Horlivka (UK: // HOR-lew-kə, US: // HOR-lif-kə; Ukrainian: Го́рлівка [ˈɦɔrl⁽ʲ⁾iu̯kɐ]), also known by its Russian name Gorlovka or Gorlowka (Russian: Горловка [ˈɡorləfkə]), is a city of regional significance in the Donetsk Oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine. In 2001, the city's population was 292,000, which declined to 256,714 by 2013. Economic activity is predominantly coal mining and the chemical industry. The Horlivka State Pedagogical Institute of Foreign Languages has a two building campus in the city centre.
Horlivka Palace of Culture
Coat of arms
Location of Horlivka
|Coordinates: 48°18′N 38°3′E|
|• Mayor||Yevhen Klep|
|• Total||422 km2 (163 sq mi)|
|• Density||686.9/km2 (1,779/sq mi)|
Since April 2019, the Ukrainian commander has declared that Horlivka has been controlled by the Ukrainian army.
In 1779 the city was founded as Gosudarev Posad (meaning posad of Gosudar of Russia) and in 1869 it was renamed after Pyotr Gorlov as Gorlovka (locally Horlivka). The workers' town provided basic services to and organization of a series of mining camps.
During the Russian Revolution of 1905, it was the scene of an armed uprising.
In April 1918 troops loyal to the Ukrainian People's Republic took control of Horlivka.
Subsequently, under Soviet control, by the 1930s it had expanded considerably and become a major center for mining operations in the Ukrainian SSR.
The city was occupied by German troops from 1941-1943. During World War II retreating Nazis burned buildings and perpetrated mass shootings. Nonetheless, the city's population had risen to over 400,000 by the end of the war.
In recent years many mines have closed. The population fell by more than ten percent during the 1990s.
2014 pro-Russian separatism
In the middle of April, 2014, and shortly thereafter, pro-Russian separatists captured several towns in Donetsk Oblast. A group of separatists seized the police station in Horlivka on April 14; the city hall was seized on April 30. The mayor of the city, Yevhen Klep, was detained by the separatists on June 11, and not released until July 18. Local chief of police Andriy Kryschenko was captured and badly beaten by the insurgents. A Horlivka city council deputy, Volodymyr Rybak, was kidnapped by the pro-Russian militants on 17 April. His body was later found in a river on 22 April. The city administration building was seized on 30 April, solidifying separatist control over Horlivka. Self-proclaimed mayor of Horlivka Volodymyr Kolosniuk was arrested by the SBU on suspicion of participation in "terrorist activities" on 2 July.
On July 21 and 22, 2014, the city saw heavy fighting. The Ukrainian army reportedly retook parts of Horlivka on July 21. After the Ukrainian army had retaken Lysychansk on July 25, 2014, the recapture of Horlivka became a priority, for the city was seen as "a direct path to the regional center - Donetsk". As of 28 July, the city was reported to be fully surrounded by Ukrainian troops, with rebels holding their positions inside. However, Horlivka continued to be controlled by separatist forces. As of June 2015 it was situated 10 kilometers from the war front. Suburbs of Horlivka stayed under Ukrainian army control. In November 2017 they regained control of the villages of Travneve and Hladosove north of Horlivka.
As reported by the city administration, from the beginning of the conflict till late January 2015 274 local civilians were wounded and 92 killed, including 9 children. Because of the conflict the city's population shrank to 180,000.
In late March 2019, according to Ukrainian media reports, Ukrainian army mine clearance specialist Andriy Shor, who participated in both battles for the Donetsk Airport and the Battle of Pisky, announced on Facebook that the Ukrainian army had recently taken control of Horlivka city. Unian reported that Ukrainian forces have secured the outskirts of the city and are slowly advancing further towards the center of Horlivka, citing Ukrainian volunteer Yuriy Mysiahin. In May the separatists tried to push the Ukrainian forces back, but failed.
Ethnic composition as of the Ukrainian Census of 2001:
First language as of the Ukrainian Census of 2001:
Infrastructure and environment
Despite the fall of communism a statue of Lenin still stands in a central square bearing his name. Horlivka is well served by CNG-buses (see Natural gas vehicle), but much of the city's Soviet-era infrastructure shows signs of deterioration. By contrast, a number of modern shops and a new cathedral (completed 2014) in the town center indicate some rejuvenation.
On the eastern side of Horlivka there is an abandoned chemical plant which used to produce toxic explosives and has been reported to be in a dangerous condition. Mining activity has resulted in large spoil tips being visible around the city, but a tree-planting project and ongoing forestry maintenance has revitalised an area to the north.
The city was severely damaged during the War in Donbass.
The city is divided into three city districts: Mykytivka, Kalinin, and City Center.
The city municipality also includes several towns and villages. Most of populated places belongs to the City Center district, while Hladosove, Holmivsky and Zaitseve is part of Mykytivka district.
- towns: Holmivsky, Zaitseve, Panteleymonivka
- villages: Mykhailivka, Ryasne
- hamlets: Hladosove, Ozeryanivka, Piatykhatky, Stavky, Fedorivka, Shyroka Balka
Notable people from Horlivka
- Sergei Baranov, Russian volleyball player
- Yuriy Boyko, Ukrainian politician
- Valeriy Horbunov, Ukrainian and Soviet football player
- Nikolai Kapustin, Russian composer and pianist
- Ihor Petrov, Ukrainian professional football coach and a former player
- Aleksandr Ponomarev, Soviet Ukrainian football player and manager
- Ruslan Ponomariov, Ukrainian chess player
- Serhiy Rebrov, Ukrainian footballer
- Oleksandr Savanchuk, Ukrainian football striker
- Arkady Shevchenko, Soviet defector
- Mykyta Shevchenko, Ukrainian football goalkeeper
- Tatiana Shmailyuk, vocalist of Ukrainian metal band Jinjer
- Evgeny Ukhanov, Ukrainian-Australian pianist
- Alexander Volkov, Soviet-Russian cosmonaut
The Museum of the City History, the Art Museum (the largest collection of paintings by N. Roerich in Ukraine), the Miniature Book Museum by V.A. Razumov (the only state in the world). 62 out of 84 comprehensive schools (29,700 students, 7,000 teachers), 55 kindergartens (5,700 children), 19 out of 25 houses of culture and clubs, 7 parks, 29 libraries, 7 cinemas.
Horlivka is twinned with:
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OSCE monitors report Travneve in Donbas cut off power grids since Nov 16, UNIAN (27 November 2017)
Photos: Ukrainian army distributing aid in Hladosove and Travneve villages north to Horlivka, liveuamap.com (25 November 2017)
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