Hoover Institution

The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California. It began as a library founded in 1919 by Stanford alumnus Herbert Hoover, before he became President of the United States. The library, known as the Hoover Institution Library and Archives, houses multiple archives related to Hoover, World War I, World War II, and other world history. According to the 2016 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), Hoover is No.18 (of 90) in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States".[2]

Hoover Institution
on War, Revolution, and Peace
MottoIdeas defining a free society
Formation1919 (1919)
FounderHerbert Hoover
TypePublic policy think tank
Thomas W. Gilligan
Revenue (2018)
$70.5 million[1]
Expenses (2018)$70.5 million[1]

The Hoover Institution is a unit of Stanford University[3] but has its own board of overseers.[4] It is located on the campus. Its mission statement outlines its basic tenets: representative government, private enterprise, peace, personal freedom, and the safeguards of the American system.[5] The institution is generally described as conservative,[6][7][8] although directors and others associated with it assert that the institution is nonpartisan, as its primary goal is to "promote economic opportunity and prosperity, while securing and safeguarding peace for America and all mankind."[9]

The institution has been a place of scholarship for individuals who previously held high-profile positions in government, such as George Shultz, Condoleezza Rice, Michael Boskin, Edward Lazear, John B. Taylor, Edwin Meese, and Amy Zegart—all Hoover Institution fellows. In 2007, retired U.S. Army General John P. Abizaid, former commander of the U.S. Central Command, was named the Institution's first annual Annenberg Distinguished Visiting Fellow.[10] Former Secretary of Defense General James Mattis served as a research fellow at Hoover before being appointed by the Trump administration.[11]

The institution is housed in four buildings on the Stanford campus. The most prominent facility is the landmark Hoover Tower, which is a popular visitor attraction. The tower features an observation deck on the top level that provides visitors with a panoramic view of the Stanford campus and surrounding area. Additionally, the institution has a branch office in the Johnson Center in Washington, DC.


The Institution was set up by Hoover, a wealthy engineer who was one of Stanford's first graduates. In 1928 he was elected President of the United States. He had been in charge of major relief efforts in Europe in 1914-1917 in Belgium and again after the world war in central and eastern Europe, especially Russia. Hoover's plan was to collect and permanently preserve the documents of major events for open research. Hoover's search team obtained rare printed and unpublished material. They included the papers of activists on the far left and far right, including the files of the Okhrana (the Tsarist secret police).[12] In 1960, W. Glenn Campbell became director. He specialized in fund raising, setting up research operations and building collections regarding China and the Soviet Union. Relations improved with the host university.[13]

In 1919, Hoover donated $50,000 to Stanford University to support the collection of primary materials related to World War I, a project that became known as the Hoover War Collection. Supported primarily by gifts from private donors, the Hoover War Collection flourished in its early years. In 1922, the Collection became known as the Hoover War Library. The Hoover War Library was housed in the Stanford Library, separate from the general stacks. By 1926, the Hoover War Library was known as the largest library in the world devoted to the Great War. By 1929, it contained 1.4 million items and was becoming too large to house in the Stanford Library. In 1938, the War Library revealed building plans for Hoover Tower, which was to be its permanent home independent of the Stanford Library system. The 285-foot tall[14] tower was completed in 1941, Stanford University's fiftieth anniversary.[15] Since then, the tower has been a key landmark for campus.[16] On its 14th floor, the tower has an observation deck which holds a carillon of 48 bells that were donated to former president Hoover in 1940.[17]

By 1946, the agenda of the Hoover War Library had expanded to include research activities; thus the organization was renamed the Hoover Institution and Library on War, Revolution and Peace. At this time, Herbert Hoover was living in New York City but remained integrally involved in the Hoover Institution and Library as a benefactor, fundraiser, and consultant.

In 1956 former President Hoover, under the auspices of the Institution and Library, launched a major fundraising campaign that allowed the Institution to realize its current form as a think tank and archive. In 1957, the Hoover Institution and Library was renamed the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace—the name it holds today.[18]

In 1960, W. Glenn Campbell was appointed director and substantial budget increases soon led to corresponding increases in acquisitions and related research projects. In particular, the Chinese and Russian collections grew considerably. Despite student unrest in the 1960s, the institution continued to thrive and develop closer relations with Stanford.[19]

In 1975 Ronald Reagan, who was Governor of California at that time, was designated as Hoovers first honorary fellow. He donated his governor papers to the Hoover library.[20] During that time the Hoover Institution held a general budget of $3.5 million a year. In 1976, one third of Stanford University's book holdings were housed at the Hoover library. At that time, it was the largest private archive collection in the United States.[16]

Until 1979, Hoover's annual budget was about $5.7 million, of which about forty percent was used to fund research (more than four times as much as twenty years ago).[16] For his presidential campaign in 1980, Reagan engaged at least thirteen Hoover scholars to support the campaign in multiple capacities.[21] After Reagan won the election campaign, more than thirty current or former Hoover Institution fellows worked for the Reagan administration in 1981.[16]

In 1989, Campbell resigned as director of Hoover. He was replaced by John Raisian. This change of personnel was seen as the end of an era.[22]

John Raisian served as director from 1989 to 2015. Thomas W. Gilligan succeeded him in 2015.

In August 2017 the David and Joan Traitel Building was inaugurated. The ground floor is a large conference center with a 400-seat auditorium and the top floor houses the Hoover Institution's headquarters.[23] The auditorium is now a symbolic bridge between Hoover and Stanford Campus. In the future, Traitel will be joined by the George Shultz Building.[14]

In 2019 the Hoover Institution celebrates its centenary. Hoover has 65 Senior Fellows, 45 Research Fellows, 26 Senior Guest Fellows, 6 National Fellows and 8 National Security Fellows. They are an interdisciplinary group of humanists, political scientists studying education, economics, foreign policy, energy, history, law, national security, health and politics.[14]

The Institution is famous for its library and archives. The libraries extensive holdings include materials from both the First World War and Second World War, including the collection of documents of President Hoover, which he began to collect at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.[24] Thousands of Persian books, official documents, letters, multimedia pieces and other materials on Iran's history, politics and culture can also be found at the Stanford University library and the Hoover Institution library.[25]


In May 2018 the website of the Hoover Institution listed 198 fellows.

Below is a list of directors and some of the more prominent fellows, former and current.


  • Ephraim D. Adams, 1920–25
  • Ralph H. Lutz, 1925–44
  • Harold H. Fisher, 1944–52
  • C. Easton Rothwell, 1952–59[26]
  • W. Glenn Campbell, 1960–89[27]
  • John Raisian, 1989–2015
  • Thomas W. Gilligan, 2015–present

Honorary Fellows

Distinguished Fellows

Senior Fellows

Research Fellows

Distinguished Visiting Fellows

Visiting Fellows

Media Fellows

National Fellows

Senior Research Fellows


The Hoover Institution's in-house publisher, Hoover Institution Press, produces multiple publications on public policy topics, including the quarterly periodicals Hoover Digest, Education Next, China Leadership Monitor, and Defining Ideas. The Hoover Institution Press previously published the bimonthly periodical Policy Review, which it acquired from The Heritage Foundation in 2001.[43] Policy Review ceased publication with its February–March 2013 issue.

In addition to these periodicals, the Hoover Institution Press publishes books and essays by Hoover Institution fellows and other Hoover-affiliated scholars.


The Hoover Institution receives nearly half of its funding from private gifts, primarily from individual contributions, and the other half from its endowment.[44]

Funders of the organization include the Taube Family Foundation, the Koret Foundation, the Howard Charitable Foundation, the Sarah Scaife Foundation, the Walton Foundation, the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, and the William E. Simon Foundation.[45]


Funding sources and expenditures, FY 2018:[46]

See also


  1. "Financial Review 2018" (PDF). Hoover Institution. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  2. James G. McGann (Director) (January 26, 2017). "2016 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report". Retrieved March 20, 2017.
  3. "Stanford Legal Facts". Office of the General Counsel. Stanford University. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  4. "Board of Overseers". Hoover Institution. Stanford University. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  5. "Hoover Institution – Mission Statement". hoover.org.
  6. "Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace". Encyclopaedica Britannica. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
  7. McBride, Stewart (May 28, 1975). "Hoover Institution: Leaning to the right". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
  8. Nau, Henry R. (2013). Conservative Internationalism: Armed Diplomacy under Jefferson, Polk, Truman and Reagan. Princeton University Press. p. xi. ISBN 978-0-691-15931-7.
  9. "Business Dean Seizes Rare Opportunity to Lead Hoover Institution, and Other News About People". Chronicle of Higher Education. March 23, 2015. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
  10. "Former U.S. Central Command Chief General John Abizaid Appointed Hoover Distinguished Visiting Fellow".
  11. "General Jim Mattis Biography, Hoover Institution". Hoover Administration. June 14, 2017. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  12. Duignan, Peter (2001). "The Library of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace. Part 1: Origin and Growth". Library History. 17: 3–20. doi:10.1179/lib.2001.17.1.3.
  13. Peter Duignan, "The Library of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace Part II. The Campbell Years." Library History 17.2 (2001): 107-118.
  14. "Make A Gift". myScience. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  15. "Hoover Institution Library and Archives: Historical Background". hoover.org.
  16. Bonafont, Roxy (11 May 2019). "100 Years of Hoover: A History of Stanford's Decades-Long Debate over the Hoover Institution". Stanford Political Journal. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  17. Niekerken, Bill van (4 April 2017). "Stanford's secrets: Decades of surprises stashed in Hoover Tower". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  18. "Hoover Institution – Hoover Institution Timeline". hoover.org.
  19. Duignan, Peter (2001). The Library of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace. Part 2: The Campbell Years. Library History. doi:10.1179/lib.2001.17.2.107.
  20. McBride, Stewart (27 March 1980). "Hoover Institution; Leaning to the right". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  21. Fitzgerald, Patrick (1 February 2008). "At Stanford, Hoover Debate Still Rages". CBS News. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  22. "The Man Behind the Institution". Stanford Magazine. April 2002. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  23. "Stanford University, Hoover Institute, David and Joan Traitel Building". Degenkolb. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  24. Niekerken, Bill van (4 April 2017). "Stanford's secrets: Decades of surprises stashed in Hoover Tower". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  25. "Spotlight On Iran". Radio Farda. 11 May 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  26. "Yacht club to host celebration of Virginia Rothwell". Stanford Report. September 1, 2004. Retrieved March 25, 2008.
  27. Trei, Lisa (November 28, 2001). "Glenn Campbell, former Hoover director, dead at 77". Stanford Report. Retrieved March 25, 2008.
  28. "Honorary Fellow". Hoover Institution Stanford University. 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
  29. "Distinguished Fellow". Hoover Institution Stanford University. 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
  30. "Senior Fellows". Hoover Institution Stanford University. 2011. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
  31. "David Brady".
  32. "Research Fellows".
  33. "Distinguished Visiting Fellows". Hoover Institution Stanford University. 2014. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
  34. "William and Barbara Edwards Media Fellows". Hoover Institution Stanford University. 2010. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
  35. "William and Barbara Edwards Media Fellows by year". hoover.org.
  36. "William and Barbara Edwards Media Fellows by year". hoover.org.
  37. "VITA Mark Bils" (PDF). University of Rochester. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  38. "Stephen Kotkin". Hoover Institution. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
  39. Hoover Institution https://www.hoover.org/profiles/john-h-bunzel. Retrieved November 25, 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  40. "Robert Hessen". Hoover Institution. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
  41. "Charles Wolf Jr". Hoover Institution. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
  42. "Edward Teller". Hoover Institution. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  43. "Policy Review Web Archive".
  44. "Hoover Institution 2010 Report". Hoover Institution. p. 39. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
  45. Ade Adeniji (April 21, 2015). "How the Hoover Institution Vacuums Up Big Conservative Bucks". Inside Philanthropy.
  46. "Financial Review 2018" (PDF). Hoover Institution. Retrieved 14 June 2019.

Further reading

  • Paul, Gary Norman. "The Development of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace Library, 1919–1944". PhD dissertation U. of California, Berkeley. Dissertation Abstracts International 1974 35(3): 1682-1683-A, 274p.

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