A hemicellulose (also known as polyose) is one of a number of heteropolymer (matrix polysaccharides), such as arabinoxylans, present along with cellulose in almost all terrestrial plant cell walls. While cellulose is crystalline, strong, and resistant to hydrolysis, hemicelluloses have random, amorphous structure with little strength. They are easily hydrolyzed by dilute acid or base as well as a myriad of hemicellulase enzymes.
Hemicelluloses are polysaccharides often associated with cellulose, but they have different compositions. Hemicelluloses contain many different sugar monomers, while cellulose only contains anhydrous glucose. For instance, besides glucose, sugar monomers in hemicelluloses can include the five-carbon sugars xylose and arabinose, the six-carbon sugars mannose and galactose, and the six-carbon deoxy sugar rhamnose. Hemicelluloses contain most of the D-pentose sugars, and occasionally small amounts of L-sugars as well. Xylose is in most cases the sugar monomer present in the largest amount, although in softwoods mannose can be the most abundant sugar. Not only regular sugars can be found in hemicellulose, but also their acidified form, for instance glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid can be present.
Structural comparison to cellulose
Unlike cellulose, hemicelluloses consist of shorter chains – 500–3,000 sugar units as opposed to 7,000–15,000 glucose molecules per polymer in cellulose. In addition, hemicellulose may be branched polymers, while cellulose is unbranched.
Hemicelluloses are synthesised from sugar nucleotides in the cell's Golgi apparatus. Two models explain their synthesis: 1) a '2 component model' where modification occurs at two transmembrane proteins, and 2) a '1 component model' where modification occurs only at one transmembrane protein. After synthesis, hemicelluloses are transported to the plasma membrane via Golgi vesicles.
As percent content of hemicellulose increases in animal feed, the voluntary feed intake decreases.
Hemicellulose is represented by the difference between neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF).
Hemicellulose found in hardwood trees is predominantly xylan with some glucomannan, while in softwoods it is mainly rich in galactoglucomannan and contains only a small amount of xylan. The average molecular weight is lower than that of cellulose at less than 30,000, as opposed to the 100,000 average molecular weight reported for cellulose.
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- Structure and Properties of Hemicellulose /David Wang’s Wood Chemistry Class