosaari) stations in 2016, one movable.[19] All three stations are no longer in Finland. The stations could fill into car 5kg in three minutes, based in international standard SAE J2061 and refuelling pressures are 350 bar and 700 bar. Europes second largest Electrolysis (Electrolysis of water, Capacity 1 400 000 kg/a high purity hydrogen) hydrogen production plant is operating at Kokkola, Finland.[20]
As of September 2013, there are 15 publicly available hydrogen fuel station in operation.[21] Most but not all of these stations are operated by partners of the Clean Energy Partnership.[22] The stations nationwide are expanded to 50 by 2015 under a letter of intent[23][24] through its public private partnership Now GMBH.[25] program NIP[26] with a subsidy of 20 Million Euro.[27] This was accomplished in 2018. The H2 Mobility GmbH & Co. KG wants to raise that number to 100 stations from 2015 to 2019 and to 400 stations as the numbers of hydrogen cars expand at a cost of €350 million Euro.[28]
Iceland opened the first commercial hydrogen station in 2003 as part of the country's initiative to implement a hydrogen economy.[29]
As of 2015 it was opened the first commercial hydrogen station[30] in 2015 in Bolzano
The Netherlands had its first public refueling stationed opened on September 3rd 2014 in Rhoon near Rotterdam. The station uses hydrogen from the pipeline from Rotterdam to Belgium. 2 private stations in Amsterdam and Arnhem are going public before 2017, Helmond is not open for public access.[31]
Norway's first Hynor hydrogen fueling station was opened in February 2007.[32] which is part of the Scandinavian hydrogen highway partnership.[33] June 2008 - The Handbook for approval of hydrogen refuelling stations (HyApproval) project, FP6 N° 019813 developed a universal handbook to facilitate the approval process of Hydrogen Refuelling Stations (HRS) in Europe.[34] Uno-X in partnership with NEL ASA plans to build 20 stations before 2020, including a station with on-site hydrogen production from excess solar energy, the first of its kind.[18]
UNIDO launched in May 2010 on behalf of the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies, a call for tender related to the supply and installation by the end of 2011 of a hydrogen production, storage and filling facility on the Golden Horn, in Istanbul. This station will be used for the refueling of a hydrogen fuel cell driven passenger boat as well as for that of a hydrogen internal combustion bus.[35]
In 2011 the first public station in Swindon opened.[36] In 2014 HyTec opened the London Hatton Cross station.[37] On 11th March 2015 the London Hydrogen Network Expansion project opened the first supermarket located hydrogen refuelling station at Sainsbury's Hendon.[38] Aberdeen opened its first hydrogen station in 2015, in Kittybrewster, for buses and council vehicles. In 2018 this opened to the public and in 2017 a second station was opened in the suburb of Cove Bay. Bedfordshire and Stratford are going public before 2016.[39] The HyFive project has 3 stations planned for London in 2015.[40] On 9 October 2014 the Government announced funding of £11 million to have 15 public hydrogen refuelling stations at the end of 2015.[41] In September 2015, Shell and ITM Power announced a strategic siting partnership for the placement of an initial three ITM hydrogen refuellers on Shell forecourts in London and the South East of the UK.[42]

North America

Five stations have been built in British Columbia since 2005, one each in Whistler, at the University of British Columbia, in Burnaby, and two that were later moved to Surrey. There are no official plans to build any more fuelling stations In Canada as the project ended in March 2011.[43] In 2018, Shell Canada launched an initiative to build more hydrogen fueling stations starting with the first in Vancouver. They currently plan on building at least two more within the city.[44]

Hydrogen highway

A hydrogen highway is a chain of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other infrastructure along a road or highway. Italy and Germany are collaborating to build a hydrogen highway between Mantua in northern Italy and Munich in southern Germany. Italy completed building a hydrogen filling station in Mantua on 21 September 2007.

Different types of hydrogen stations

Hydrogen recharging stations can be divided into off-site stations and on-site stations depending on how they supply hydrogen to vehicles (whether they produce their own hydrogen or not). Hydrogen recharging stations that have been built across Korea at the moment are mostly off-site (tube trailer-type) stations. Moving forward, however, stations for large capacity hydrogen buses are expected to be on-site stations.

Sort Method
Off-site hydrogen recharging station

(Hydrogen supplied from an external source)

Hydrogen supplied from an external source

Hydrogen produced from a plant is supplied via pipelines, tube trailers, etc.

On-site hydrogen recharging station

(Hydrogen produced directly at the station)

Hydrogen produced by extracting (reforming) natural gas, electrolysis, etc. at the recharging station

Maximum number of vehicles a hydrogen recharging station can recharge per day

At the moment, hydrogen recharging stations built by Hyundai Motor Group can recharge up to 70 Hyundai Nexo[61] vehicles per day (14-hour business day).[62] (Recharge 5 kg/vehicle) However, hydrogen recharging stations without high-pressure (900bar) storage tanks may require some additional downtime to repressurize the hydrogen in its recharging system using the compressors if they service too many vehicles in a day. Hydrogen recharging stations moving forward will feature more robust equipment (minimum 1,200 kg/day for a 24-hour business day) to make sure they can serve a greater number of FCEV.

Safety and supply

Hydrogen fuel is hazardous because of the low ignition energy and high combustion energy of hydrogen, and because it tends to leak easily from tanks.[63] Explosions at hydrogen filling stations have been reported.[64] Hydrogen fuelling stations generally receive deliveries of hydrogen by truck from hydrogen suppliers. An interruption at a hydrogen supply facility can shut down multiple hydrogen fuelling stations.[65]


Since the turn of the millennium, filling stations offering hydrogen have been opening worldwide. However, this does not begin to replace the existing extensive gasoline fuel station infrastructure, which in the US alone numbered 168,000 retail outlets [66] in 2004, with revenues for 2014 of US$536 billion.[67] According to Joseph Romm in 2004[68] replacing these would cost a half trillion U.S. dollars. The cost of the necessary European-wide hydrogen fuelling infrastructure could be five times lower than the cost of the charging network required for battery and plug-in hybrid vehicles.[69] When viewed as cost per station, EV stations are cheaper than the $3 million per hydrogen station.[70] The reason that hydrogen infrastructure is less expensive than electric, even though individual station cost is much more, is quicker vehicle fueling and longer refueling intervals, thus needing far fewer hydrogen stations per million fuel cell cars than charging stations per million battery electric cars.[71]

Hydrogen home stations

Hydrogen home stations come in different types.

  • A more complete home station would combine the solar home system on the inlet with natural gas and a reformer[76] and from the storage tank to a fuel cell microCHP system to produce heat and electricity for the house and the excess electricity to the grid to become part as a distributed generation resource.
  • Integrated systems that convert solar energy photoelectrochemically are more efficient than splitting water.[77]
  • January 2007 - Australia's [CSIRO] has developed a hydrogen homestation based on electricity from standard rooftop solar panels or a home wind turbine with an electrolyzer including compression and storage ready for use, the size of a filing cabinet, the expected market price would be $500 according to Sukhvinder Badwal. Extensive testing of the system will be going on for the next 2 years at RMIT University in Melbourne.[78][79]
  • Honda's Home Energy Station IV is in testing phase.
  • Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies HydroFILL is a hydrogen station intended to power small devices.[80]
  • The fuel cell charger is another hydrogen station to power mobile appliances
  • ITM Power Green-box is a personal hydrogen station intended for the fueling of vehicles[81]
  • The Acta EL100 home generator is another hydrogen generator that can be used to build a hydrogen station.
  • Daniel Nocera is also working on a personal hydrogen station[82]
  • Nico Hotz is also working on a personal hydrogen station; bio methanol is used to improve the efficiency of the solar panels.[83]
  • The Hopewell Project an oversized pilot homestation by Michael Strizki.[84]
  • The Chewonki Renewable Hydrogen Project opened on August 28, 2006 in Wiscasset, Maine.
  • The Stuart Island Energy Initiative.[85]
  • The homefueler and HyStat-A Energy Station[86]
  • The European network with live status www.h2.live

See also


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