Higher Education Commission (Pakistan)

The Higher Education Commission (HEC), is an independent, autonomous, and statutory institution of primary funding, overseeing, regulating, and accrediting the higher education institutions in Pakistan.

Higher Education Commission
Agency overview
FormedEstablished in 1947 as UGC
Current form since 2002
JurisdictionConstitution of Pakistan
HeadquartersIslamabad, Pakistan
MottoFacilitating Institutes of higher learning to serve as an Engine of Growth for the Socio-Economic Development of Pakistan
Annual budget₨. 102.4 billion[1]
Agency executive
  • Tariq Banuri, Chairman of HEC
Key document

Preceded by the University Grants Commission (UGC) in 2002 by promulgation of the Higher Education Commission Ordinance 2002, the universities were formerly accredited by the UGC established in 1947; the institution was revised 1974 and came its modern form in 2002 under the leadership of Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS its founding Chairman, with additional executive reforms granted by the constitution. It operates directly under the Prime Minister and is not subservient to the Ministry of Education. Under a new and revised reforms, the HEC is made responsible for formulating higher education policy and quality assurance to meet the international standards as well as providing accrediting academic degrees, development of new institutions, and uplift of existing institutions in Pakistan. The major developments in the higher education sector occurred under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman,FRS, the founding Chairman, during 2002-2008.[2] The remarkable transformation in the higher education sector was acknowledged in an article in the world's leading science journal, Nature, in which Rahman was called a "force of nature"[3] After Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS resigned in protest in 2008 due to the suspension of scholarships of thousands of students abroad by the PPP government, the university development programmes slowed down due to cut in budget and introduction of cumbersome bureaucratic procedures.[4]. Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was selected to receive the highest national award of China, the "International Science & Technology Cooperation Award" in recognition of his contributions of building strong collaborations between universities and science & technology institutions in China and Pakistan[5].

The HEC also facilitated the development of higher educational system in the country with main purpose of upgrading the universities and degree awarding colleges in the country to be focal point of the high learning of education, research, and development. Over the several years, the HEC plays an important and leading role towards building a knowledge based economy in Pakistan by giving out hundreds of doctoral scholarships for education abroad every year.[6]


1947–1971: Genesis and development

At the time of establishment of Pakistan on 14 August 1947, the country had only one institution of higher learning, the Punjab University and among forty colleges expanded to four provinces of Pakistan.[7] Education policy revised by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan who adopted various recommendations of mathematician Ziauddin Ahmad, the government established various universities and colleges in all over the country. This led the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC) by the constitution in Pakistan in 1947.[8] The same year, Mohammad Ali Jinnah held a National Education Conference (also known as Pakistan Education Conference) of academicians and state holders to revise the policy of higher education in the country, as he stated:

... [The] importance of education and the type of education cannot be over-emphasized ... There is no doubt that the future of our State [of Pakistan] will and must greatly depend upon the type of education we give to our children, and the way in which we bring them up as future citizens of Pakistan.... We should not forget that we have to compete with the world which is moving very fast in this direction....

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, 1947, source cited[8]

Many recommendations were directed and accepted by the government to established the UGC as a federal regulatory institution in 1947.[9] Efforts led by Prime Minister of Pakistan Huseyn Suhrawardy led to the imposition of Soviet-oriented first five-year plans which explained the first official education policy in 1956.[10] The first plan was an attempt to make education development suitable for the socio-economic development in the country.[11]

In 1959, the government recognized the need to expanding powers granted to the UGC and appointed the UGC as federal commission.[9] In the 1960s, the financial policies and economic programmes introduced by President Ayub Khan greatly emphasized to importance of higher education in the country.[11] A huge revenue and a huge percentile of budget was actually spent to promote higher education efforts in the country.[11] Thesis written by Usman Ali Isani pointed out that ₨. 912 million was spent annually for the fiscal period of 1960–65 in a joint collaboration led by MoF, MoEd, UGC and Planning Commission.[11] Colleges were transformed into full-scale research universities and special research institutes were established in all over the country.[11] According to the calculations performed by the Ministry of Statistics and published by Isani, around 430,000 students were enrolled in different universities to pursue their higher education over the fiscal period of 1960–65.[11] From 1965 to 1971, the government spent ₨. 173.8 million on the education sector as opposed to actual allocations of ₨. 278.6 million.[11]

1971-2000s:Revision and policies

After the 1971 war with India which saw the separation of East-Pakistan as Bangladesh, the new education policy was announced with the implementation of nationalization programme in 1972, by the PPP.[12] Under this policy, all two-year colleges were transformed to university status under the state-controlled policy; privatized universities were nationalized. During this time, Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had the MoF spent 70% of natural resources on higher education efforts; enrollment in the universities increased to 56%.[12] Prime Minister Bhutto's period saw the sought to integrated social change; thus economic progress through nationalization.[11]

In 1979, President Zia-ul-Haq's policies announced "The National Education Policy, 1979" (NEP-79) which saw the harmonization of higher education in Pakistan with Islamic concepts and the national ideology.[11] President Zia's policies led to the fundamentalist ideas flaring in the higher education system in the country.[11] In 1992, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif announced a "National Education Policy 1992" (NEP-92) to streamline the process of higher education.[11] This was followed by the Eighth Plan launched by Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto in 1993 which focused on primary education.[11]

2000s-Present: New Era

The different higher education policies, priorities, and the need of competition between the political forces in Pakistan led to disturbances in the higher education as well as effecting the UGC ability.[9] The inadequate financial funding and policy implementation never matched the need of higher education in the country.[9] In 2002, President Pervez Musharraf took over the initiatives in devolving the UGC into Higher Education Commission in 2002.[13]

President Musharraf invited eminent scientist and chemist, Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS, to be its first chair and immediately passed the Presidential Ordinance on September 11, 2002 to establish the HEC.[13] Over the several years, the HEC implemented its ambitious uplift program of enhancing access, improving quality and increased relevance of higher education to the needs and requirement of Pakistan.[14] The reforms carried out in science and higher education under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman when he was the Federal Minister of Science & Technology and later Chairman of Higher Education Commission with status of Federal Minister during 2000 to 2008 have been applauded by many international experts and he was called "a force of nature" in an article published in Nature.[15][16] As a result of the many reforms introduced by Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman in the higher education sector 4 Pakistani Universities became ranked among the top 300, 400 and 500 universities of the world under the Times Higher Education rankings of 2008. The situation in the higher education sector deteriorated in the subsequent decade with the rankings of all universities slipping badly.[17] Dr Javaid Laghari was the second Chairman HEC from 2009 to 2013 who tried to continue the higher education reforms despite serious cuts in funding and opposition by the government. He is well known for his stand on exposing the fake degrees of many parliamentarians, including Ministers, where he took a principled stand and did not compromise on merit despite being put under intense pressure by the government. We then had Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed and Dr. Tariq Binuri as the chairs.[18]

A Task Force was formed on "Technology Driven Knowledge Economy" that is Chaired by the Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan and has Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS as its Vice Chairman [19]The group has several key Federal Ministers as Members, including Finance Minister Asad Umar, Planning Minister Makhdoom Khusro Bakhtiar, IT Minister Dr Khalid Maqbool Siddiqui, Advisor on Commerce Abdul Razzak Dawood, and Chairman Higher Education Commission (HEC) Dr Tariq Banuri. The Task Force has the mandate to promote research in technology fields and to initiate projects that can use science and technology for sustainable and equitable socio-economic development.[20]. Another Task Force of Prime Minister on Science & technology has been formed with Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS as its Chairman [21].

Programs and projects

HEC main programs are following:

  • Degree Attestation
  • HEC Entry Test Council[22]
  • Faculty development
  • Curriculum revision
  • Higher education infrastructure development
  • Indigenous scholarships[23][24]
  • Foreign scholarships[25][26]
  • Patent filing support[27]
  • Conference travel grants[28]
  • Increase industry and university research collaboration
  • Developing new technology parks
  • HEC Laptop Scheme[29]

Governance in HEC

The HEC is governed and chaired by the appointed chairman who is assisted by the secretaries of education, science and technology, telecommunications, and information technology.[30] The Chairman and secretaries are assisted by the additional members who are appointed from the four provinces as well as university vice-chancellors.[30] Other members are included from state and private-sector and executive director of the HEC.[30]

The Chairman of HEC is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan for a four-year term based upon the requests and recommendations send by the Ministry of Education (MoEd).[31] According to HEC Ordinance altered in Constitution, the Prime Minister is the controlling authority of the HEC and the shortlisted names are to be forwarded to Him for the final say.[32]

The Prime Minister reserves the right to re-appoint or give extension to the designated chairman.[33] Though the executive director is the administrative head of the HEC, almost every decision in the commission is taken with the consent of the chairman.[34]

Finance and Budget

Science is a lucrative profession in Pakistan and the official science policy in Pakistan plays a major role in the development of budget in the country for fiscal years.[35] Since revitalized in 2002, the HEC's budget increased up to ~340.2% in terms of fiscal period of 2001–06. Around 50%-70% of federal budget is set for the development on science and higher education, particularly distributed to HEC, highest in the financial history of Pakistan.[35]

By 2008, as a result of its policy and financial successes, most universities had become strong proponents of the Higher Education Commission. Quality had increased significantly, and several institutions were on their way to becoming world-class institutions. Many expatriate Pakistanis returned from abroad with access to competitive salaries. Besides the Pakistan government funding, a large financial endowment is distributed by the US government as part of its funding to the universities.[36][37]

Prioritizing the expansion of the higher education in the country, HEC's financial budget is estimated near ₨. 57.8 billion, which is more than that of Pakistan Steel Mills, PIA or any other state-owned enterprises’ allocations.[34] The budget is aimed for development of various areas in higher education.[35]

Impact of higher education reforms in Pakistan

International praise

Since the HEC's reforms have been carried out in 2002, HEC has received praise from the international higher education observers. Prof. Atta-ur_Rahman, founding Chairman of HEC, has received number of prestigious international awards for the remarkable transformation of the higher education sector under his leadership.[38] German academic, Dr. Wolfgang Voelter of Tübingen University in Germany over viewed the performance of HEC under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman and described the reforms in HEC as "A miracle happened." After teaching and visiting in 15 universities of Pakistan, Voelter wrote that the "scenario of education, science and technology in Pakistan has changed dramatically, as never before in the history of the country.[38] The chairperson of the Senate Standing Committee on Education recently announced the first 6 years of HEC under Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman as "Pakistan's golden period in higher education".[39] Recently ThomsonReuters in an independent assessment of Pakistan's progress in international publications has acknowledged that in the last decade there has been a fourfold increase in international publications and a tenfold growth in highly cited papers, statistics that were better than the BRIC countries[40]

American academic Prof. Fred M. Hayward has also praised the reform process undertaken by Pakistan, admitting that "since 2002, a number of extraordinary changes have taken place."[41] Hayward pointed our that "over the last six years almost 4,000 scholars have participated in PhD programs in Pakistan in which more than 600 students have studied in foreign PhD programs."[41] The HEC instituted major upgrades for scientific laboratories, rehabilitating existing educational facilities, expanding the research support, and overseeing the development of one of the best digital libraries in the region.[41] Seeking to meeting the international standard, a quality assurance and accreditation process was also established, of which, ~95% of students sent abroad for training returned, an unusually high result for a developing country in response to improved salaries and working conditions at universities as well as bonding and strict follow-up by the commission, Fulbright, and others."[42]

The HEC's reforms brought about by Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman were also applauded by the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD) which reported that the "progress made was breath-taking and has put Pakistan ahead of comparable countries in numerous aspects."[43] In limited time, the HEC established and provided free access to scientific literature by high-speed Internet for all universities, the upgrade of research equipment accessible across the country, and the programme of establishing new universities of science and technology, including science parks attracted the foreign investors, prove the efficiency and the long-term benefits for the country enabled.[43] The UNCSTD has closely monitored the development in Pakistan in the past years, coming to the unanimous conclusion that HEC's program initiated under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman is a "best-practice" example for developing countries aiming at building their human resources and establishing an innovative, technology-based economy.".[44] A number of institutions have been named after Prof. Rahman including the “Atta-ur-Rahman Institute of Natural Product Discovery” (RIND) at Malaysia’s largest university, Universiti Teknologi Mara[45] and the Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences at National University of Science & Technology in Islamabad .[46].More recently, the leading Chinese University on Traditional Medicine in Changsha, Hunan has also decided to neame a research institute in honour of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS, in recognition of his eminent contributions to uplift science in Pakistan and to establish strong linkages with China[47].

Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman has won four international awards for the revolutionary changes in the higher education sector brought in the HEC. The Austrian government conferred its highest civil award (“Grosse Goldene Ehrenzeischen am Bande") in recognition of his eminent contributions.[48] Nature, a leading science journal, has also written a number of editorials and articles about the transformation brought about in Pakistan in the higher education sector under the HEC. In an article entitled "Pakistan Threat to Indian Science" published in the leading daily newspaper Hindustan Times, India, it has been reported that Prof. C. N. R. Rao, Chairman of the Indian Prime Minister's Scientific Advisory Council made a presentation to the Indian Prime Minister at the rapid progress made by Pakistan in the higher education sector under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, Chairman, Higher Education Commission. It was reported that as result of the reforms brought about in Pakistan " Pakistan may soon join China in giving India serious competition in science". "Science is a lucrative profession in Pakistan. It has tripled the salaries of its scientists in the last few years.".[49] Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was conferred the highest national Award of the Republic of China in September 2014 for his contributions to develop strong linkages between Pakistan and China in various fields of higher education, science and technology.[50]

Dr Javaid Laghari the next Chairman continued the reforms initiated earlier. During his 4-year tenure, the world ranking of universities improved despite budgetary cuts and other problems faced by HEC, and eight Pakistan universities were ranked among the top 250 universities of Asia according to QS World University Rankings 2013. Research output out of Pakistan increased by over 50% within three years, which was the second highest increase worldwide. According to Scimago world scientific database, if Pakistan continues at the same pace, its ranking will increase from 43 to 27 globally by 2017. In 2016 Thomson Reuters has acknowledged the 10 fold increase in highly cited papers from Pakistan as a result of the remarkable reform process, and concluded that the rate of increase was higher than Brazil, Russia, India and China[51]


The creation of HEC has had a positive impact on higher education and research culture in Pakistan.

  • Established the finest Digital Library in Pakistan: Every student in every public sector university today has access to 45,000 textbooks research monographs from 220 international publishers as well as to 25,000 international research journals - regarded as one of the best digital libraries anywhere in the world.[52][53]
  • Tripled University enrollment from 135,000 in the year 2003 to 400,000 in 2008.[54]
  • Promoted research, resulting in huge expansion of international research publications from Pakistan from only 600 research papers /yr in 2003 to 4300 research papers in 2008.
  • During the 56-year period (1947–2003) not a single Pakistani university could be ranked among the top 600 universities in the world. Today 2 Pakistani universities ranked among top 200 World’s Technology Universities.[55][56]
  • Four year undergraduate program introduced so that our degrees are internationally recognized,Along with a 3 credit hour research based activity and enforcing a minimum attendance <50%
  • About 5000 Ph.D. level scholarships awarded for study in technologically advanced countries (largest program in developing world) and some 3,000 indigenous Ph.D. scholarships have been awarded. The world’s largest Fulbright Scholarship program (US $150 million) launched with joint funding (HEC/USAID).
  • Fifty one new universities and degree awarding institutes and 18 campuses of existing universities established during (2003–2008).[57]
  • Sending 1000 Pakistani students to study medicine in Cuba[58] and doing their best to register their degrees by PMDC and soon will send a delegation of members of PMDC, HEC and MNAs
  • Seven Pakistan universities became ranked for the first time among the top 250 universities of Asia according to QS World University Rankings 2013.
  • Research output of Pakistan increased by over 50% within two years, which was the second highest increase worldwide. According to Scimago world scientific database, if Pakistan continues at the same pace, its ranking will increase from 43 to 27 globally by 2017. In 2017, a Chinese study published in Scientometrics (journal) revealed that Pakistan's research growth rate and time required to double the number of publications is superior than that of USA, China and India.[59]

Video conferencing

Amongst the objectives of this project a primary objective of introduction of Video Conferencing facility, launched by Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS is to enhance students teachers interaction through distance learning, bridge the gap of good faculty, meet the shortage of faculty members at the universities located at far-flung areas and ultimately to uplift the standard of education in Pakistan. HEC aims to give Pakistan a bright future through a young, qualified and energetic generation.

Eminent scholars from Pakistan deliver interactive lectures on various topics and recorded lectures from foreign universities are also broadcast. The lectures delivered/broadcast will be aimed to develop fundamental concepts, to enhance the critical thinking for under-graduate and graduate students and to discuss cutting edge technologies/research work in the fields of modern sciences for students and faculty members. In the 2nd stage interactive lectures from foreign universities will be arranged. Nobel Laureates/Eminent scientists/researchers will be invited to deliver lectures to share their knowledge/research work. This program will continue and the remaining 32 universities in 2nd phase will become part of the program.

Currently there are more than 65 sites which are operational all over Pakistan and availing this facility for conducting lectures, meetings and other events etc.

Attendances Regarding Under Graduate Research Program

At the end of every academic year,A 3 credit hour research based activity is not envisioned.The attendance criteria of 70 - 75 percent is not strictly applied in Under Graduate Research Classes.

Political overview

In spite of its achievements, the HEC was criticised by Pervez Hoodbhoy, a nuclear physicist and a professor at the Quaid-e-Azam University, who maintained that "HEC have made higher education more expensive."[60] These views have been opposed by numerous eminent national and international scholars and scientists in the country and abroad. A strongly worded article against Hoodbhoy's views was published by dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, who termed HEC as "a strategic organization."[61][62] Another work on HEC's praise was authored by Dr. Mansoor Akbar Kundi, former Vice Chancellor of the Gomal University and later Executive Director of Higher Education Commission. In his article entitled "Ata ur Rehman school of Thought" he has strongly supported the reforms brought about by the dynamic and focused policies of the Higher Education Commission under the leadership of Atta-ur-Rahman.[63]

In 2010, the altering of Eighteenth Amendment, whose clause was directed to devolved the HEC, was strongly resisted by academicians, politicians, social activists, and media personality; a strong lobby for the protection of HEC was instituted by scientists, Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman and Dr. Javaid Laghari.[64] Scientists and academicians from the Pakistan Academy of Sciences, PAS held a nationwide conference in 2011 under the Presidency of Atta-ur-Rahman to gain public support for the protection of HEC at the public level.[65][65] During this ongoing debate, the then HEC chairman, Javaid Laghari who was former technocrat Senator from PPP and President of a private university SZABIST as well, declared that the devolution of the Higher Education Commission (HEC) unconstitutional.[66] Dr Laghari also went on a media and public speaking and OpEd writing campaign to save the higher education sector from the cluthes of politicians. The status of the Executive Director as equivalent to a Federal Secretary was taken away by the PPP government and its powers to approve projects through holding Departmental Developmental Working Projects (DDWP) of a value of up to Rs. 100 million were also abolished, thereby greatly reducing its powers and effectiveness. While Dr Atta is known as the founder and builder of HEC, Dr Javaid Laghari is recognized by all academics as the one who saved HEC from devolution and disintegration. Today HEC owes its existence to both Dr Atta and Dr Laghari.

Massive anti-PPP demonstration broke out in all over the country over this issue in 2011 and student unions gathered in the federal government installations to oppose the merger.[67] In 2012, two petitions signed by Rahman, were filed before the Supreme Court of Pakistan against the devolution of HEC and to preserve the autonomy of HEC.[68] The Supreme Court approved the petitions thereby preventing its devolution under the 18th amendment and guaranteeing its autonomy. the court issue verdicts against the government's decision.[69] Ultimately, the Supreme Court rendered its verdict on a petition filed by Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman in 2010 to preserve the autonomy of HEC, paralyzing any efforts of government to devolve the HEC.[68][70]

See also


  1. Rizwan-ul-Haq (2013-06-13). "Budget 2013-14: Higher education gets attention, finally". June 13, 2013. Express Tribune. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  2. "Silent Revolution in Higher Education – Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS (NI, HI, SI, TI) | FIRD – Forum for International Relations Development".
  3. Brumfiel, Geoff; Inman, Mason (2010). "Boom and bust plagues Pakistan's universities". Nature. 467 (7314): 378–379. doi:10.1038/467378a. PMID 20864966.
  4. "Pakistan's education head is asked to resign". Nature. 455 (7215): 849. 2008. doi:10.1038/455849a.
  5. https://www.app.com.pk/prof-atta-ur-rahman-to-receive-international-science-and-technology-cooperation-award-of-china/
  6. Dr Javaid R Laghari appointed HEC Chairman, The Nation, 27 August 2009, retrieved 11 January 2012
  7. Mace, John; Hamid K. Niazi (December 2006). "The Contribution of the Private Sector to Higher Education in Pakistan with Particular Reference to Efficiency and Equity" (PDF). Bulletin of Education & ResearchPunjab University Press. 28 (2): 17–42. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  8. Bengali, Kaisar; et al. (1999). "History of Educational Policy Making and Planning in Pakistan" (PDF). The Journal of SDPI.
  9. Ibid, Isani. "Major Education Policies and Commission" (PDF). (Isani, pp.40-74). Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  10. Isani, Usman Ali. (2001). "Higher Education in Pakistan" (PDF). National University of Modern Languages: 378.
  11. Isani, Usman A. "Education And The Five Year Plans" (PDF). 2001. (Isani, pp.75-138). Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  12. Isani, Usman A. "Education Policy, 1972-80" (PDF). (Isani, pp 40-74). Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  13. Ahmed, Mukhtar. "Higher Education Introduction". Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  14. Dr. Sohail Naqvi. "OVERVIEW OF HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION (HEC) SUPPORT FOR ACADEMIA IN PAKISTAN" (PDF). Dr. Sohail Naqvi, HEC. Dr. Sohail Naqvi, HEC. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  15. Brumfiel, Geoff; Inman, Mason (2010). "Boom and bust plagues Pakistan's universities". Nature. 467 (7314): 378–379. doi:10.1038/467378a. PMID 20864966.
  16. Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal (2013). "Professor Atta-ur-Rahman: Towering scientific achievements". Natural Product Research. 27 (4–5): 298–301. doi:10.1080/14786419.2013.766053. PMID 23473069.
  17. "Ranking higher education".
  18. "Higher Education Commission main web page". Archived from the original on 2013-01-15.
  19. https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/401882-pm-okays-task-force-to-form-tech-driven-knowledge-economy
  20. https://timesofislamabad.com/29-Jan-2019/pakistan-to-be-shifted-towards-technology-driven-knowledge-economy-report
  21. https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2019/02/22/cabinet-approves-task-force-on-science-and-tech/
  22. "How to apply for HEC Entry Test by ETC". Unipedia Edtech Pvt Ltd. Retrieved 2017-08-13.
  23. Indigenous scholarships, HEC, retrieved 19 March 2012
  24. Indigenous scholarships, retrieved 19 March 2012
  25. Foreign scholarships, retrieved 19 March 2012
  26. Foreign scholarships, retrieved 19 March 2012
  27. Foreign scholarships, retrieved 19 March 2012
  28. Conference travel grants, retrieved 19 March 2012
  29. "How to Apply for HEC Laptop Scheme Phase 4 [20% Apply Wrong]". Top Study World. Retrieved 2017-10-30.
  30. HEC Press release. "Governance in HEC". Govt. of Pakistan. HEC Press release. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  31. Web Desk (September 1, 2013). "Shams Kassim-Lakha appointed HEC Chairman". Tribune. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  32. Riazul Haq (August 24, 2013). "Contract end nears: HEC chief's extension now improbable". Express Tribune, August. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  33. Ikram Juniad (26 August 2013). "HEC chairman's term ends, race begins". Dawn. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  34. Junaid, Ikram (2 September 2013). "Rumours in HEC as hiring delayed". Dawn news archives, 09. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  35. Rizwan-ul-Haq (2013-06-13). "Budget 2013-14: Higher education gets attention, finally". June 13, 2013. Express Tribune, 14. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  36. Abbasi, Ansar. "$550 million aide to HEC". The News International, Abbasi. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  37. HEC. "USAID Funded Merit and Needs-Based Scholarship". USAID. HEC and US government. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  38. Voelter, PhD, Wolfgang (6 December 2008). "The golden period". Dawn area studies, 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  39. Voelter, Wolfgang. "The golden period". Dawn ePaper. The golden period, The Dawn, retrieved 20 March 2010
  40. The report is available at http://images.info.science.thomsonreuters.biz/Web/ThomsonReutersScience/%7Bdab71dc1-d7d8-48af-88a6-fa7efa61ae22%7D_Pakistan_Citation_Report_FINAL.pdf
  41. Haq, Riaz (September 8, 2013). "In Defense of HEC's Key Role in Pakistan's Higher Education". Pakistaniaat, California. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  42. Hayward, Fred M. (Winter 2009).Higher Education Transformation in Pakistan: Political & Economic Instability, International Higher Education Quarterly (54), archived from the original on 27 February 2010, retrieved 20 March 2010
  43. Prof Atta-ur-Rahman (September 3, 2011). "HEC – why India felt threatened". The News International, 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  44. Rode, Bernd Michael. Letter from Chairman/European Coordinator of ASEA-UNINET published in DAWN today, DildilpakistanWordpress, 2008-10-29, retrieved 10 March 2010
  45. http://aurins.uitm.edu.my/
  46. "Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB)-National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)".
  47. https://tribune.com.pk/story/1982029/1-chinese-research-center-named-dr-attaur-rahman/
  48. http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SC/pdf/Flyer-Lecture_Pakistan_WSD14.pdf
  49. Pak threat to Indian science, Hindustan Times, 23 July 2006, retrieved 19 March 2012
  50. "The News International: Latest News Breaking, Pakistan News".
  51. "Pakistan vs BRIC countries – scientific influence and citation impact report".
  52. Digital Library, HEC, retrieved 19 March 2012
  53. HEC– National Digital Library Program – Home Page, digitallibrary, retrieved 19 March 2012
  54. Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, World Defence Network, retrieved 19 March 2012
  55. Two Pakistani universities ranked among top 200 World's Technology Universities, The Dawn, retrieved 19 March 2012
  56. Two Pakistani universities ranked among top 200 World's Technology Universities, World Defence Network, retrieved 19 March 2012
  57. Devolution of HEC may fan provincialism, The Dawn, 2011-04-10, retrieved 19 March 2012
  58. 1000 Scholarships for studies in General Comprehensive Medicine in Cuba, HEC, retrieved 19 March 2012
  59. Javed, Saad Ahmed; Liu, Sifeng (2018), "Predicting the research output/growth of selected countries: application of Even GM (1, 1) and NDGM models", Scientometrics, 115: 395–413, doi:10.1007/s11192-017-2586-5
  60. Hoodbhoy, Pervez (2 April 2011). "Should the HEC live or die?". Express Tribune, Hoodbhoy. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  61. News desk (31 March 2011). "Dr AQ Khan says: HEC is a strategic organisation, don't shred it to pieces". Islamabad, Pakistan: The News International, 2011. The News International. Archived from the original on 31 March 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  62. Atta-ur-Rehman (5 April 2011). "Time to save the Higher Education Commission". Express Tribune, 2011. Express Tribune. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  63. http://www.pkhope.com/ata-ur-rehman-school-of-thought/
  64. Web Desk (7 April 2011). "Zardari to personally look into HEC devolution". Express Tribune, Desk. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  65. Rehman, Atta-ur (5 April 2011). "Time to save the Higher Education Commission". Tex, Ata. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  66. Front news desk (April 6, 2011). "HEC devolution is unconstitutional: Javaid Laghari". TEX, April 6, 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  67. Muhammad, Peer (2011-04-06). "HEC scholarship programmes to continue: Rabbani". April 6, 2011. Tex, Peer. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  68. "18th Amendment implementation: Supreme Court comes to HEC's rescue". 2011-04-13.
  69. By Our Correspondent (December 11, 2012). "Questions over autonomy: HEC controversy lands in apex court". TEx, By Our Correspondent Published: December 11, 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  70. Munawar Naqvi. "SC preserves HEC's autonomy: Laghari". Financial Daily. Retrieved 9 September 2013.

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.