Hybrid bond graph

A hybrid bond graph is a graphical description of a physical dynamic system with discontinuities (i.e., a hybrid dynamical system). Similar to a regular bond graph, it is an energy-based technique. However, it allows instantaneous switching of the junction structure, which may violate the principle of continuity of power (Mosterman and Biswas, 1998).


  • Pieter Mosterman and Gautam Biswas, 1998: "A Theory of Discontinuities in Physical System Models" in Journal of the Franklin Institute, Volume 335B, Number 3, pp. 401-439, January, 1998.

Further reading

  • Pieter Mosterman, 2001: "HyBrSim - A Modeling and Simulation Environment for Hybrid Bond Graphs" in Journal of Systems and Control Engineering, vol. 216, Part I, pp. 35-46, 2002.
  • Cuijpers, P.J.L., Broenink, J.F., and Mosterman P.J., 2008: "Constitutive Hybrid Processes: a Process-Algebraic Semantics for Hybrid Bond Graphs" in SIMULATION, vol. 84, No. 7, pages 339-358, 2008.
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