Higher-dimensional algebra
In mathematics, especially (higher) category theory, higher-dimensional algebra is the study of categorified structures. It has applications in nonabelian algebraic topology, and generalizes abstract algebra.
Higher-dimensional categories
A first step towards defining higher dimensional algebras is the concept of 2-category of higher category theory, followed by the more 'geometric' concept of double category.[1][2]
A higher level concept is thus defined as a category of categories, or super-category, which generalises to higher dimensions the notion of category – regarded as any structure which is an interpretation of Lawvere's axioms of the elementary theory of abstract categories (ETAC).[3][4] Ll.
,[5][6] Thus, a supercategory and also a super-category, can be regarded as natural extensions of the concepts of meta-category,[7] multicategory, and multi-graph, k-partite graph, or colored graph (see a color figure, and also its definition in graph theory).
Supercategories were first introduced in 1970,[8] and were subsequently developed for applications in theoretical physics (especially quantum field theory and topological quantum field theory) and mathematical biology or mathematical biophysics.[9]
Other pathways in HDA involve: bicategories, homomorphisms of bicategories, variable categories (aka, indexed, or parametrized categories), topoi, effective descent, and enriched and internal categories.
Double groupoids
In higher-dimensional algebra (HDA), a double groupoid is a generalisation of a one-dimensional groupoid to two dimensions,[10] and the latter groupoid can be considered as a special case of a category with all invertible arrows, or morphisms.
Double groupoids are often used to capture information about geometrical objects such as higher-dimensional manifolds (or n-dimensional manifolds).[11] In general, an n-dimensional manifold is a space that locally looks like an n-dimensional Euclidean space, but whose global structure may be non-Euclidean.
Double groupoids were first introduced by Ronald Brown in 1976, in ref.[11] and were further developed towards applications in nonabelian algebraic topology.[12][13][14][15] A related, 'dual' concept is that of a double algebroid, and the more general concept of R-algebroid.
Nonabelian algebraic topology
Applications
Theoretical physics
In quantum field theory, there exist quantum categories.[16][17][18] and quantum double groupoids.[19]/ One can consider quantum double groupoids to be fundamental groupoids defined via a 2-functor, which allows one to think about the physically interesting case of quantum fundamental groupoids (QFGs) in terms of the bicategory Span(Groupoids), and then constructing 2-Hilbert spaces and 2-linear maps for manifolds and cobordisms. At the next step, one obtains cobordisms with corners via natural transformations of such 2-functors. A claim was then made that, with the gauge group SU(2), "the extended TQFT, or ETQFT, gives a theory equivalent to the Ponzano–Regge model of quantum gravity";[19] similarly, the Turaev–Viro model would be then obtained with representations of SU_{q}(2). Therefore, one can describe the state space of a gauge theory – or many kinds of quantum field theories (QFTs) and local quantum physics, in terms of the transformation groupoids given by symmetries, as for example in the case of a gauge theory, by the gauge transformations acting on states that are, in this case, connections. In the case of symmetries related to quantum groups, one would obtain structures that are representation categories of quantum groupoids,[16] instead of the 2-vector spaces that are representation categories of groupoids.
See also
- Timeline of category theory and related mathematics
- Higher category theory
- Ronald Brown
- Lie algebroid
- Double groupoid
- Anabelian geometry
- Noncommutative geometry
- Categorical algebra
- Grothendieck's Galois theory
- Grothendieck topology
- Topological dynamics
- Categorical dynamics
- Crossed module
- Pseudoalgebra
- Areas of application in quantum physics:
Notes
- Brown, R.; Loday, J.-L. (1987). "Homotopical excision, and Hurewicz theorems, for n-cubes of spaces". Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. 54 (1): 176–192. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.168.1325. doi:10.1112/plms/s3-54.1.176.
- Batanin, M.A. (1998). "Monoidal Globular Categories As a Natural Environment for the Theory of Weak n-Categories". Advances in Mathematics. 136 (1): 39–103. doi:10.1006/aima.1998.1724.
- Lawvere, F. W. (1964). "An Elementary Theory of the Category of Sets". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 52 (6): 1506–1511. Bibcode:1964PNAS...52.1506L. doi:10.1073/pnas.52.6.1506. PMC 300477. PMID 16591243. Archived from the original on 2009-08-12. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- Lawvere, F. W.: 1966, The Category of Categories as a Foundation for Mathematics., in Proc. Conf. Categorical Algebra – La Jolla., Eilenberg, S. et al., eds. Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Heidelberg and New York., pp. 1–20. http://myyn.org/m/article/william-francis-lawvere/ Archived 2009-08-12 at the Wayback Machine
- "Kryptowährungen und Physik – Planetphysics".
- Lawvere, F. W. (1969b). "Adjointness in Foundations". Dialectica. 23 (3–4): 281–295. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.386.6900. doi:10.1111/j.1746-8361.1969.tb01194.x. Archived from the original on 2009-08-12. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- "Kryptowährungen und Physik – Planetphysics". Archived from the original on 2009-08-14. Retrieved 2009-03-02.
- Supercategory theory @ PlanetMath
- "Kryptowährungen und Physik – Planetphysics". Archived from the original on 2009-08-14. Retrieved 2009-03-02.
- Brown, R.; Spencer, C.B. (1976). "Double groupoids and crossed modules". Cahiers Top. Géom. Diff. 17: 343–362.
- Brown, R.; Spencer, C.B. (1976). "Double groupoids and crossed modules" (PDF). Cahiers Top. Géom. Diff. 17: 343–362. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-07-24.
- "Kryptowährungen und Physik – Planetphysics". Archived from the original on 2009-08-14. Retrieved 2009-03-02.
- Non-Abelian Algebraic Topology book Archived 2009-06-04 at the Wayback Machine
- Nonabelian Algebraic Topology: Higher homotopy groupoids of filtered spaces
- Brown, R.; et al. (2009). Nonabelian Algebraic Topology: Higher homotopy groupoids of filtered spaces (in press).
- http://planetmath.org/encyclopedia/QuantumCategory.html Quantum Categories of Quantum Groupoids
- http://planetmath.org/encyclopedia/AssociativityIsomorphism.html Rigid Monoidal Categories
- "A Note on Quantum Groupoids". 2009-03-18.
- http://theoreticalatlas.wordpress.com/2009/03/18/a-note-on-quantum-groupoids/ March 18, 2009. A Note on Quantum Groupoids, posted by Jeffrey Morton under C*-algebras, deformation theory, groupoids, noncommutative geometry, quantization
Further reading
- Brown, R.; Higgins, P.J.; Sivera, R. (2011). Nonabelian Algebraic Topology: filtered spaces, crossed complexes, cubical homotopy groupoids. Tracts Vol 15. European Mathematical Society. arXiv:math/0407275. doi:10.4171/083. ISBN 978-3-03719-083-8. (Downloadable PDF available)
- Brown, R.; Spencer, C.B. (1976). "Double groupoids and crossed modules". Cahiers Top. Géom. Diff. 17: 343–362.
- Brown, R.; Mosa, G.H. (1999). "Double categories, thin structures and connections". Theory and Applications of Categories. 5: 163–175.
- Brown, R. (2002). Categorical Structures for Descent and Galois Theory. Fields Institute.
- Brown, R. (1987). "From groups to groupoids: a brief survey" (PDF). Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society. 19 (2): 113–134. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.363.1859. doi:10.1112/blms/19.2.113. hdl:10338.dmlcz/140413. This give some of the history of groupoids, namely the origins in work of Heinrich Brandt on quadratic forms, and an indication of later work up to 1987, with 160 references.
- Brown, R. "Higher dimensional group theory".. A web article with many references explaining how the groupoid concept has led to notions of higher-dimensional groupoids, not available in group theory, with applications in homotopy theory and in group cohomology.
- Brown, R.; Higgins, P.J. (1981). "On the algebra of cubes". Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra. 21 (3): 233–260. doi:10.1016/0022-4049(81)90018-9.
- Mackenzie, K.C.H. (2005). General theory of Lie groupoids and Lie algebroids. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 2005-03-10.
- R., Brown (2006). Topology and Groupoids. Booksurge. ISBN 978-1-4196-2722-4. Revised and extended edition of a book previously published in 1968 and 1988. E-version available from website.
- Borceux, F.; Janelidze, G. (2001). Galois theories. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 2012-12-23. Shows how generalisations of Galois theory lead to Galois groupoids.
- Baez, J.; Dolan, J. (1998). "Higher-Dimensional Algebra III. n-Categories and the Algebra of Opetopes". Advances in Mathematics. 135 (2): 145–206. arXiv:q-alg/9702014. doi:10.1006/aima.1997.1695.
- Baianu, I.C. (1970). "Organismic Supercategories: II. On Multistable Systems" (PDF). Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics. 32 (4): 539–61. doi:10.1007/BF02476770. PMID 4327361. External link in
|journal=
(help) - Baianu, I.C.; Marinescu, M. (1974). "On A Functorial Construction of (M, R)-Systems". Revue Roumaine de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées. 19: 388–391.
- Baianu, I.C. (1987). "Computer Models and Automata Theory in Biology and Medicine". In M. Witten (ed.). Mathematical Models in Medicine. 7. Pergamon Press. pp. 1513–1577. CERN Preprint No. EXT-2004-072. ASIN 0080346928 ASIN 0080346928.
- "Higher dimensional Homotopy @ PlanetPhysics". Archived from the original on 2009-08-13.
- George Janelidze, Pure Galois theory in categories, J. Alg. 132:270–286, 1990.
- Galois theory in variable categories., by George Janelidze, Dietmar Schumacher and Ross Street, in APPLIED CATEGORICAL STRUCTURESVolume 1, Number 1, 103–110, doi:10.1007/BF00872989.