House of Bourbon-Parma

The House of Bourbon-Parma (Italian: Casa di Borbone di Parma) is a cadet branch of the Spanish royal family, whose members once ruled as King of Etruria and as Duke of Parma and Piacenza, Guastalla, and Lucca. The House descended from the French Capetian dynasty in male line. Its name of Bourbon-Parma comes from the main name (Bourbon) and the other (Parma) from the title of Duke of Parma. The title was held by the Spanish Bourbons as the founder was the great-grandson of Duke Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma.

House of Bourbon-Parma
Parent houseHouse of Bourbon-Anjou
Country Italy
Founded18 October 1748
Current headPrince Carlos
Final rulerRobert I
Deposition9 June 1859

Duchy of Parma

The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered on the city of Parma. In 1556, the second Duke, Ottavio Farnese, was given the city of Piacenza, becoming thus also Duke of Piacenza, and so the state was thereafter properly known as the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza.

The Farnese family continued to rule until their extinction in 1731, at which point the duchy was inherited by the young son of the King of Spain, Charles, whose mother Elisabeth was a member of the Farnese family. He ruled until 1735 during the War of the Polish Succession, when Parma was ceded to Emperor Charles VI in exchange for the Two Sicilies.

Temporary Habsburg rule

The Habsburgs only ruled until the conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, when it was ceded back to the Bourbons in the person of Philip of Spain, Charles's younger brother. As duke Philip, he became the founder of the House of Bourbon-Parma.

In 1796, the duchy was occupied by French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte. In the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1801, duke Ferdinand formally agreed to cede the duchy to Napoleon. The territories were integrated into the Cisalpine Republic until 1802, the Italian Republic, from 1802 until 1805, and the Kingdom of Italy, from 1805 until 1808, until in 1808 the French Empire annexed them and formed out of them the Département of Taro.

In 1814, the duchies were restored under Napoleon's Habsburg wife, Marie Louise, who was to rule them for her lifetime. The duchy was renamed the duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.

Return to the Bourbons

After Marie Louise's death in 1847, the duchy was restored to the Bourbon-Parma line, which had been ruling the tiny duchy of Lucca. As part of the return the Duchy of Guastalla was transferred to the Duchy of Modena. The Bourbons ruled until 1859, when they were driven out by a revolution following the Sardinian victory in their war against Austria.

The duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla and the duchy of Lucca joined with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the duchy of Modena to form the United Provinces of Central Italy in December 1859, and were annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia in March 1860. The House of Bourbon continues to claim the title of duke of Parma to this day. Carlos-Hugo (Carlist pretender to the Spanish throne in the 1970s) held the title from 1977 to his death. His son now claims the title.

The Dukes

House of Bourbon-Parma (1731–1735)

Charles, Duke of Parma
20 January 1716
son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth of Parma
Maria Amalia of Saxony
13 children
14 December 1788
aged 72

House of Bourbon-Parma (1748–1802)

Philip, Duke of Parma
15 March 1720
son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth of Parma
Louise-Elisabeth de Bourbon
25 October 1739
3 children
18 July 1765
aged 45
Ferdinand, Duke of Parma
nominal since 1796
20 January 1751
son of Philip, Duke of Parma and Louise-Elisabeth de Bourbon
Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria
19 July 1769
7 children
9 October 1802
aged 51

During the French ownership of the Duchy of Parma, the title of Duke of Parma was used as an honorary form and style. From 1808, the title was used by Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès. He kept the style of Duc de Parme until 1814. Only in 1847 was the actual title restored to the Bourbons, after a period of being held by Marie Louise of Austria, who was a Habsburg and the second wife of Napoleon I.

House of Bourbon-Parma (1847–1859)

Charles II, Duke of Parma
22 December 1799
son of Louis of Etruria and Maria Louisa, Duchess of Lucca
Maria Teresa of Savoy
5 September 1820
2 children
16 April 1883
aged 84
Charles III, Duke of Parma
14 January 1823
son of Charles II, Duke of Parma and Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy
Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of France
10 November 1845
4 children
27 March 1854
aged 31
Robert I, Duke of Parma
9 July 1848
son of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Louise Marie Thérèse of Artois
Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
5 April 1869
12 children

Maria Antonia of Portugal
15 October 1884
12 children
16 November 1907
aged 59

Nominal Dukes of Parma (since 1859)

Robert, Duke of Parma
9 July 1848
son of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Louise Marie Thérèse of Artois
Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
5 April 1869
12 children

Maria Antonia of Portugal
15 October 1884
12 children
16 November 1907
aged 59
Henry, Duke of Parma
13 June 1873
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
never married16 November 1939
aged 66
Joseph, Duke of Parma
30 June 1875
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
never married7 January 1950
aged 75
Elias, Duke of Parma
23 July 1880
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
Maria Anna of Austria
25 May 1903
8 children
27 June 1959
aged 79
Robert II, Duke of Parma
7 August 1909
son of Elias, Duke of Parma and Maria Anna of Austria
never married25 November 1974
aged 65
Xavier, Duke of Parma
25 May 1889
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Antonia of Portugal
Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset
12 November 1927
6 children
7 May 1977
aged 87
Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma
8 April 1930
son of Xavier, Duke of Parma and Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset
Princess Irene of the Netherlands
29 April 1964
4 children
18 August 2010
aged 80
Carlos, Duke of Parma
since 2010
27 January 1970
son of Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma and Princess Irene of the Netherlands
Annemarie Gualthérie van Weezel
12 June 2010
Wijk bij Duurstede (civil)


    • Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Parma, Duke of Parma, born on (1970-01-27) 27 January 1970
      Princess Annemarie of Bourbon-Parma, Duchess of Parma, born on (1977-12-18) 18 December 1977
      • Mr. Hugo Klynstra de Bourbon de Parme (illegitimate), born on (1997-01-20) 20 January 1997
      • Princess Luisa of Bourbon-Parma, Marchioness of Castell'Arquato, born on (2012-05-09) 9 May 2012
      • Princess Cecilia of Bourbon-Parma, Countess of Barceto, born on (2013-10-17) 17 October 2013
      • Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Parma, Prince of Piacenza, born on (2016-04-24) 24 April 2016
    • Princess Margarita of Bourbon-Parma, Countess of Colorno, born on (1972-10-13) 13 October 1972
      Mr. Tjalling ten Cate, born on (1975-12-23) 23 December 1975
      • Miss Julia ten Cate, born on (2008-09-03) 3 September 2008
      • Miss Paola ten Cate, born on (2011-02-25) 25 February 2011
    • Prince Jaime of Bourbon-Parma, Count of Bardi, born on (1972-10-13) 13 October 1972
      Princess Viktória of Bourbon-Parma, Countess of Bardi, born on (1982-05-25) 25 May 1982
      • Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma, born on (2014-02-21) 21 February 2014
      • Princess Gloria of Bourbon-Parma, born on (2016-05-09) 9 May 2016
    • Princess Carolina of Bourbon-Parma, Marchioness of Sala, born on (1974-06-23) 23 June 1974
      Mr. Albert Brenninkmeijer, born on (1974-05-16) 16 May 1974
      • Miss Alaïa Maria Brenninkmeijer, born on (2014-05-20) 20 May 2014
      • Mr. Xavier Brenninkmeijer, born on (2015-12-16) 16 December 2015
  • Princess Marie Françoise of Bourbon-Parma, Dowager Princess of Lobkowicz, born on (1928-08-19) 19 August 1928
    • Prince Charles Henri of Lobkowicz, born on (1964-05-17) 17 May 1964
    • Princess Marie Gabrielle of Lobkowicz, born on (1967-06-11) 11 June 1967
  • Princess Maria Teresa of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1933-07-28) 28 July 1933
  • Princess Cecilia Maria of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1935-04-12) 12 April 1935
  • Princess Marie des Neiges of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1937-04-29) 29 April 1937
  • Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma, born on (1940-07-22) 22 July 1940

Line of succession


See also


  1. "PARMA". An Online Gotha. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  2. "LUXEMBOURG". An Online Gotha. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
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