Hook (diacritic)

In typesetting, the hook or tail is a diacritic mark attached to letters in many alphabets. In shape it looks like a hook and it can be attached below as a descender, on top as an ascender and sometimes to the side. The orientation of the hook can change its meaning: when it is below and curls to the left it can be interpreted as a palatal hook, and when it curls to the right is called hook tail or tail and can be interpreted as a retroflex hook. It should not be mistaken with the hook above, a diacritical mark used in Vietnamese, or the rhotic hook, used in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

̡
Hook
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute´
double acute˝
grave`
double grave ̏
circumflexˆ
caron, háčekˇ
breve˘
inverted breve  ̑  
cedilla¸
diaeresis, umlaut¨
dot·
palatal hook  ̡
retroflex hook  ̢
hook above, dấu hỏi ̉
horn ̛
iota subscript ͅ 
macronˉ
ogonek, nosinė˛
perispomene ͂ 
overring˚
underring˳
rough breathing
smooth breathing᾿
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe
bar◌̸
colon:
comma,
period.
hyphen˗
prime
tilde~
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora ҄
pokrytie ҇
titlo ҃
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara
chandrabindu
nukta
virama
visarga
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten
handakuten
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Latin
Ɓɓ
Ƈƈ
Ɗɗ
Ɖɖ
ɚ
ɝ
Ƒƒ
Ɠɠʛ
ɦʱ
ɧʮʯ
ʝʄ
Ƙƙ
ɭ
ɱ
Ɲɲ
ɳ
Ƥƥ
ʠ
Ɋɋ
ɽ
ɻʵ
ȿ
ʂ
Ƭƭ
Ʈʈƫ
Ʋʋ
Ƴƴ
Ȥȥʐ
Ɀɀ
ƺ
Greek
ϒ
Cyrillic
Ӻӻ
Ҋҋ
Ӄӄ
Ԓԓ
Ӆӆ
Ӎӎ
Ӈӈ
Ԩԩ
Ӊӊ
Ӽӽ

Letters with hook

It could be argued that the hook was used to derive the letter J from the letter I, or the letter Eng (ŋ) from the letter N. However, these letters are usually not identified as being formed with the hook.

Most letters with hook are used in the International Phonetic Alphabet, and many languages use them (along with capitals) representing the same sounds.

The hook often attaches to the top part of the letter, sometimes replacing the ascender.

If it attaches to the bottom part of the letter, it can curl to the left (and could be a palatal hook), or to the right (and could be a retroflex hook).

Latin alphabet
LettersNameHook position
A with retroflex hookbottom
Script a or alpha with retroflex hookbottom
ƁɓB with hooktop
B with flourishleft
B with palatal hookbottom
Ƈƈ C with hooktop
C with palatal hookbottom
ƊɗD with hooktop
ƉɖAfrican d or d with tailbottom
D with hook and tailtop and bottom
D with palatal hookbottom
E with flourishleft
E with retroflex hookbottom
ɚSchwa with hookright
Schwa with retroflex hookbottom
Open e or epsilon with retroflex hookbottom
ɝReversed open e or epsilon with hookright
Reversed open e or epsilon with retroflex hookbottom
ƑƒF with hookbottom
F with palatal hookbottom
ƓɠG with hooktop
ʛSmall g with hooktop
G with palatal hookright
Script g with crossed-tailbottom
ɦʱH with hooktop
H with palatal hookbottom right
ɧHeng with hooktop
ʮTurned h with fishhooktop
ʯTurned h with fishhook and tailtop and bottom
I with retroflex hookbottom
ʝJ with crossed-tailbottom
ʄDotless j with stroke and hooktop
ƘƙK with hooktop
K with palatal hookbottom
L with palatal hookbottom
ɭL with retroflex hookbottom
L with retroflex hook and beltbottom
ɱM with hookbottom
M with palatal hookbottom
M with crossed-tailbottom
ƝɲN with left hookbottom left
N with palatal hookbottom right
ɳN with retroflex hookbottom right
N with crossed-tailbottom
Eng with crossed-tailbottom
Open o with retroflex hookbottom
ƤƥP with hooktop
P with palatal hookright
P with flourishleft middle
P with squirrel tailleft top
ʠQ with hooktop
ɊɋSmall q with hook tailbottom
ɽR with tailbottom left
R with palatal hookbottom
Turned r with tailtop
ɻʵTurned r with hookbottom
R with crossed-tailbottom
Double r with crossed-tailbottom
S with palatal hookbottom right
ʂS with retroflex hookbottom left
ȿS with swash tailbottom right
Esh with palatal hookright
Esh with retroflex hookbottom
ƬƭT with hooktop
ƫT with palatal hookbottom
ƮʈT with retroflex hookbottom
U with left hooktop left
U with retroflex hookbottom
V with palatal hookbottom
V with right hooktop
ƲʋScript v or v with hooktop
W with hooktop right
X with palatal hookbottom right
ƳƴY with hooktop right
ȤȥZ with hookbottom
Z with palatal hookbottom
ʐZ with retroflex hookbottom
ⱿɀZ with swash tailbottom
Ezh with retroflex hookbottom
ƺEzh with tailbottom
Cuatrillo tailbottom
Cuatrillo hookbottom
Currency symbols
ƒFlorin signbottom
Greek alphabet
ϒUpsilon with hook symboltop right
Cyrillic alphabet
ӺӻGhe with stroke and hookbottom
ҊҋShort i with tailbottom right
ӃӄKa with hookbottom right
ԒԓEl with hookbottom right
ӅӆEl with tailbottom right
ӍӎEm with tailbottom right
ӇӈEn with hookbottom right
ԨԩEn with left hookbottom left
ӉӊEn with tailbottom right
ӼӽHa with hookbottom right

Unicode

Unicode has the combining diacritics U+0321  ̡  COMBINING PALATALIZED HOOK BELOW (HTML ̡) and U+0322  ̢  COMBINING RETROFLEX HOOK BELOW (HTML ̢) but these are not recommended to be used with letters, and should be used to illustrate the hooks themselves. Instead Unicode recommends the use of characters that already include the hook.

The U+02DE ˞ MODIFIER LETTER RHOTIC HOOK (HTML ˞) is used to mark an r-colored vowel.

See also

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