Horizontal transmission

Horizontal transmission is the transmission of organisms between biotic and/or abiotic members of an ecosystem that are not in a parent-progeny relationship. This concept has been generalized to include transmissions of infectious agents, symbionts, and cultural traits between humans.

Because the evolutionary fate of the agent is not tied to reproductive success of the host, horizontal transmission tends to evolve virulence. It is therefore a critical concept for evolutionary medicine.[1]

See also


  1. Myers JH, Rothman LE (May 1995). "Virulence and transmission of infectious diseases in humans and insects: evolutionary and demographic patterns" (PDF). Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 10 (5): 194–8. doi:10.1016/s0169-5347(00)89051-5. PMID 21237001.
  2. Bright M, Bulgheresi S (March 2010). "A complex journey: transmission of microbial symbionts". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 8 (3): 218–30. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2262. PMC 2967712. PMID 20157340.
  3. Klose J, Polz MF, Wagner M, Schimak MP, Gollner S, Bright M (September 2015). "Endosymbionts escape dead hydrothermal vent tubeworms to enrich the free-living population". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (36): 11300–5. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11211300K. doi:10.1073/pnas.1501160112. PMC 4568656. PMID 26283348.
  4. Nussbaumer AD, Fisher CR, Bright M (May 2006). "Horizontal endosymbiont transmission in hydrothermal vent tubeworms". Nature. 441 (7091): 345–8. Bibcode:2006Natur.441..345N. doi:10.1038/nature04793. PMID 16710420.
  5. Chrostek E, Pelz-Stelinski K, Hurst GD, Hughes GL (2017). "Horizontal Transmission of Intracellular Insect Symbionts via Plants". Frontiers in Microbiology. 8: 2237. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.02237. PMC 5712413. PMID 29234308.
  6. Gage DJ (June 2004). "Infection and invasion of roots by symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia during nodulation of temperate legumes". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 68 (2): 280–300. doi:10.1128/MMBR.68.2.280-300.2004. PMC 419923. PMID 15187185.
  7. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Feldman M (1981). Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-08283-7.
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