Hybrid electric bus
A hybrid electric bus combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. These type of buses normally use a Diesel-electric powertrain and are also known as hybrid Diesel-electric buses.
Types of hybrid vehicle drivetrain
A plug-in hybrid school bus effort began in 2003 in Raleigh, NC when Advanced Energy began working between districts across the country and manufacturers to understand the needs of both. The effort demonstrated both a technical and business feasibility and as a result was able to secure funding in 2005 from NASEO to purchase up to 20 buses. The resulting RFP from Advanced Energy was won by IC Bus using a product jointly produced with Enova for a 22-mile plug-in hybrid product with a $140k premium over existing buses. The buses performed well in testing with 70% reductions in fuel usage although only in specific conditions.
The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) announced the selection of Navistar Corporation for a cost-shared award of up to $10 million to develop, test, and deploy plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) school buses. The project aims to deploy 60 vehicles for a three-year period in school bus fleets across the nation. The vehicles will be capable of running in either electric-only or hybrid modes and will be recharged from a standard electrical outlet. Because electricity will be their primary fuel, they will consume less petroleum than standard vehicles. To develop the PHEV school bus, Navistar will examine a range of hybrid architectures and evaluate advanced energy storage devices, with the goal of developing a vehicle with a 40-mile (64 km) electric range. Travel beyond the 40-mile (64 km) range will be facilitated by a clean Diesel engine capable of running on renewable fuels. The DOE funding will cover up to half of the project's cost and will be provided over three years, subject to annual appropriations.
Air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions
A report prepared by Purdue University suggests introducing more hybrid Diesel-electric buses and a fuel containing 20% biodiesel (BD20) would further reduce greenhouse emissions and petroleum consumption.
Current manufacturers of Diesel-electric hybrid buses include Alexander Dennis, Azure Dynamics Corporation, Ebus, Eletra (Brazil), New Flyer Industries, Tata (India), Gillig, Motor Coach Industries, Orion Bus Industries, North American Bus Industries, Daimler AG's Mitsubishi Fuso, MAN, Designline, BAE Systems, Volvo Buses, Wrightbus, Castrosua, Tata Hispano and many more.
In the United Kingdom, Wrightbus has introduced a development of the London "Double-Decker", a new interpretation of the traditional red buses that are a feature of the extreme traffic density in London. The Wright Pulsar Gemini HEV bus uses a small Diesel engine with electric storage through a lithium ion battery pack. The use of a 1.9-litre Diesel instead of the typical 7.0-litre engine in a traditional bus demonstrates the possible advantages of serial hybrids in extremely traffic-dense environments. Based on a London test cycle, a reduction in CO2 emissions of 31% and fuel savings in the range of 40% have been demonstrated, compared with an "Euro-4" compliant bus.
Also in 2005 General Electric introduced its hybrid electric gear shifters on the market. Toyota claims to have started with the Coaster Hybrid Bus in 1997 on the Japanese market. In May 2003 General Motors started to tour with hybrid electric buses developed together with Allison. Several hundreds of those buses have entered into daily operation in the U.S. The Blue Ribbon City Hybrid bus was presented by Hino, a Toyota affiliate, in January 2005. Mitsubishi Fuso have developed a Diesel engine hybrid bus using lithium batteries in 2002, and this model has since seen limited service in several Japanese cities.
Since 1999, Hybrid electric buses with gas turbine generators have been developed by several manufacturers in the US and New Zealand, with the most successful design being the buses made by Designline of New Zealand. The first model went into commercial service in Christchurch since 1999, and later models were sold for daily service in Auckland, Hong Kong, Newcastle upon Tyne and Tokyo.
The Whispering Wheel bus is another HEV.
List of former hybrid bus manufacturers: ISE Corporations Thundervolt (filed for bankruptcy in 2010) Azure Dynamics (filed for bankruptcy in 2012)
List of transit authorities using hybrid electric buses
Federal funding generally comes from the federal Diesel Emissions Reduction Act.
- ABQ RIDE (Albuquerque, New Mexico)
- Ann Arbor Area Transportation Authority (AAATA) (Ann Arbor, Michigan)
- Autoridad Metropolitana de Autobuses (San Juan, Puerto Rico)
- Baltimore, Maryland
- Bee-Line Bus System (Westchester County, New York)
- Berks Area Reading Transportation Authority (Berks County, Pennsylvania)
- Bloomington Transit (Bloomington, Indiana)
- Broome County Transit (Broome County, New York)
- Broward County Transit (Broward County, Florida)
- Capital Area Transportation Authority (Lansing, Michigan)
- Capital District Transportation Authority (Albany, New York)
- Central New York Regional Transportation Authority (Syracuse, New York)
- Charlotte Area Transit System (Charlotte, North Carolina)
- Chatham Area Transit (Savannah, Georgia)
- Chicago Transit Authority
- Citibus (Lubbock, Texas).
- Central Ohio Transit Authority (Columbus, Ohio)
- Clarksville Transit System (CTS) (Clarksville, Tennessee)
- Community Transit (Snohomish County, Washington)
- C-Tran (Vancouver, Washington)
- Citilink (Fort Wayne, Indiana)
- CVTD Cache Valley Transit District (Logan, Utah)
- DART First State (Delaware)
- Durham Area Transit Authority (Durham, North Carolina)
- Eureka Transit Service (Eureka, California)
- GoRaleigh (formerly Capital Area Transit) (Raleigh, North Carolina)
- Greater Lafayette Public Transportation Corporation (Lafayette, IN)
- Greater Lynchburg Transit Company (Lynchburg, VA)
- Greenville Area Transit (Greenville, North Carolina)
- Hillsborough Area Regional Transit (Hillsborough County, Florida)
- Howard Transit, (Howard County, Maryland)
- Jacksonville Transportation Authority
- Kanawha Valley Regional Transportation Authority
- Kansas City Area Transportation Authority
- King County Metro Transit Authority (Seattle, Washington)
- Lane Transit District (Lane County, Oregon)
- Long Beach Transit (Long Beach, California)
- LACMTA (Los Angeles, California)
- LANTA (Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania)
- Madison Metro Transit (Wisconsin)
- Manatee County Area Transit (Manatee County, Florida)
- Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (Boston, MA)
- MATA (Memphis, Tennessee)
- MATBUS - Metro Area Transit (Fargo, ND - Moorhead, MN)
- Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (Houston, Texas)
- Minneapolis-Saint Paul Metro Transit
- MTA Maryland (Baltimore, Maryland)
- Nashville Metropolitan Transit Authority
- New York City Transit Authority
- Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (Buffalo, New York)
- North County Transit District (North San Diego County, California)
- Orange County Transportation Authority (Orange County, California)
- Pioneer Valley Transit Authority (Springfield, Massachusetts)
- Port Authority of Allegheny County (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)
- Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada/Citizens Area Transit (Las Vegas, Nevada)
- Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (Providence, Rhode Island) 1 gas and 1 diesel for testing use only, diesel wqs converted gas was hybrid from factory
- Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (Aspen, Colorado)
- San Diego Metropolitan Transit System/San Diego Transit (San Diego, California)
- San Francisco MUNI (San Francisco, California)
- San Joaquin Regional Transit District (Stockton, California)
- Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority - VTA (Santa Clara County, California)
- Santa Rosa CityBus (Santa Rosa, California)
- Sarasota County Area Transit (Sarasota County, Florida)
- Sound Transit (Puget Sound region, Washington)
- Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
- Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority (Cincinnati, Ohio)
- Spokane Transit Authority (Spokane, Washington)
- TCAT (Ithaca, NY)
- TheBus (Honolulu, Hawaii)
- The Rapid The Interurban Transit Partnership Grand Rapids, Michigan *Has 5 vehicles used in fixed route service.
- TriMet (Portland, Oregon): two vehicles.
- University of Michigan Parking and Transportation Services (Ann Arbor, Michigan)
- Utah Transit Authority (Salt Lake City, Utah)
- Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
- Transit Windsor (Windsor, Ontario)
- Edmonton Transit System (Edmonton, Alberta)
- Hamilton Street Railway (Hamilton, Ontario)
- OC Transpo (Ottawa, Ontario)
- RTC (Quebec City, Quebec)
- RTL (Longueuil, Quebec)
- Saskatoon Transit, Saskatchewan
- STL (Laval, Quebec)
- STL (Lévis, Quebec)
- STM (Montreal, Quebec)
- STO (Gatineau, Quebec)
- STS (Sherbrooke, Quebec)
- St. Catharines Transit Commission (St. Catharines, Ontario)
- Toronto Transit Commission buses [693 out of 2031 buses are hybrid.]
- Coast Mountain Bus Company (Vancouver, British Columbia)
- BC Transit (Kelowna and Victoria).
- GRT (Waterloo, Ontario). [Currently 6 out of 218 buses in service are hybrid.]
- London Transit Commission (London, Ontario)
- Strathcona County Transit (Strathcona County, Alberta) [As of 2014, 10 Nova Bus LFS HEV diesel-electric hybrid buses remain in service]
- Halifax Transit, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Currently owns two hybrid-electric buses.
- Lethbridge Transit, Lethbridge, Alberta. 11 out of 42 buses are hybrid.
- Beijing Public Transport
- Kunming Bus
- Shenzhen Bus Group
- Shenzhen Eastern Bus
- Shenzhen Western Bus
- Jinan Bus
- Zhengzhou Bus Group
- Delhi Multi-Module Transit
- Mumbai BEST CNG-Hybrid
- Vehicle, Fuel and Environment Research Institute (VFERI)
- London Buses, London. This is the largest fleet in the UK, with around 2,300 vehicles in use.
- National Express West Midlands, Birmingham - 18 currently, 21 more planned
- Stagecoach, Manchester, Oxford, Sheffield, Newcastle
- Oxford Bus Company, Oxfordshire - 52 currently.
- FirstGroup, Bath, Somerset, Bristol, Manchester Metroshuttle, Leeds, Essex
- Reading Buses
- Lothian Buses
- Cumfybus, Merseyside
- Brighton & Hove
- Stagecoach East Scotland, Aberdeen
- Arriva Yorkshire from April 2013
Other European Countries
- Ljubljanski potniški promet (5 Kutsenits Hydra City II/III Hybrid's), Ljubljana, Slovenia
- Paris: RATP is using a hybrid electric bus outfitted with ultracapacitors; the model used is the MAN Lion's City Hybrid.
- Milan, Italy
- Team Trafikk, Trondheim, Norway, with 10 Volvo B5L
- Vienna, Austria
- PostAuto, Switzerland: one vehicle is being tested since April 2010; the test will continue for three years.
- Warsaw, Poland, 4 Solaris hybrid (combustion-electric) buses
- Luxemburg (Sales-Lentz, Emile Weber and AVL)
- Belgium / Flanders (De Lijn)
- Belgium / Wallonia (TEC) : 90 Volvo 7900H (plug-in hybrid) + 208 solaris (combustion-electric) ordered in 2016Q4
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